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Sir Asutosh Mookerjee Gold Medalist, Griffith Prizeman, Calcutta University; 

Advocate, High Court, Calcutta ; Author, Some Ksatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 

Ancient Mid-Indian Ksatriya Tribes, The Life and Work of Buddhaghosa. 

Geography of Early Buddhism, Heaven and Hell in Buddhist 

Perspective, A Study of the Mah&vastu, Women in Buddhist 

Literature, Historical Gleanings, The Buddhist 

Conception of Spirits, The Law of Gift in 

British India, etc,, etc., 
Editor, Buddhistic Studies. 

With a Foreword by 

Professor of Indo-Iranian Languages, 
Munchen University, Germany. 

Vol. II. 


38, Great Russell Street, 

London, W.C. 1. 


















INDEX 677 


In between the closing of the Pali canon and 
the writing of the Pali commentaries by Buddha- 
datta, Buddhaghosa, and Dhammapala, there is a 
short but dark period of development of Pali litera- 
ture which has not as yet engaged adequate atten- 
tion of scholars. Broadly speaking, this period 
extends from the beginning of the Christian era to 
the close of the 4th century A.D. The Nettipa- 
karana, the Petakopadesa, and the Milinda Panha 
are undoubtedly the three extra-canonical and 
highly useful treatises that may be safely relegated 
to the earlier part of this period. There are a few 
other works, more or less, of a commentarial nature 
that t are closely pre-supposed by the great com- 
mentaries of Buddhadatta, Buddhaghosa, and 
Dhamfeiapala. These comprise, among others, (1) 
certain earlier commentaries written in Sinhalese, 
such as the Mula or Maha-atthakatha, the Uttara 
Vihara atthakatha (the Commentary of the dwellers 
in the " North Minster "), Mahapaccariya, the 
Kurundiya or Mahakurunda atthakatha quoted by 
Buddhaghosa in his commentaries, (2) two other 
earlier commentaries, the Andhaka and the Sankhepa 
current in South India, particularly in Kanchipura 
or Conjeveram, and quoted by Buddhaghosa, (3) 
the Vinayavinicchaya by Buddhasiha, a fellow 
bhikkhu of Buddhadatta, pre-supposed by the 
Vinayavinicchaya of Buddhadatta and the Samanta- 
pftsadika of Buddhaghosa, (4) the Sinhalese com- 
mentary on the canonical Jataka book referred 
to and quoted by Buddhaghosa under the name of 
Jfttaka-atthakatha, (5) certain views and interpreta- 
tions of the schools of reciters quoted by Buddha- 
ghosa in his commentaries, (6) the Dipavamsa, 
the earlier Pali chronicle quoted by Buddhaghosa 

vi Introduction 

in his commentary on the Kathavatthu, and (7) 
the Atthakatha Mahavamsa presupposed by 
Mahftnama's great chronicle of Ceylon. 

The writings of Buddhadatta, Buddhaghosa, 
and Dhammapala come necessarily after these earlier 
works in both Pali and Sinhalese and occupy chrono- 
logically a place next to them. The Mahavamsa 
or the great epic chronicle of Ceylon composed by 
Mahanama, the Anagatavamsa, a later supplement 
to the Buddhavamsa, and the Jatakatthavannana 
written by a thera at the personal request of the 
elder Atthadassi, Buddhamitta of the Mahimsasaka 
sect and Bhikkhu Buddhadeva of clear intellect, 
may be assigned to almost the same period of 
Buddhist literary activities in Ceylon which is 
covered by the writings of Buddhaghosa. Maha- 
nama's Mahavamsa may be regarded as a Pali 
model of certain chronicles the Pujavaliya and the 
rest written in Sinhalese. The commentaries on 
the books of the Vinaya, Sutta, and Abhidhamma 
Pitakas were followed by certain tikas to be chrono- 
logically discriminated as mula and anu, Ananda 
and Sariputta being noted as authors of some of 
these mula and anu tikas. From the sixth or seventh 
century A.D. onwards we see also the beginning of 
a Pali grammatical literature headed by Kaccayana's 
Pali Grammar as well as of Pali lexicons headed by 
the Abhidhanappadipika. The literary processes 
connected with the commentaries and sub-com- 
mentaries and the compilations in the shape of 
handbooks continued resulting in the growth of a 
somewhat different type of later literature. The 
Abhidhammatthasangaha and many other books of 
great authority written by the eminent Anuruddha 
and others are to be counted as remarkable literary 
output of this stage of the development of Pali. 
The Naraslhagatha quoted in the Nidanakathft of 
the Jatakatthavannana, the Telakatahagatha rank- 
ing with the satakas headed by the compositions of 
Bhartrhari, the Jinacarita which is a kavya attempt- 
ed in Pali less successfully on the model of Asva- 

Introduction vii 

gho^a's Buddhacarita, the Pajjamadhu, a Pali 
poetical composition produced in Ceylon, the Paiica- 
gatidipana and the Saddhammopayana, two similar 
poetical compositions of Ceylon and the Rasavahini, 
a book of interesting Buddhist folktales, written 
in simple prose, are some of the literary pieces that 
are included in our scheme of Post-Canonical Pali 
literature. We are generally to exclude from our 
scheme various Pali works on law, grammar, prosody, 
lexicography, and the commentaries written in 
Burma and Ceylon from the 15th century A.D. 
onwards. In dealing with the Post-Canonical Pali 
literature we are first of all to take up the extra 
canonical works presupposed by the Pali com- 
mentaries, next the Pali commentaries, then the 
Pali chronicles, Pali Manuals, Pali literary pieces, 
and lastly Pali grammars, books on prosody and 
lexicons, the classification being arbitrary. 



The title Nettipakarana 1 as explained by 

Netti akarana. Dlmmmapala, means exposition of 

ipa arana. 

W j 1 j[ c i 1 leads to the knowledge 
of the Good Law. The Netti shows the methodical 
way of attaining textual knowledge. It contains 
much of the materials which are so grouped as to 
form a book by itself. The commentary on the 
Nettipakarana says that without an able instructor 
it is impossible for men to be guided in the right 
understanding of the doctrines. 

This treatise was translated into Burmese by 
Thera Mahasilavarhsa in the fifteenth century of 
the Christian era, and again two centuries later, by a 

1 Tl*s work lias been edited by Prof. E. Hardy for the P.T.S., 
London, and published by the said society in 1902. There is also 
a Burmese edition of this text. The text is not entirely free from 
inaccuracies but all such defects are pardonable when we remember 
that it is a pioneer work. The text edited by the P.T.S. is based 
on the following manuscripts : 

(i) Palm leaf manuscript of the India Office in Burmese 
character (see Catalogue of the Mandalay MSS. in the 
India Office Library by Prof. V. Fausboll, J.P.T.S., 
1896) ; 

(ii) Palm leaf manuscript of the India Office (Phayre collec- 
tion), likewise written in Burmese character (see 
Catalogue of the Pali MSS. in the India Office Library 
by H. Oldenberg) ; 

(iii) Paper manuscript (brought from W. Subhuti by Prof. 
Rhys Davids) in Sinhalese character (Introduction, 
p. xxxv ). Prof. Hardy has relied on the palm 
leaf manuscript of the India Office in Burmese 
character in noting readings whenever they are 
found to contribute to a better understanding of 
the text. 

Nettipakarana revised and edited by D. Sudassi thera and finally 
revised by Yen. Srisumangala Ratanasara, Colombo, 1923, should 
be consulted. 

Mrs. Rhys Davids translates ' Nettipakarana * as the ' Book of 
Guidance ' (Sakya or Buddhist Origins, p. 127). 

344 A History of Pali Literature 

dweller in the Pubbarama-Vihara. It was composed 
at the request of Thera Dhammarakkhita and 
highly praised by Mahakaccana. The Mandalay 
manuscript ascribes its authorship to Mahakaccana 
as every section bears a clear testimony to the 
authorship of Mahakaccana who has been described 
here as Jambuvanavasin, i.e., dweller in the rose- 
apple grove. 

The Netti is essentially a Pali treatise on the 
textual and exegetical methodology, a Buddhist 
treatment upon the whole of the Tantra Yuktis 
discussed in the Kautiliya Arthasastra, the 
Susrutasamhita, the Carakasamhita, and the Astanga- 
Hrdaya. The Netti and Jnanaprasthana Sastra 
have many points in common as they were written 
to serve a similar purpose. It stands in the same 
relation to the Pali canon as Yaska's Nirukta to 
the Vedas. The scheme of methodology has been 
worked out in a progressive order, the thesis being 
developed or elaborated by gradual steps. To 
begin with we have the opening section, Sangahavara, 
or the conspectus of the whole book whicfti is a 
feature also of the Milinda Panha. Then we have 
the Vibhagavara or the section presenting a syste- 
matic treatment in classified tables. This section 
comprises three tables or sub-sections: (1) Udde- 
savara, (2) Niddesavara, and (3) Patiniddesavara. 
The Uddesavara merely presents a bare statement of 
the theses and as such it serves as a table of contents. 
It is followed by the Niddesavara which briefly 
specifies the import or definitions of the theses 
awaiting detailed treatment in the section imme- 
diately following, we mean the Patiniddesavara, 
which is but an elucidation and elaboration of the 
Niddesa scheme. The theses in the Uddesavara 
are introduced in three separate tables or categories 
(1) that of sixteen haras (connected chains), (2) 
that of five nayas (modes of inspection), and (3) 
that of eighteen mfilapadas (main ethical topics). 
The sixteen haras consist of desana (the method of 
instruction), vicaya (the method of enquiry), yutti 

Extra Canonical Works 345 

(the method of establishing connection in groups), 
padatthana (the method of teaching with reference 
to the fundamentals), lakkhana (the method of 
determining implications by characteristic marks), 
catuvyiiha (the method of fourfold array), avatta 
(the cyclical method), vibhatti (the method of 
classification), parivattana (the method of trans- 
formation), vevacana (the method of synonyms), 
pannatti (the method of determining signification), 
otarana (the method of descending steps), sodhana 
(the method of rectification), adhitthana (the method 
of determining positions), parikkhara (the method of 
discriminating causal relations), and samaropana 
(the method of attribution). 

The five nayas consist of the following modes 
of viewing things : (1) nandiyavatta, (2) tipukkhala 
(by the triple lotus), (3) sihavikkilita (the lion-like 
sport), (4) disalocana (broad vision), and (5) arikusa 

The eighteen mulapadas comprise nine kusalas 
and nine akusalas. The nine akusalas are tanha 
(thirst)* avijja (ignorance), lobha (covetousness), 
dosa (hatred), moha (delusion), subhasanna (false 
idea of purity), niccasanna (false idea of permanence), 
attasanna (false idea of personal identity), etc. 
The nine kusalas are samatha (tranquillity), vipassana 
(insight), alobha (absence of covetousness), adosa 
(absence of hatred), amoha (absence of delusion), 
asubhasafina (idea of impurity), dukkhasarma (idea 
of discordance), aniccasanna (idea of impermanence), 
and anattasafma (idea of non-identity). 

In the Niddesavara, the reader is to expect 
nothing more than a general specification of the 
meaning of the topics proposed in the Uddesavara 
for treatment. From the Niddesavara the reader 
is led on to the next step, the Patiniddesavara 
which contains four broad divisions, namely, (1) 
Haravibhanga (explanations of the connected chains), 
(2) Harasampata (discussions of the hara pro- 
jections), (3) Nayasamutthana (exposition of the 
modes of inspection), and (4) the Sasanapatthana 

346 A History of Pali Literature 

(the classification and interpretation of Buddha's 

The treatise deals in detail with sixteen haras 
in the specified order as follows : 

The Desanahara directs the reader to notice 
six distinctive features in the Buddha's method of 
instructions, namely, assadam (bright side), 
adinavam (dark side), nissaranam (means of escape), 
phalam (fruition), upay&m (means of success), and 
anattim (the moral upshot). It also points out that 
Buddha's instructions are carefully adapted to four 
classes of hearers, namely (1) those of right intellect 
(understanding things by mere hints), (2) those 
needing short explanations, (3) those to be slowly 
led by elaborate expositions, and (4) those whose 
understanding does not go beneath the words. In 
the same connection it seeks to bring home the 
distinction between the three kinds of knowledge, 
sutamayi, cintamayi, and bhavanamayi. 

In the Vicayahara the method of ruminating 
over the subjects of questions and thoughts and 
repetitions in thought is laid down, and *his is 
elaborately illustrated with appropriate quotations 
from the canonical texts. 

In the Yuttihara we are introduced to the 
method of grouping together connected ideas and 
the right application of the method of reasoning or 
inference in interpreting the dharma. 

The Padatthanahara explains the doctrinal 
points by their fundamental characteristics and 
exemplifies them. This hdra has an important 
bearing on the Milinda expositions. 

The Lakkhanahara points out that when one 
of a group of matters characterised by the same 
mark is mentioned, the others must be taken as 
implied. For instance, when the sense of sight 
is mentioned in a passage, the implication should be 
that other senses received the same treatment. 

The Catuvyuhahara unfolds the method of 
understanding the doctrines by noting the following 
points : 

Extra Canonical Works 347 

(1) the text, (2) the term, (3) the purport, (4) 
the introductory episode, and (5) the sequence, 
illustrating each of them with quotations from the 
canonical texts. 

The Avattahara aptly illustrates with authorita- 
tive quotations how in the teachings of the Buddha 
all things turn round to form cycles of some funda- 
mental ideas such as tanha, avijja, the four Aryan 
truths and the like. 

The Vibhattihara explains the method of clas- 
sifying Buddha's discussions according to their 
character, common or uncommon, or according to 
their values, inferior, superior or mediocre. 

The Parivattanahara contains an exposition of 
the method by which the Buddha tried to transform 
a bad thing into a good thing and transform also 
the life of a bad man. 

The Vevacanahara calls attention to the dic- 
tionary method of synonyms by which the Buddha 
tried to impress and clarify certain notions of the 
Dhamma. This section forms a landmark in the 
development of Indian lexicography. 

In the Pannattihara it is stated that though 
the Dhamma is one, the Lord has presented it in 
various forms. There are four noble truths begin- 
ning with dukkha. When these truths are realised 
then knowledge and wisdom come in and then the 
way to Bhavana is open to the knower. The 
elements may be compared but Nibbana cannot be 

In the section on Otarana the Netti illustrates 
how in the schemata of Buddha's doctrines diverse 
notions spontaneously descend under the burden 
of certain leading topics such as, indriyas, patic- 
casamuppada, five khandhas and the like. 

The Sodhanahara illustrates the method by 
which the Buddha corrected the form of the questions 
in the replies offered by him. 

The Adhitthanahara explains in detail the method 
of determining the respective positions of different 
ideas according as they make for certain common 

348 A History of Pali Literature 

notions. In the Adhitthanahara the basis of all 
truth is given. The four truths beginning with 
dukkham are described and side by side avijja is 
shown to be the cause working in opposite ways. 
There are also paths bringing about the extinction 
of dukkha, etc. The various kayas and dhatus 
are also considered. Samadhi is the only means 
of removing evils. 

In the Parikkharahara the Netti explains and 
exemplifies how one can distinguish between the 
causal elements, broadly between hetu and other 
causal relations. This section lias an important 
bearing on the Patthdna of the Abhidhamma Pitaka. 

We come at last to the section called the 
Samaropanahara. This section explains and illus- 
trates the Buddha's method of fourfold attribution, 
(1) by way of fundamental ideas, (2) by way of 
synonyms, (3) by way of contemplation, and by way 
of getting rid of the immoral propensities. 

Hara Sampata is a division which is dependent 
on the hara as its purpose is to present the projec- 
tions or main moral implications of the h*as or 
the connected chains previously dealt with. 

This division like the preceding one consists 
of sixteen parts exactly under the same headings. 

In the Hara Sampata the commentator Dham- 
mapala has added and rearranged many new things. 
He cites the passages from the text and then puts 
a lay dissertation on them by way of questions and 
answers. This division stands almost as an in- 
dependent treatise by itself. 

Desana hara Sampata In this division it is 
laid down that Mara invades only a mind which is 
quite unprotected (pamadacitta), which is based 
on false beliefs, on idleness, etc. 

Vicaya hara Sampata In this section it is 
laid down that desire (tanha) is of two kinds : kusala 
and akusala. The one leads to nibbana and the other 
to birth and suffering (samsara). Mind is both kusala 
and akusala in nature. The real nature of things 
can only be seen in the fourth Jhana stage. The 

Extra Canonical Works 349 

various signs and nature of nibbana and samadhi 
are described. Samadhi has five characteristics, 
namely, joy, happiness, consciousness, enlightenment, 
and right perception. There are ten objects of 
meditation (kasinayatanani), e.g., pathavi, apo, etc. 
They are then attached to three objects, anicca 
(non-permanent), dukkha (suffering), and anatta 
(non-existence of soul). 

A differentiation is brought about between an 
ordinary man and a man with knowledge. The 
former can do any kind of offence that may be 
possible. But the latter cannot. The former can 
even kill his father or mother, can destroy the 
stupas but the latter cannot ; when one practises 
the four Jhanas, and attains to Samadhi, his previous 
life and futurity are known to him. 

In the Yutti-hara-sampata it is stated that sloth, 
stupor, and misery disappear from him who is well 
protected in mind, firm in resolution, and adheres 
to right seeing. 

In the Padatthana-hara and Lakkhana-hara- 
sampa>ta, the padatthanas (reasonings) are described 
as belonging to one who is well restrained in mind, 
words, and actions and who by the proper attain- 
ment of padatthanas realises the highest path. 

In the Catuvyuhahara-sampata, Avattahara- 
sampata, Vibhatti-hara-sampata, etc., great stress 
is laid on right perception, mindfulness, and kusala 
deeds which lead to the knowledge of paticca- 

The third division called the Nayasamutthana 
contains a detailed treatment of the five specified 
modes of viewing things. Under the Nandiyavatta 
mode, it is pointed out that the earlier extremity 
of the world cannot be known owing to avijja 
(ignorance) which has tanha (desire) at the root. 
Those who walk in the field of pleasure are bound 
down in heretical beliefs and are unable to realise 
the truth. There are four noble truths Dukkham, 
dukkhasamudayam, dukkhanirodham, and dukkha- 
nirodhagaminipatipada. There is a middle path 

350 A History of Pali Literature 

(majjhima patipada) which rejects the two extreme 
views and which is identified with the eightfold noble 
path (ariya atthangiko maggo). He who has avoided 
ditthi (false view) escapes from kama (lust). Hence 
avoidance of desire (tanha) and ignorance (avijja) 
leads to quietitude or calmness. Kamma is recognis- 
ed as the cause of the world of sufferings. But 
consciousness and all that concerns consciousness 
may be seen in their increment in the ten vatthus. 
The ordinary enjoyment of food and touch, etc., is 
the cause of distress of a man with desire. 

The various asavas (sins) are next described. 
The sufferings of a man with attachments, faults, 
and wrong views are also narrated. The four paths, 
the four foundations of recollections, the four 
Jhanas, the four essentials (sammappadhanas), the 
four meditations, the four pleasure yielding states, 
etc., are also stated ; each of these is described as 
an antidote for the man with attachment, delusion, 
and wrong views. 

Buddhas, Pacceka-Buddhas, the disciples, and 
all those who are devoid of attachment, batred, 
delusion, etc., are like lions. Those who look to 
the right aspects, the senses, the counter forces 
of the views with as strong reasons as Buddhas, 
Pacceka-Buddhas, etc., are said to have seen things 
just like a lion. Human types are four in number. 
Each of these has to undergo some sort of training. 
To each of them is offered an advice as to tanha 
(desire), raga (attachment), kusala (merit), etc. 
This is the way shown to be of the Tipukkhalo and 
of the Ankusa described in the text. 

Now turning to the fourth division, the Sasana- 
patthana, we get a treatment of the proper method 
of classification and interpretation of the texts of 
the Dhamma. That is to say, the Sasanapatthana 
embodies a classification of the Pitaka passages 
according to their leading thoughts. It is suggested 
that the discourses of the Buddha can be classified 
according to the themes into : (1) Sankilesabhagiya 
(those dealing with sankilesa or impurity), (2) 

Extra Canonical Works 351 

V&sanabhagiya (those dealing with desire), (3) 
Nibbedhabhagiya (those dealing with penetration), 
(4) Asekhabhagiya (those dealing with the subject 
of a non-learner), (5) Sankilesabhftgiya and Vasana- 
bhagiya, (6) Sankilesa and Nibbedhabhagiya, (7) 
Sankilesa and Asekhabhagiya, (8) Sankilesa and 
Nibbedha and Asekhabhagiya, (9) Sankilesa and 
Vasana and Nibbedhabhagiya, (10) Vasana and 
Nibbedhabhagiya, (11) Tanhasankilesabhagiya, (12) 
Ditthisankilesabhagiya, (13) Duccaritasankilesa- 
bhagiya, (14) Tanhavodanabhagiya, (15) Ditthivo- 
danabhagiya, (16) Duccaritavodanabhagiya. Of 
these, sankilesas are of three kinds, tanha (desire), 
ditthi (false view), and duccaritas (wrong actions). 

Various padas, slokas, and texts are cited while 
explaining each of these textual classifications. 

The eighteen main padas are those which are 
worldly (lokikam), unworldly (lokuttaram), etc. In 
fact the chapter is made highly interesting by its 
numerous quotations from familiar texts and it 
does not enter deep into philosophical or logical 
arguments. But the classification and reclassifica- 
tions are no doubt interesting as intellectual gym- 

That the Nettipakarana is an earlier book than 
the Patthana (Mahapakarana) has been ably shown 
by Mrs'/ Rhys Davids (J.R.A.S., 1925, pp. 111-112). 
She says that in the Netti there is a short chapter 
on parikkhara, i.e., equipment. Usually applied 
to a monk's necessities of life, it is here applied to 
mean all that goes to bring about a happening, all 
the conditions to produce an effect. These are 
twofold paccaya and hetu. Take now this happen- 
ing : " A seeing something ". Here the eye is the 
dominant condition (adhipateyyapaccayataya 
paccayo). The thing seen is the object condition 
(arammana paccayataya paccayo). The light is the 
medium condition (Sannissayataya paccayo). But 
attention is the hetu. In conclusion it states : 
Whatever is sufficing condition (upanissaya) that is 
a causal antecedent (parikkhara). "This simple 

352 A History of Pali Literature 

exposition," says Mrs. Rhys Davids, " is a develop- 
ment of the yet simpler wording in the suttas. There 
no distinction is drawn between hetu and paccaya ". 

She then turns her attention to the Patthana. 
Here at the start not only has a distinction been 
drawn but an elaborate classification of paccayas 
twenty-four in kind, is drawn up as standardised 

Hetu is a species of paccaya, first and chief 
of them. Further, ' dominance ', * object ', 
' medium ', * sufficing condition ', are classed as 
paccayas, Nos. 3, 2, 9, and 8. And further, the in- 
variable way of assigning causal relation in a happen- 
ing is not the Netti's way but (hetu, etc.) paccayena 
paccayo. We may conclude from this that the 
writer of the Netti did not know the Patthana. 
He did know some Abhidhamma. He alludes to a 
method in the Dhammasangani, to a definition in 
the Vibhanga but never to that notable scheme in 
the Patthana. 

The Petakopadesa is another treatise on the 
p take adee textual and the exegetical mqjthodo- 
op eea. logy ascribed to Mahakaccana and 
it is nothing but a different manipulation of the 
subject treated in the Nettipakarana. Interest of 
this treatise, if it was at all a work of the same 
author, lies in the fact that it throws some new 
light here and there on the points somewhat obscure 
in the Netti. Its importance lies also in the fact 
that in places it has quoted the Pali canonical 
passages mentioning the sources by such names as 
Samyuttaka (=Saifayutta Nikaya) and Ekuttaraka 
(^Ekuttara or Ahguttara Nikaya). Its importance 
arises no less from the fact that in it the four Ariyan 
truths are stated to be the central theme or essence 
of Buddhism, the point which gained much ground 
in the literature of the Sarvastivadin school. The 
importance of the last point will be realised all the 
more as we find how the discourses developed in 
the Netti in the course of formulating the textual 
and exegetical methodology centered round the 

Extra Canonical Works 35$ 

four Ariyan truths. This work has not yet been 
edited. The P.T.S., London, has undertaken an 
edition of it. Specimen de Petakopadesa by R. Fuchs, 
Berlin, 1908 deserves mention. 

The Milinda Panha or the questions of Milinda 
had originally been written in 
Northern India in Sanskrit or in 
some North Indian Prakrit by an 
author whose name has not, unfortunately enough, 
come down to us. But, the original text is now 
lost in the land of its origin as elsewhere ; what 
now remains is the Pali translation of the original 
which was made at a very early date in Ceylon. 
From Ceylon, it travelled to other countries, namely, 
Burma and Siam, which have derived their Buddhism 
from Ceylon, and where at a later date it was 
translated into respective local dialects. In China, 
too, there have been found two separate works 
entitled "The Book of the Bhikkhu Nagasena 
Sutra ", but whether they are translations of the 
older recensions of the work than the one preserved in 
Pali on of the Pali recensions is difficult to ascertain. 
However, in the home of Southern Buddhism, the 
book is accepted as a standard authority, second 
only to the Pali Pitakas. Prof. Rhys Davids rightly 
observes, " It is not merely the only work composed 
among the Northern Buddhists which is regarded 
with reverence by the orthodox Buddhists of 
the Southern schools, it is the only one which has 
survived at all amongst them 'V 

The book purports to discuss a good number of 
problems and disputed points of 
rhn Took the Buddhism; and this discussion is 
treated in the form of conversa- 
tions between King Milinda of Sagala and Thera 
Nagasena. Milinda raises the questions and puts 
the dilemmas, and thus plays a subordinate part in 
comparison to that played by Nagasena who answers 
the questions and solves the puzzles in detail, 

1 S.B.E., Vol. XXXV, Intro., p. xii. 

354 A History of Pali Literature 

Naturally, therefore, the didactic element pre- 
dominates in the otherwise romantic account of the 
encounter between the two. 

Milinda who has been described as the King of 
_, , the Yonas with his capital at Sagala 

The two heroes. /ai i cv 11 A\ i. i iT 

(Sakala=Sialkot), has long been 
identified with Menander, the Bactrian Greek King 
who had his sway in the Punjab. He was born, 
as our author makes him say, at Kalasi in Alasanda, 
i.e., Alexandria ; and if we are to believe our author, 
he, resolved of all doubts as a result of his long 
conversations with Nagasena, came to be converted 
to Buddhism. Nagasena, however, cannot be 
identified with any amount of certainty. 

The name of the author, as we have already 
Author said, kas no * come down to us. A 

close analysis of the book shows that 
a considerable number of place names refers to the 
Punjab and adjacent countries, and a few to the 
sea-coast, e.g., Surat, Bharukaccha, etc. Most of 
the rivers named refer again to the Punjab. It is, 
therefore, natural for us to conjecture that thejauthor 
of the book resided in the far north-west of India or 
in the Punjab. Mrs. Rhys Davids has a theory of her 
own regarding the author of the Milinda Panho. 
She thinks that the recorded conversations of 
Milinda and Nagasena were edited in the new book 
form after Milinda's death, by special commission 
by a Brahmana of Buddhist Collegiate training, 
named Manava. She points out that the author 
was not a convinced Buddhist and that the detached 
first portion of the Milinda Pafiha is in no way to be 
matched in style or ideas with the quite different 
dilemmas and the following portions. The first part 
is a set of jerky rather desultory talks breaking off 
and bearing marks of being genuine notes taken by 
recorders at the time. The latter portions are 
evidently written compositions, dummy conversa- 
tions. " As to his name," says Mrs. Rhys Davids, 
" that is not by me made of any importance : it is, 
.let us say, my playful guess : a brahmana name 

Extra Canonical Works 355 

like the Shakespeare hidden allusions, alluded to in a 
gatha, which there was no reason for quoting save 
as a hint at the name ". 

It is somewhat difficult to ascertain exactly 
the date of the Book. Milinda or 
Menander is, however, ascribed to 
the last quarter of the 2nd century B.C. The 
book must, therefore, have been written after that 
date. On the other hand, it must have long been 
an important book of authority when Buddhaghosa, 
the celebrated Buddhist commentator, flourished in 
the 5th century A.D. For, he quoted from the 
book often in his commentaries, and that in such a 
manner that it follows that he regarded the book 
BS a work of great authority. From a close analysis 
of the books referred to as quoted by the author of 
the Milinda Pafiha, Prof. T. W. Rhys Davids, the 
learned editor and translator of Milinda Pafiha, 
came to the conclusion that " the book is later than 
the canonical books of the Pali Pitakas (the author 
of the Milinda Pafiha quotes a large number of 
passages from the Pitaka texts), and on the other 
hand, not only older than the great commentaries, 
but the only book outside the canon, regarded in 
them as an authority which may be implicitly 
followed". 1 

The Milinda Pafiha has a marked style of ite 
Q4r . ,. own. Its language is most elegant, 

Style and language. , , j j j_ jv T~ i J 

and studied against the background 
of ancient Indian prose, it is simply a masterpiece 
of writing. The formal exactness of the early 
Pitakas as well as the studied ornamentation of 
later-day Pali or Sanskrit-Buddhist treatises are 
alike absent from its pages. The charm of the 
style is captivating and there are passages that are 
eloquent in their meaning and gesture. The pre- 
rorations with which the long discussions are often 
closed are supreme inventions by our author of the 
art of conversation as well as of writing. Its style 

1 S.B.E., Vol. XXXV, Intro., p. xxxviil 

366 A History of Pali Literature 

and diction bear a close resemblance to and are 
somewhat maturer than those of the famous Hasti- 
gumpha inscription of Kharavela which is assigned 
by Dr. B. M. Barua to the second quarter of the 
1st century A.D. 1 

At Sagala, a city of wealth and affluence, ruled 

Text King Milinda versed in arts and 

sciences and skilled in casuistry. 

He had his doubts and puzzles with regard to 

Buddha's doctrines and utterances and other knotty 

problems of Buddhism. To resolve these doubts 

he went to Nagasena, the famous arahat ; and then 

began a wonderful conversational discourse between 

the two. But before the discourse really begins, 

we are introduced by our author to the previous 

birth history (Pubba-yoga) of these two personages 

and then to the contents of various sorts of puzzles. 

We are told that Nagasena in a previous birth 

(a) Book i ^ k* 8 was one ^ *^ e mem ^ ers f 
the religious brotherhood near the 

Ganges, where Milinda, in his turn, in a previous 
birth of his, was a novice. In accordance M^th his 
acts of merit in that birth and his aspirations, this 
novice after wandering from existence to existence 
came to be born at last as king of the city of Sagala, 
a very learned, eloquent, and wise man. Now he 
had doubts and problems in his mind, and in vain 
did he seek the venerable Kassapa and Makkhali 
Gosala to have them solved while all these were 
happening. The brother of the religious brother- 
hood who came to be born in a Brahman family was 
Nagasena. When he was seven years old he learnt 
the three Vedas and all else that could be learnt 
in a Brahmanical house. Then he left the house, 
meditated in solitude for sometime and he was 
afterwards admitted into the order as a novice by a 
venerable Buddhist priest, Rohana and was 
eventually converted into Buddhism. He was then 

1 Barua Old Brahmi Inscriptions, p. 172. 

Extra Canonical Works 357 

sent to Pataliputra to the venerable Buddhist sage 
Dhammarakkhita where he became an Arahat. 
Now while he was living there he was invited at the 
Guarded Slope in the Himalayas by an innumerable 
company of arahats who were being harassed by 
King Milinda who delighted in putting knotty 
questions and arguments this way and that. Naga- 
sena readily accepted the challenge of Milinda and 
went to Sagala attended by a band of samanas. 
Just at that time Milinda had met Ayupala, an 
Arahat of the Sankheyya monastery, whom too he 
confronted with his casuistry. Nagasena who was 
then living at the same hermitage came now to the 
rescue of the Order. Milinda with five hundred 
Yonakas then repaired to Nagasena, and after 
mutual exchanges of courtesy and compliments the 
conversational discourse began. 

The first discourse turned on the distinguishing 
(b) Book ii characteristics of moral qualities. 
Milinda enquired how Reverend 
Nagasena was known and what was his name. 
Upon At Nagasena initiated a discussion on the 
relation between name and individuality, and ex- 
plained it thoroughly with the help of an instructive 
simile. The king then, obviously to test his know- 
ledge, put to him a riddle and questioned him as 
to his seniority of years. Nagasena fully vindicated 
himself, and the king then satisfied sought the per- 
mission of the Reverend Arahat to discuss with 
him. The Arahat in his turn told that he was agree- 
able to a discussion if he would only discuss as a 
scholar and not as a king. Then one by one Milinda 
put questions and Nagasena solved them with 
his wonderful power of argumentation, simile, and 
illustration. He contended that there was no soul 
in the breath ; he explained one by one the aim of 
Buddhist renunciation, the Buddhist idea of rein- 
carnation, the distinction between wisdom and 
reasoning, and wisdom and intelligence. He further 
contended that virtue was the basis of the five moral 
powers requisite for the attainment of nirvana and 

358 A History of Pali Literature 

that other moral powers were faith, 1 perseverance, 
mindfuhiess, and meditation which a recluse should 
develop in himself. The characteristic marks of 
each of these qualities were expounded in detail, 
and their power to put an end to evil dispositions. 
A very important metaphysical question is next 
discussed wherein Nagasena wants to establish with 
the help mainly of illuminating illustrations that 
when a man is born, he remains neither the same 
nor the another ; like a child and a growing man 
through different stages of life. " One comes into 
being " another passes away ; and the rebirth is, 
as it were, simultaneous. In this connection it is 
discussed if a man who will not be reborn feel any 
painful sensation ; and then what is after all reborn. 
A discourse is next initiated as to what is meant by 
" time ", the root and the ultimate point of it. 
This leads to another discussion as to the origin and 
developments of qualities, as to other existence or 
non-existence of anything as soul, which in its turn 
most naturally leads to a further discussion as 
regards thought-perception and sight-perqpption, 
and lastly to the distinguishing characteristics of 
contact or phassa, sensation or vedana, idea or 
saiina, purpose or cetana, perception or vifinana, 
reflection or vitakka, and investigation or vicara. 
In all these discourses and solutions, Milinda is 
fully convinced and is full of admiration for 

The second discourse turns on the question of 
, v , TTT removal of difficulties and dispelling 

(c) Book III. - , , , . ,, j.j. 

of doubts in the way of attaining a 
life of renunciation. The various questions as to 
these doubts are not always related to one another, 
but all of them are instructive and helpful to solve 
doubts in the mind of Milinda, the King. He 
wants to know why really there is so much distinc- 
tion between man and man, how renunciation is 
brought about, what is the character of the influence 

1 Cf. Summary of faith in the Nettipakarana, p. 28. 

Extra Canonical Works 359 

of karma, and what is after all nirvana, and whether 
all men attain it or not. The interesting point 
raised next is whether rebirth and transmigration 
are one and the same thing, and if there is a soul 
or any being that transmigrates from this body to 
another. Among other doubts that conflicted 
Milinda were if the body were very dear to the 
Buddhist recluse, if the Buddha had really thirty- 
two bodily marks of a great man, if the Buddha was 
pure in conduct, if ordination was a good thing. 
Milinda further enquired of Nagasena what had 
been the real distinction between one full of passion, 
and one without passion, and lastly what was 
meant by an Arahat who recollected what was past 
and done long ago. Then there were also other 
difficulties of various kinds which were all solved 
by the venerable Nagasena. Milinda was satisfied 
that he had propounded his questions rightly, and 
the replies had been made rightly. Nagasena 
thought that the questions had been well-put and 
right replies had been given. 

Thie book deals with solutions of puzzles arising 
,^ *> , TAT out of contradictory statements 

(d) Book IV. , ! ., -r> j 11 mi i 

made by the Buddha. Ihese puzzles 
were many and varied and were distributed in 
eighty-two dilemmas which were put by Milinda 
to Nagasena, who, in his turn, gave satisfactory 
explanations to each of them. The contradictions 
in the Buddha's utterances were more apparent 
than real. About them strife was likely thereafter 
to arise, and it was difficult to find a teacher like 
Nagasena. So an early solution of these dilemmas 
was imperative for the guidance of intending dis- 
ciples of the Order. These dilemmas are particularly 
interesting as well as instructive and it is profitable 
to be acquainted here with a few examples. Milinda 
was puzzled by a dilemma If the Buddha has 
really passed away, what is the good of paying 
honour to his relics ? Nagasena said to him, " Blessed 
One, O King, is entirely set free from life and he 
accepts no gifts. If gods or men put up a building 


360 A History of Pali Literature 

to contain the jewel treasure of the relics of a 
Tathagata who does not accept their gift, still by 
that homage paid to the attainment of the supreme 
good under the form of the jewel treasure of his 
wisdom do they themselves attain to one or other 
of the three glorious states (Tisso Sampattiyo). 
There are other reasons too. For, gods and men 
by offering reverence to the relics, and the jewel 
treasure of the wisdom of a Tathagata, though he 
has died away, and accepts it not, can cause goodness 
to arise in them, and by that goodness can assuage 
and can allay the fever and the torment of the 
threefold fire. And even if the Buddha has passed 
away, the possibility of receiving the three attain- 
ments is not removed. Beings, oppressed by the 
sorrow of becoming, can, when they desire the 
attainments, still receive them by means of the 
jewel treasure of his relics and of his doctrine, 
discipline, and teaching. Like the seeds which 
through the earth attain to higher developments 
are the gods and men who, through the jewel treasures 
of the relics and the wisdom of the Tathagata 
though he has passed away and consent not to it 
being firmly rooted by the roots of merit, become 
like unto trees casting a goodly shade by means of 
the trunk of contemplation, the sap of true doctrine 
and the branches of righteousness, bearing the flowers 
of emancipation, and the fruits of monkhood. It 
is for all these reasons that even when the Buddha 
has passed away, an act done to him notwithstanding 
his not consenting thereto, is still of value and bears 

A second dilemma that conflicted Milinda was, 
how can the Buddha be omniscient, when it is said 
that he reflects or thinks ? To solve this dilemma, 
Nagasena analysed the thinking powers of men 
from the lowest individual full of lust, ill-will and 
delusion to the highest Buddha having all knowledge 
and bearing about in themselves the tenfold power 
and whose thinking powers are on every point 
brought quickly into play, and act with ease. He 

Extra Canonical Works 361 

then classified these different kinds of thinking 
powers into seven classes. The thinking power of 
the Supreme Buddhas is of the last or seventh class, 
and its stuff is very fine, the dart is highly tempered 
and its discharge is highly powerful. It altogether 
outclasses the other six and is clear and active in 
its high quality that is beyond an ordinary man's 
comprehension. It is because the mind of the 
Blessed One is so clear and active that the Blessed 
One has worked so many wonders and miracles. 
For his knowledge is dependent on reflection, and 
it is on reflection that he knows whatever he wishes 
to know. It is more rapid than that, and more 
easy in action in the all-embracing knowledge of 
the Blessed One, more rapid than his reflection. 
His all-embracing knowledge is like the store-house 
of a great king who has stores of gold, silver and 
valuables, and all sorts of eatables ; it is with the 
help of reflection that the Blessed One grasps 
easily and at once whatever he wants from the big 
store-house of his knowledge. 

A third dilemma was, why did the Blessed One 
admit Devadatta to the Order, if he knew of his 
machinations ? In giving a solution out of this 
dilemma Nagasena told Milinda that the Blessed 
One was both full of mercy and wisdom. It was 
when he in his mercy and wisdom considered the 
life history of Devadatta that he perceived how 
having heaped up karma on karma, he would pass 
for an endless series of kalpas from torment to 
torment, and from perdition to perdition. And the 
Blessed One knew also that the infinite karma of 
that man would, because he had entered the Order, 
become finite, and the sorrow caused by the previous 
karma would also therefore become limited. But if 
that foolish person were not to enter the Order, 
then he would continue to heap up karma which 
would endure for a kalpa. And it was because he 
knew that that, in his mercy, he admitted him to 
the Order. And by doing so, the Blessed One 
acted like a clever physician, and made light the 

362 A History of Pali Literature 

heavy sorrow of Devadatta who would have to 
suffer many hundreds of thousands of kalpas. 
For having caused schism in the Order, he (Deva- 
datta) would no doubt suffer pain and misery in the 
purgatories, but that was not the fault of the Blessed 
One, but was the effect of his own karma. The 
Blessed One did in his case act like a surgeon who 
with all kind intent and for man's good smears a 
wound with burning ointment, cuts it with lancet, 
cauterises with caustic, and administers to it a 
salty wash. So did the Blessed One cause Devadatta 
to suffer such pain and misery that at the end he 
might be relieved of all pains and miseries. If he 
had not done so, Devadatta would have suffered 
torment in purgatory through a succession of 
existences, through hundreds of thousands of kalpas. 
Of other puzzles that arose in Milinda's mind, 
mention may be made of three out of many. These 
were, for example, how was it that an Arahat could 
do no wrong ; why did not the Buddha promulgate 
all the rules of the Order at once and how could 
Vessantara's giving away of his children be approved. 
Speaking as to the faults of the Arahat, Nagasena 
told Milinda that the Arahats, like laymen, could 
be guilty of an offence, but their guilt was neither 
due to carelessness or thoughtlessness. Sins are 
of two kinds those which are a breach of the 
ordinary moral law, and those which are a breach 
of the Rules of the Order. Now, an Arahat, in the 
true sense of the term, cannot be guilty of a moral 
offence ; but it is possible for him to be guilty of 
any breach of the Rules of the Order of which he 
might have been ignorant. Next, speaking as to 
the method of promulgating the Rules from time 
to time and not all at once, Nagasena quoted the 
authority of the Tathagata ; for the Tathagata 
thought thus, " If I were to lay down the whole 
of the hundred and fifty rules at once the people 
would be filled with fear, those of them who were 
willing to enter the Order would refrain from doing 
so, they would not trust my words, and through 

Extra Canonical Works 363 

their want of faith they would be liable to rebirth 
in states of woe. An occasion arises, therefore, 
illustrating it with a religious discourse, will I lay 
down, when the evil has become manifest, each 
Rule." As to the justification of King Vessantara's 
giving away his beloved sons in slavery to a Brah- 
mana, and his dear wife to another man as wife, 
Nagasena told Milinda that he who gave gifts in 
such a way as to bring even sorrow upon others, 
that giving of his brought forth fruit in happiness 
and it would lead to rebirths in states of bliss. Even 
if that be an excessive gift it was not harmful, rather 
it was praised, applauded, and approved by the 
wise in the world. 

The last four dilemmas of Milinda are concerned 
with the difficult problem of Nirvana. Is Nirvana 
all bliss or partly pain ; the form, the figure, duration, 
etc., of Nirvana, the reaUsation of Nirvana, and the 
place of Nirvana, these are the puzzles that inflicted 
the mind of the king. Nagasena solved them all one 
by one to the satisfaction of Milinda. According to 
him Nirvana is bliss unalloyed, there is no pain in 
it. It is true that those who are in quest of Nirvana 
afflict their minds and bodies, restrain themselves 
in standing, walking and sitting, lying, and in food, 
suppress their sleep, keep their senses in subjection, 
abandon their very body and their life. But it is 
after they have thus, in pain, sought after Nirvana, 
that they enjoy Nirvana which is all bliss. By no 
metaphor, or explanation, or reason, or argument 
can its form or figure, or duration, or measure be 
made clear, even if it be a condition that exists. 
But there is something as to its qualities which can 
be explained. Nirvana is untarnished by any evil 
dispositions. It allays the thirst of the craving 
after lusts, desire for future life, and the craving 
after worldly prosperity. It puts an end to grief, 
it is an ambrosia. Nirvana is free from the dead 
bodies of evil dispositions, it is mighty and bound- 
less, it is the abode of great men, and Nirvana 
is all in blossom of purity, of knowledge and eman- 

364 A History of Pali Literature 

cipation. Nirvana is the support of life, for it 
puts an end to old age and death ; it increases the 
power of Iddhi (miracle) of all beings, it is the 
source to all beings of the beauty of holiness, it 
puts a stop to suffering in all beings, to the suffering 
arising from evil dispositions, and it overcomes in 
all beings the weakness which arises from hunger 
and all sorts of pain. Nirvana is not born, neither 
does it grow old, it dies not, it passes not away, it 
has no rebirth, it is unconquerable, thieves carry 
it not off, it is not attached to anything, it is the 
sphere in which Arahat moves, nothing can obstruct 
it, and it is infinite. Nirvana satisfies all desires, 
it causes delight and it is full of lustre. It is hard 
to attain to, it is unequalled in the beauty of its 
perfume, it is praised by all the Noble Ones. Nirvana 
is beautiful in Righteousness, it has a pleasant 
taste. It is very exalted, it is immovable, it is 
accessible to all evil dispositions, it is a place where 
no evil dispositions can grow, it is free from desire 
to please and from resentment. 

As to the time of Nirvana, it is not past, nor 
future, nor present, nor produced, nor not produced, 
nor producible. Peaceful, blissful, and delicate, 
Nirvana always exists. And it is that wliich he 
who orders his life aright, grasping the idea of all 
things according to the teaching of the conquerors 
realises by his wisdom. It is known by freedom 
from distress and danger, by confidence, by peace, 
by calm, by bliss, by happiness, by delicacy, by 
purity, and by freshness. Lastly as to the place of 
Nirvana, there is no spot either in the East, or the 
South, or the West or the North, either above or 
below where Nirvana is. Yet it exists just as 
fire exists even if there is no place where it is stored 
up. If a man rubs two sticks together, the fire 
comes out, so Nirvana exists for a man who orders 
his life well. But there is such a place on which a 
man may stand, and ordering his life aright, he 
can realise Nirvana, and such a place is virtue. 

This book deals with solutions of problems of 

Extra Canonical Works 365 

inference. Milinda asked Nagasena how they could 
(e) Book v know that Buddha had ever lived. 
Nagasena told him that as the 
existence of ancient kings was known by their 
royal insignia, their crown, their slippers, and their 
fans, so was the existence of Buddha known by 
the royal insignia used by the Blessed One and by 
the thirty-five constituent qualities that make up 
Arahatship which formed the subject of discourse 
delivered by Gotama before his death to his dis- 
ciples. By these can the whole world of gods 
and men know and believe that the Blessed 
One existed once. By this reason, by this argument, 
through this inference, can it be known that the 
Blessed One lived. Just at the sight of a beautiful 
and well-planned city, one can know the ability of 
the architect, so can one, on examining the City of 
Righteousness which the Buddha built up, come to 
know of his ability and existence. 

The sixth book opens with an interesting dis- 
,,v , WT cussion. Can laymen attain Nir- 

(/) Book VI. T> T . J , , , , , , 

vana ? Nagasena told that even 
laymen and women could see face to face the 
condition of peace, the supreme good, Nirvana. 
" But, what purpose then do extra vows serve ? " 
asked Milinda again. To this Nagasena replied 
that the keeping of vows implied a mode of livelihood 
without evil, it has blissful calm as its fruit, it 
avoided blame and it had such twenty-eight good 
qualities on account of which all the Buddhas alike 
longed for them and held them dear. And whoso- 
ever thoroughly carried out the vows, they became 
completely endowed with eighteen good qualities 
without a previous keeping of the vows by those 
who became endowed with these good qualities, 
there was no realisation of Arahatship ; and there 
was no perception of the truth to those who were 
not purified by 'the virtues that depended on the 
keeping of the vows. Nagasena next explained in 
detail with the help of a good number of similes 
the character that came as a result of keeping 

366 A History of Pali Literature 

the vows for the good growth of the seed of renuncia- 
tion and for the attainment of Nirvana. But those 
who being unworthy take the vows incur a twofold 
punishment and suffer the loss of the good that 
may be in him. He shall receive disgrace and 
scorn and suffer torment in the purgatory. On the 
contrary, those who being worthy take the vows 
with the idea of upholding the truth deserve a two- 
fold honour. For he comes near and dear to gods 
and men, and the whole religion of the recluses 
becomes his very own. Nagasena then gave Milinda 
the details of the thirteen extra vows by which a 
man should bathe in the mighty waters of Nirvana. 
Upasena the elder, practised all these purifying 
merits of the vows and Blessed One was delighted 
at his conduct. The thirty graces of the true 
recluse are detailed next and whosoever is endowed 
with these graces is said to have abounded in the 
peace and bliss of Nirvana. Sariputta, according 
to Nagasena, was one like this who became in this 
life of such exalted virtue that he was the one who, 
after the Master, set rolling the royal chariot- 
wheel of the Kingdom of Righteousness in the 
religion of Gotama, the Blessed One. 

The seventh or the last book is concerned with a 
/XT, , XTTT detailed list of the similes or qualities 

(g) Book VII. PAI.T.- * j.i ! 

of Arahatship ; of these similes 
thirty-eight have been lost and sixty-seven are still 
preserved. Any member of the Order who wishes 
to realise Arahatship must be endowed with these 
one hundred and five qualities. Milinda silently and 
reverently heard detailed descriptions of these 
qualities ; and at the end he was full of admiration 
for the venerable Thera Nagasena for his wonderful 
solution of the three hundred and four puzzles. He 
was filled with joy of heart ; and all pride was 
suppressed within him. He ceased to have any 
more doubts and became aware of the virtue of 
the religion of the Buddhas. He then entreated 
Nagasena to be accepted as a supporter of the 
Faith and as a true convert from that day onward 

Extra Canonical Works 367 

as long as life should last. Milinda did homage 
to Nagasena and had a vihara built called the 
4 Milinda- Vihara ' which he handed over to Naga- 

The Milinda Panha like the Bhagavat Gita is 
the most interesting and instructive literary produc- 
tion of an age which is heroic. Its long narrative 
is composed of a long series of philosophical contest 
between two great heroes, King Milinda on the 
one hand and the Thera Nagasena on the other. 
A pubba-yoga or prelude is skilfully devised to 
arouse a curiosity in the reader to witness the 
contest and watch the final result with a great 
eagerness. On the whole, the Milinda successfully 
employs a novel literary device to put together the 
isolated and disconnected controversies in the Katha- 
vatthu as representing different stages in the pro- 
gress of the philosophical battle, and in doing so 
it has been in one place guilty of the literary plagia- 
rivsm in respect of introducing King Milinda as a 
contemporary of the six heretical teachers on the 
model of the Samafinaphala Sutta. 

piaco and country Alasanda (dipa) the island town 

names in the Miiin- of Alexandria on the Indus, founded 

da Pafiha. fcy Alexander . 

Yavana (Bactria) That province watered by 
the Oxus or the Amu Daria and the premier satrapy 
of the Achsemenian kings later on came to be 
conquered by Alexander and in 321 B.C. fell to the 
share of Seleukos Nikator. Hundred years later 
the Bactrian Greeks threw off their allegiance to 
their Seleukidan lord, asserted independence, and 
gradually moved towards India to establish there an 
independent principality. Milinda or Menander was 
one of the kings of this line of Bactrian Greeks who 
came to establish their power in India. 

Bharukaccha an ancient seaport equivalent 
to modern Broach in the Kaira district in Guzrat ; 
Barygaza of the Greek geographers. 

Cina (country) China. 

368 A History of Pali Literature 

Gandhara (rattham) an important ancient 
kingdom that had its capital at Purusapura or 
Peshwar in the North-western Frontier Province. 

Kalinga an ancient kingdom on the Orissan 
coast, identical with the modern Ganjam region. 
All older works, such as the Jataka, Mahavastu, 
and Dlgha Nikaya, mention a kingdom named 
Kalinga with its capital Dantapura ages before 
Buddha's time. 

Kalasa (gama) a village situated in the 
Alasanda island on the Indus; the birthplace of 

Kajangala mentioned in very early Buddhist 
Pftli texts as a locality somewhere near Rajmahal. 

Kasmir (rattham) a famous kingdom in the 
North of India. 

Kosala an ancient province identical with 
South Bihar, capital Sravasti. 

Kolopattanam an ancient seaport probably 
on the Coromandel coast. 

Magadha (rattham) an ancient kingdom 
identical with East Bihar ; capital Pataliputra. 

Madhura (nigamo) an ancient city identical 
with modern Mathura. Coins of Menander have 
been found here. 

Nikumba (rattham) somewhere in the north- 
west of India. 

Sagala (nagaram) identical with Sakala, 
modern Sialkot, capital city of the King Milinda. 

Saketa identical with ancient Ayodhya country. 

Saka country the kingdom of the Sakas or 
Scythians in the time of Menander was confined 
to the Bactrian lands south of the Oseus and to 
Sogdiana to the north. 

Sovira ancient Sauvira, the country of the 
Sauvira tribe adjacent to the Sindhu country. 

Surattho (nigamo) an ancient seaport identical 
with modern Surat. 

Baranas! modern Benares. 

Suvannabhumi identical probably with Lower 
Burma and Malay Peninsula. 

Extra Canonical Works 369 

P&taliputra (nagaram) an ancient city, capital 
of Magadha near modern Patna. 

Udicca & country in the north-west of India. 

Vanga identical with East Bengal. 

Vilata an ancient kingdom somewhere in the 
north-west of India. 

Takkola an ancient seaport near Thaton in 
Lower Burma. 

Ujjeni identical with ancient Ujjayini, capital 
of the ancient Malwa country. 

Greek (country) ancient Greece in Eastern 

Names of riven, Europe. 

in the MUinda 1. Ganga The Ganges. 
Pafiha * 2. Aclravati an ancient river in 

Eastern India flowing through the Kosala country 
past Srftvasti. 

3. Yamuna a tributary of the Ganges, the 
Isamos of the Greeks. 

4. Sarabhu identical with Sarayu, a tributary 
of the Ganges. 

5. Mahi a river south to the Vindhyas flowing 
into the Bay of Bengal. These five rivers are often 
mentioned together in the Pitakas. 

6. Sarassati an ancient tributary of the Indus. 

7. Vitaihsa identical probably with Vitasta, 
a tributary of the Indus, the Hydaspes of the 

8. Candrabhaga identical with modern Che- 
nab, a tributary of the Indus. 

A. Books silently referred to : 

1. Digha Nikaya, 2. Kathavatthu, 
Books referred to 3. Anguttara Nikaya, 4. Maha- 

and mentioned in ^L ^* n ,* **r A 

theMiiindaPaflha. vagga, 5. Cullavagga, 6. Vessantara 
Jataka, 7. Sivi J&taka, 8. Majjhima 
Nikaya, 9. Sutta Vibhaiiga, 10. Catuma Sutta, 11. 
Dhammacakka-pavattana Sutta, 12. Amba Jataka, 
13. Dummedha Jataka, 14. Tittira Jataka, 15. 
Khantivada Jataka, 16. Cula-nandiya Jataka, 17. 
Taccha-Sukara Jataka, 18. Cariya-pitaka, 19. Silava- 
naga Jataka, 20. Sabbadatha Jataka, 21. Apannaka 
Jataka, 22. Nigrodha-miga Jataka, 23. Mahapaduma 

370 A History of Pali Literature 

J&taka, 24. Ummagga Jataka, 25. Sutta Nipata, 
26. Thera Gatha, 27. Samyutta Nikaya, 28. Dham- 
mapada, and 29. Nigrodha Jataka. 

1. Vinaya, Sutta, Abhidhamma, 2. The 

Suttantas, 3. Dhamma-Sangani, 4. 

Books or passa- Vibhanga, 5. Dhatu-Katha,' 6. 

ges of books men- -r^ , -A ~~ 4j_- n -rr j_i * TT \i 

Soned by name. Puggala Pannatti, 7. Katha-Vatthu, 
8. Yamaka, 9. Patthana, 10. The 
Abhidhamma Pitaka, 11. The Vinaya Pitaka, 12. 
The Sutta Pitaka, 13. Maha-Samaya Suttanta 
(Digha Nikftya), 14. Maha-mangala Suttanta 
(Sutta Nipata), 15. Sama-cittapariyaya Suttanta 
(unknown), 16. Rahulvada Suttanta (Majjhirha), 17. 
Parabhava Suttanta (Sutta Nipata), 18. Samyutta 
Nikaya, 19. The Sutta Nipata, 20. Ratana Sutta 
(Sutta Nipftta), 21. Khandha Paritta (not traced), 
22. Mora Paritta, 23. Dhajagga Paritta (Jataka 
Book), 24. Atanatiya Paritta (Digha Nikaya), 25. 
Angulimala Paritta (Majjhima Nikaya), 26. The 
Patimokkha, 27. Dhamma-dayada Sutta (Majjhima 
Nikaya), 28. Dakkhina Vibhanga of the Majjhima 
Nikaya, 29. Cariya Pitaka, 30. Navangam Buddha 
Vaeanam, 31. Digha Nikaya, 32. Majjhima Nikaya, 
33. Khuddaka Nikaya, 34. Maha Rahulovada 
^Majjhima Nikaya), 35. Pura-bheda Suttanta (Sutta 
Nipata), 36. Kalaha Vivada Suttanta (Sutta Nipata), 
37. Cula-Vyuha Suttanta (Sutta Nipata), 38. Maha- 
Vyuha Suttanta (Sutta Nipata), 39. Tuvataka 
Suttanta (Sutta Nipata), 40. Sariputta Suttanta 
(Sutta Nipata), 41. Mahasamaya Suttanta (Digha 
Nikaya), 42. Sakkha-Panha Suttanta (Digha Nikaya), 
43. Tirokucida Suttanta (Khuddaka Patha), 44. 
Ekuttara Nikaya (Anguttara Nikaya), 45. Dhaniya 
Sutta (Sutta Nipata), 46. Kummupama Suttanta 
(Samyutta Nikaya), 47. Sacca Samyutta (Samyutta 
Nikaya), 48. Vidhura Punnaka Jataka, 49. Dham- 
mapada, 50. Sutasoma Jataka, 51. Kanha Jataka, 
52. Lomahamsana Pariyaya, 53. Cakkavaka Jataka, 
54. Culla Narada Jataka, 55. Lakkhana Suttanta 
(Digha Nikaya), 56. Bhallatiya Jataka, 57. Parinib- 
bana Suttanta (Digha Nikaya). 

Extra Canonical Works 371 

V. Trenckner's edition of the Milinda Panha 
first published by Williams and Norgate in 1880 
has been reprinted by the trustee of the James 
G. Forlong Fund, Royal Asiatic Society, in 1928 
with a general index by C. J. Bylands and an index 
of gathas by Mrs. Rhys Davids. There is another 
edition of this work by Hsaya Hbe, Rangoon, 1915. 
A Burmese word for word interpretation of this 
text by Adiccavarhsa, Rangoon, should be consulted. 
It has been translated into English by T. W. Rhys 
Davids and included in the Sacred Books of the 
East Series as Vols. XXXV-XXXVI. There is a 
Sinhalese translation of the Milinda Panha by 
Hinati Kumbure under the title " Milinda prash- 
naya'", Colombo, 1900. 

The following books may be consulted : 

1. Le Bonheur du Nirvana extrait du Milindap- 
prashnaya ; ou Miroir des doctrines sacrees traduit 
du Pali par Lewis da Sylva Pandit. (Revue de 
Thistoire des religions, Paris, 1885.) 

2. Deux Traductions chinoises du Milinda 
Panha Par E. Specht arcc introduction par S. Levi. 

3. Chinese translations of the MiUnda Panha 
by Takakusu, J.R.A.S., 1896. This paper contains 
a number of Chinese translations in existence, the 
date of the two translations and the story of the 
discussions of King Milinda and Bhikkhu Nagasena 
found in the Buddhist sutra called Samyutta- 

4. Historical basis for the questions of King 
Menander from the Tibetan by L. A. Waddel, 
J.R.A.S., 1897. This paper points out that the 
Milinda Panha is known to the Tibetans. 

5. Nagasena by Dr. T. W. Rhys Davids, 
J.R.A.S., 1891. 

6. Milinda Questions by Mrs. Rhys Davids, 

7. Critical and philological notes to the first 
chapter of the Milinda Panha by V. Trenckner 
revised and edited by Dr. Anderson, J.P.T.S., 

372 A History of Pali Literature 

8. Paul Pelliot Les noms propres dans les 
traductions chinoises du Milinda Panha. (Journal 
Asiatic, Paris, 1914.) 

9. There is a Bengali edition of this work 
published by the Bangiya Sahitya Parishat, Calcutta, 
which can vie, if it can vie at all, in its uncritical 
method and blunders. 

10. F. Otto Schrader, Die Fragen des Konig 
Menandros (Berlin, 1903). 

11. Garbe, "Der Milindapanha, ein Kultur- 
historischer Roman ", Indische Kulturgeschichte. 

12. G. Cagnola, Dialoghi del Re Milinda 
(Italian translation of the Milinda Panha). 

13. Milinda by T. W. Rhys Davids (Encyclo- 
paedia of Religion and Ethics, pp. 631-633). 

14. M. Winternitz, Geschichte der Indischen 
Litteratur (vol. 2., Leipzig, 1920). 

In the Gandhavamsa (pp. 58 foil. J.P.T.S., 
1886) which is a comparatively 
modern Pali compilation we have an 
interesting classification of the 
Buddhist teachers of India, Ceylon, and Burma 
connected with Pali literature. This classification 
goes to divide the teachers chronologically into 
three orders : (1) Poranacariyas, (2) Atthakatha- 
cariyas, and (3) Gandhakaracariyas. By the Porana- 
cariyas or ancient teachers are meant the distinguish- 
ed and profoundly learned theras of old numbering 
about 2,200 Arhats, who as selected representatives 
of different sections of the orthodox samgha took 
part in the proceedings of the first three Buddhist 
Councils and rehearsed the canonical texts. These 
teachers are arbitrarily identified with the Atthaka- 
thacariyas or teachers commanding the commentarial 
authority. Buddhaghosa and others are, according 
to this classification, to be counted among the 
Gandhakaracariyas or teachers representing in- 
dividual authorship. Such teachers are also to be 
known as Anekacariyas or different authors. 

The Gandhavamsa expressly treats the earlier 
Sinhalese commentaries such as Kurundiya attha- 

Extra Canmical Works 373 

katha and the Mahapaccariya atthakatha pre- 
supposed by the writings of Buddhaghosa as re- 
markable productions of individual authorship. 1 

We may be prepared to appreciate this sugges- 
tive chronological classification in so far as it leads 
us to contemplate the beginning of individual 
authorship from a certain stage of literary develop- 
ment, a stage which is represented by Buddhadatta, 
Buddhaghosa, and Dhammapala. In the first or 
early stage we have the various texts of the three 
Pali pitakas, all of which the Samgltikaras made 
their own by virtue of a joint rehearsal and canonisa- 
tion. Though tradition ascribes the Kathavatthu 
and the Parivarapatha to two different authors, 
namely, Moggaliputtatissa and the learned Dlpa, 
one need not be astonished to find that the claim 
of individual authorship hats altogether merged in 
the interests of the Samgltikaras, and ultimately 
of the samgha as a whole. 

The authority of the Milinda Pafiha has been 
wrongly cited by Buddhaghosa and others with the 
stamp of individual authorship of thera Nagasena. 
It is the same thing to ascribe the Milinda Panha 
to the authorship of Nagasena as to ascribe all the 
Pali canonical texts to the authorship of the Buddha. 
As a matter of fact Nagasena plays no more than 
the role of the more powerful of the two controversia- 
lists in the dramatic narrative of the Milinda Panha 
a position which is in many respects similar to 
that assigned to Vasudeva in the dramatic con- 
versational narrative of the Bhagavat Gita. 

The Gandhavamsa (p. 59) ascribes the Netti 
and the Petakopadesa along with four other trea- 
tises, exegetical and grammatical, to the author- 
ship of Mahakaccayana, the venerable Mahakacca- 
yana who was one of the immediate disciples of the 

1 Gandhavamsa, p. 59 " Katame anekacariyehi kata 
Gandhacariyo kurundlgandham nama akasi. Annataro acariyo 
mahapaccariyam nama afttakathaxh akasi. Afifiataro acariyo 
kunindigandhassa atthakatham akasi". 

374 A History of Pali Literature 

Buddha, doing his missionary work in western 
India. This is a lump of anachronism which is 
too big for a critical scholarly mouth to swallow. 
As regards individual authorship, the Netti and the 
Petakopadesa stand in the same position as the 
Milinda Panha. Have we in this respect to confront 
a different position with regard to the earlier Sinha- 
lese commentaries under notice ? Highly doubtful 
is the source of information that has enabled the 
author of so modern a work as the Gandhavamsa 
to say that a certain individual author wrote out a 
treatise called Kurundigandha, another author, the 
Mahapaccariya-atthakatha and another author, the 
Atthakatha of the Kurundigandha. 

Some earlier commentaries have been quoted 
by Buddhaghosa without even meaning to regard 
them as works of any individual authors. Even in 
cases where he has referred to them as personal 
authorities, he appears to have recourse to such an 
indefinite expression as atthakathacariyas. 1 On the 
other hand there are several statements in which 
Buddhaghosa and other commentators haVe regarded 
these earlier commentaries not as works of any 
individual authors but as authoritative books of 
interpretation of different monastic schools of 
teachers (cf. Samantapasadika, P.T.S., pp. 1-2 ; 
Atthasalim, p. 2). 

" Mahaviharavasmam dipayanto vinicchayam 
Attham pakasayissami agamatthakathasupi." 

The earlier commentaries mentioned or cited by 
Buddhaghosa in his Samantapasadika, Atthasalini, 
Sumangalavilasim, and other commentaries are : 

(1) The Maha Atthakatha. 

(2) The Mahapaccariya. 

(3) The Kurundl or Kurundiya. 2 

(4) Andha Atthakatha. 

(5) Samkhepa Atthakatha. 

1 Atthasalini, pp. 85, 123, and 217 

2 Samantapasadika, p. 2, v. 10. 

Extra Canonical Works 375 

(6) Agamatthakatha. 1 

(7) Acariyanam samanatthakatha. 2 (?) 

According to the Saddhama Sangaha, the Maha, 
the Mahapaccari, and the Kurunda are the three 
earlier Sinhalese commentaries quoted by Buddha- 
ghosa in his Samantapasadika while the Maha- 
atthakatha was made the basis of his commentaries 
on the first four nikayas. 3 

The Poranas and the Atthakathacariyas re- 
present indeed a broad chronological classification 
of the pubbacariyas which may as well be inferred 
from Buddhaghosa's own statements. In the pro- 
logue of his Samantapasadika, he expressly says 
that the Maha, the Mahapaccari, and the Kurundi 
are the three earlier commentaries that were written 
in the native dialect of Sihala (Ceylon) (samvannana 
sihaladipakena vakyena, Samantapasadika, I, p. 2). 

The Maha-atthakatha otherwise known as the 
mula atthakatha or simply the atthakatha is 
undoubtedly the old Sinhalese commentary on the 
three pitakas developed in the school of the Maha- 
vihara or Great Minster at Anuradhapura. There 
was a second monastery at Anuradhapura called 
Uttaravihara or North Minster. A commentarial 
tradition was developed also in this schooL The 
distinction between the traditions of Mahavihara 
and Uttaravihara would seem to lie in the background 
of Buddhadatta's two Vinaya manuals the Vinaya- 
vinicchaya and the Uttaravinicchaya. The name 
of Mahapaccari or Great Raft can be so called " from 
its having been composed on a raft somewhere in 
Ceylon " (Saddhammasamgaha, p. 55). The suggest- 
ed origin of the name is quite fanciful and there- 
fore unreliable like the Maha or mula. The Maha- 
paccari appears to have been a distinct compilation 
of a monastic school of Ceylon. The Kurundi was 

1 AtthasalinI, p. 2. 

2 Ibid., p. 90. 

8 Saddhaina Sangaha, pp. 55-56, J.P.T.S., 1890. 


376 A History of Pali Literature 

so called because it was composed at the Kurunda- 
veluvihara in Ceylon (Saddhammasamgaha, p. 55). 

The Andha-atthakatha represented a com- 
mentarial tradition handed down at Kancipura 
(Conjeveram) in South India. Presumably it was 
written in some native dialect of the Deccan. 

The Samkhepa atthakatha or short commentary 
is mentioned together with the Andha commentary 
and it is likely that like the latter it was a South 
Indian work. 

The Agamatthakatha referred to in Buddha- 
ghosa's Atthasalini is now taken to be an old general 
commentary on the agamas or nikayas. 

Acariyanam Samanatthakatha has been cata- 
logued by Mrs. Rhys Davids as though it were a 
separate commentary but the context of the passage 
in Buddhaghosa's Atthasalini (p. 90) in which the 
term occurs, shows the matter to be otherwise. 
By this expression (Ettika acariyanamsamanattha- 
katha nama, Atthasalini, p. 90) Buddhaghosa 
appears simply to mean an explanation which is 
common to all the schools of interpretation. If so, 
there will be no justification whatever for regarding 
the term acariyanam samanatthakatha as a title of 
any commentary. 

FausbolTs edition of the Jataka commentary 
now extant is known by the name 
J5taka thl! haka " of Jatakatthavannana l containing 
about 550 Jatakas. 2 In the Jata- 
katthavannana itself there is a reference to an older 
commentary namely, the Jataka-atthakatha which, 
as rightly guessed by Prof. Rhys Davids, is " the 
older commentary of Elu, or old Singhalese, on which 
the present work is based ". 3 This older com- 
mentary must have been the source from which 

1 Fausboll's Jataka, Vol. I, p. 1 " Jatakass' Attha- 

vannanam Mahaviharavasinam vacanamagganissitam bhasissarh ". 

2 Strictly speaking the total number of the Jatakas contained 
in it is 547. 

8 Buddhist Birth Stories, p. 173, f.n. 2 ; Fausboll's Jataka, I, 
p. 62. 

Extra Canonical Works 377 

Buddhaghosa has quoted several birth stories in 
his commentaries. Judging by Buddhaghosa's 
narrations of the Jatakas bearing a close resemblance 
with those in the present Atthavannana, we can say 
that the contents and arrangement of the Jatakas 
in the Atthakatha had not materially differed from 
those in the Atthavannana. It is evident from 
Buddhaghosa's own statement in his Sumangala- 
vilasinl that the total number of the Jatakas 
already came to be counted in his time as 550. * 
But as shown by Dr. B. M. Barua, the earlier 
total as mentioned in the Cullaniddesa (p. 80 
44 Bhagava pafica jataka-satani bhasanto attano 
ca paresan ca atitam adisati "), which is a canonical 
commentary on the Khaggavisana Sutta and the 
suttas of the Parayanavagga, was not 550 but 500 
(pancajataka-satani). He seems to think that the 
same inference as to the earlier total of the Jatakas 
may as well be drawn from an account of the Chinese 
pilgrim Fa-Hien stating that he witnessed re- 
presentations of 500 Jatakas when he visited Ceylofc 
in the beginning of the 5th century A.D. 2 The 
various literary processes by which the Jatakas 
were mechanically multiplied have been well dis- 
cussed 8 and need no further orientation here. 

The word vinicchaya means " investigation, 
trial, ascertainment, and decision ". 
The meaning which suits the title 
of the work under notice is de- 
cision ". Certain decisions helping the right in- 
terpretation and application of the Vinaya rules 
and prescriptions embodied in the Vinaya Pitaka 
grew up as a result of discussions among the theras 
of Ceylon and South India, the decisions of the 
Mahavihara school being generally regarded as the 

1 Sumangalavilasim, I, p. 24 " Apannaka-jatakadini pafinasa- 
dhikani pafica- jataka-satani Jatakan ti veditabbam ". 

2 TheTravelsof Fa-hsien by H. A. Giles, p. 71 " repres 
of the five hundred different forms in which the Bodhis 
cessively appeared ". 

3 B. M. Barua' s paper Multiplication of the Jatake 

378 A History of Pali Literature 

most authoritative. These decisions referred to in 
the lump by Buddhaghosa as atthakathavinicchayas 
were also incorporated in such Sinhalese com- 
mentaries as the Maha (Mahavihara), the Maha- 
karundiya, and the Mahapaccariya. It was binding 
on Buddhaghosa and other later commentators 
to see that the interpretations suggested by them 
were not only not inconsistent with the canonical 
texts but also with the atthakathaviniechayas. 1 
In many places of his Samantapasadika Buddha- 
ghosa has termed even his own decisive interpreta- 
tion as a Vinicchaya. 2 Even apart from the 
decisive interpretations in the earlier Sinhalese 
commentaries Buddhaghosa appears to have cited 
certain authoritative Vinayavinicchayas without 
mentioning the source from which he cited them. 
Looking out for the source we are apt to be led back 
to a treatise written by thera Buddhasiha which 
clearly bore the title of Vinayavinicchaya. 

In the epilogue of his Vinayavinicchaya Buddha - 
datta expressly says that his own work was nothing 
but an abridged form of Buddhaslha's treatise. 
Buddhasiha himself is represented as a saddhiviharl 
or a fellow monk residing in the monastery erected 
by Venhudasa or Kanhadasa in the beautiful river 
port of Kaveri. 3 

No trace of Buddhaslha'a treatise lingers except 
perhaps in citations in Buddhaghosa's Samanta- 
pasadika. The treatise was in all probability written 
in prose while Buddhadatta's is a manual written 
entirely in verse. 

Narasihagatha is the title of an interesting Pali 

1 Samantapasadika, p. 539. In discarding a particular in- 
terpretation, Buddhaghosa says " afthakatha vinicchayehi na 
sameti ", i.e., it does not tally with the decisions of the commentaries. 

2 Of. Samantapsadika, p. 648 : " Ayam tava anto dasaharh 
adhittheti vikappetiti ettha adhitthane viniccha-yo ". Again at p. 649 
' ay am vikappetiti imasmim pade vinicchayo '. 

3 Buddhadatta's Vinayavinicchaya, p. 229. 

" vuttassa Buddhasihena Vinayassa vinicchayo 
Buddhaaiham samuddissa mama saddhiviharikarh 
kato 'yam pana bhikkhunam hitatthaya samasato." 

Extra Canonical Works 379 

octade consisting of eight stanzas composed in an 
elegant style. The theme of this 

NarasIhagSthS. i i i i 

poem which became very popular 
throughout Ceylon is a description of 32 major 
bodily marks of the Buddha represented as a lion- 
like man (narasiha). The gathas are characteristi- 
cally put into the mouth of Rahulamata. Only 
the first stanza of the ancient octade is quoted in 
the Pali Jatakanidanakatha (Fausboll, Jataka, I, 
p. 89), the reading of which goes to show that its 
wording changed here and there in the octade as it 
comes down to us through the Buddhist literature 
of Ceylon. 

(a) Earlier reading 

" Siniddhamlamudukuncitakeso 



ramsijalavitato narasiho' ti." 

(&) Later reading 

" Suddhamlamudukuficitakeso 
ramsijalopitate narasiho." 

The octade may be regarded as an earlier 
specimen of the Sinhalese Pali poetry. 

The Dipavamsa is the oldest known Pali 
,.. . chronicle of Ceylon (dipatthuti) and 

Dipavarasa. CT&JII* /v , * i i 

of Buddhism, the account of which 
is closed with the reign of King Mahasena which 
may be assigned to the middle of the 4th century 
A.D. Buddhaghosa in his commentary on the 
Kathavatthu, a book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka, 
expressly quotes a number of verses from the 
Dipavamsa as a traditional authority in support of 
a certain statement of his, from which it is easy 
to infer that the chronicle in its present form was 
extant in the 4th century A.D., if not earlier. It 
goes without saying that the tradition of both the 
kings and theras of Ceylon as well as of their Indian 
contemporaries grew up and accumulated gradually. 

380 A History of Pali Literature 

The stanzas quoted by Buddhaghosa may be traced 
verbatim in the Dipavamsa (p. 36). * 

Though a metrical composition, the verses of 
this earlier chronicle interspersed in places with 
certain prose passages some of which may be traced 
in such authoritative canonical texts as the Vinaya 
Cullavagga. 2 In the opening verses of the Dipa- 
vamsa we are told that the chronicle embodied in 
it was handed down by tradition from man to 
man (vamsarh pavakkhami paramparagatam). So 
we need not be astonished to find certain verses 
occurring in the Vinaya Parivarapatha and furnish- 
ing the traditional materials for the Dipavarhsa. 
The verses incorporated in the Parivarapatha may 
be just one of the isolated earlier specimens, there 
being many others that are probably now lost. 
Thus what we find in the Dipavamsa is the first 
fruit of a methodical attempt at the composition 
of a systematic chronicle narrative on the basis 
of certain traditions, prevalent in both prose and 
verse. We need not dilate further on this subject 
as we have dealt with it in detail in the section 
on the Pali chronicles. 

The very name of the atthakatha Mahavamsa 
may sound strange to the ears of 

those who are tau 8 ht to think tha * 
the Pali Mahavamsa is the first 

work of its kind. To get rid of this predilection 
the reader may do well to acquaint himself with the 

1 Kathavatthuppakarana-atthakatha, J.P.T.S., 1889, p. 3, 
" Vuttarfa pi c' etam Dipavaihse : 

Nikkaddhita papabhikkhu therehi Vajjiputtaka 
anftarh pakkham labhitvana adhamrnavadi bahu jana. 
Dasasahassa samagantva dhammasamgaham 
tasmayarh dhammasamgiti mahasamgiti vuccati." 

2 Dipavamsa, p. 33 

" tena kho pana samayena vassasatamhi nibbute bhagavati 
Veaalika Vajjiputtaka Vesaliyam dasa vatthuni dipenti : 
kappati singilonakappo, kappati dvangulakappo, 
kappati gamantarakappo, kappati avasakappo, kappati 
anumatikappo, kappati acinnakappo, kappati amathita- 
kappo, kappati jalogim paturh, kappati adasakam 
nisidanam, kappati jataruparajatan ti." 
Cf. Vinaya Cullavagga, ch. xii, p. 294. 

Extra .Canonical Works 381 

verses forming the prologue of the great chronicle. 
In these opening verses, the author says : 

" Mahavariisarii pavakkhami nananunadhi- 


Poranehi kato p'eso ativittharito kvaci, 
ativa kvaci samkhitto, anekapunaruttako. 
Vajjitam tehi dosehi sukhaggahanadharanam" 
(Mahavariisa, Chapter I). 

Dr. Geiger translates " I will recite the Maha- 
variisa, of varied contents and lacking nothing. 
That (Mahavariisa) which was compiled by the 
ancient (sages) was here too long drawn out and 
there too closely knit ; and contained many repeti- 
tions. Attend ye now to this (Mahavamsa) that is 
free from such faults." (Geiger's translation of 
the Mahavamsa, p. 1.) Thus the author of the Pali 
Mahavamsa himself alludes to an earlier chronicle 
and claims that the chronicle composed by him was 
nothing but a thoroughly revised version of the 
earlier compilation. Here the question arises 
whether by the earlier compilations the author of 
the Pali Mahavamsa intended to mean the Dipavariisa 
or some other work, especially only bearing the 
title of Mahavamsa. There are two arguments 
that may be placed in favour of the Dipavamsa : 

(1) that the faults " here too long drawn out and 
there too closely knit ; and contained many repeti- 
tions " are well applicable to the Dipavamsa ; and 

(2) that the narrative of the Pali Mahavariisa, 
precisely like that of the Dipavariisa is closed with 
an account of the reign of King Mahasena of Ceylon. 
Undoubtedly the Dipavariisa is the earlier chronicle 
on which the Mahavariisa narrative was mainly 
based. But there are many points of difference, 
which are in some cases material. These cannot be 
satisfactorily accounted for without bringing in a 
somewhat different authority. Fortunately Dr. 
Geiger in his instructive dissertation on the Dipa- 
variisa and the Mahavariisa has convincingly proved 
the existence of an earlier great chronicle in Sinhalese. 

382 A History of Pali Literature 

He has been able to ascertain that the earlier 
form of the great chronicle was a part of a com- 
mentary written in old Sinhalese prose mingled 
with P8li verses. The commentary could be found 
in different monasteries of Ceylon and it is just 
the other earlier work that served as a basis of the 
Pali Mahavamsa ascribed to Thera Mah&nama 
(Geiger, Mahavamsa tr., intro., p. x). 

Among the important citizens of the ideal 

Dhammanagara the Milinda Panha 

The schools of reel- mentions some six schools of reciters 

ters: their views IJ.T_T>JJI-J.II^^ i 

and interpretations, of the Buddhist holy texts, namely, 
(1) Jatakabhanaka, the reciters 
of the Jatakas, (2) Dighabhanaka, the reciters of 
the Digha Nikaya, (3) Majjhimabhanaka, the 
reciters of the Majjhima Nikaya, (4) Samyutta- 
bhanaka, the reciters of the Samyutta Nikaya, 
(5) Anguttarabhanaka, the reciters of the Ahguttara 
Nikaya, and (6) the Khuddakabhanaka, the reciters 
of the Khuddaka Nikaya. To this list may be 
added Dhammapadabhanaka, the reciters of the 
Dhammapada, mentioned in Buddhaghosa's Attha- 
salini (p. 18). Bhanaka or a reciter of the Buddhist 
holy texts is met with in a large number of Buddhist 
votive inscriptions at Bharaut and Sanci as a 
distinctive epithet of the monks. Buddhaghosa 
in the introduction to his Sumangalavilasim records 
a remarkable tradition accounting for the origin 
of the different schools of the bhanakas. The same 
tradition is met with in the Mahabodhivamsa with a 
slight variation. According to this tradition, it so 
happened that during the session of the first Buddhist 
Council as soon as the Vinaya was recited and the 
Vinaya texts were compiled, the preservation of 
the Vinaya traditions and texts by regular recita- 
tions was entrusted to the care of the venerable Upali 
while in the course of rehearsal of the Dhammapada, 
the Dlghagama or the Digha Nikaya came to be 
compiled, the preservation of this text was entrusted 
to the care of the venerable Ananda; in a similar 
way the preservation of the Majjhimagama or the 

Extra Canonical Works 383 

Majjhima Nikaya was entrusted to the care of the 
disciples of Sariputta ; that of Samyuttftgama or 
the Samyutta Nikfiya was entrusted to the care of 
the venerable Kassapa, that of the Ekuttaragama 
was entrusted to the care of the venerable 
Anuruddha. Thus one is to conceive the rise of 
the five schools of bhanakas, to wit, Vinayabhanaka, 
Dighabhanaka, Majjhimabhanaka, Samyutta- 
bhanaka, and Anguttarabhanaka (Barua and Sinha, 
Bharut Inscriptions, p. 9 ; Sumangalavilasim, I, 
pp. 13-15). 

With the progress of time, anyhow by the 
time of Buddhaghosa the schools of reciters appear 
to have developed into some distinct schools of 
opinion and interpretation. No other reasonable 
inference may be drawn from Buddhaghosa' s cita- 
tions of their authorities. 1 The individual teachers 
of Ceylon 2 whose views have been quoted and 
discussed here and there by Buddhaghosa in his 
various commentaries may be supposed to have 
belonged to this or that school of reciters 3 and we 
need not consider their case separately here. 

1 SumahgalavilasinI, I, p. 15. tk Tato param Jatakam Maha- 
niddeso CQla-niddeso Pati-sambhida-maggo Sutta-nipato Dhamma- 
padam Udanam Itivuttakam Vimana-peta-vatthu Thera-theri- 
gatha ti imam tantim samgayitva Khuddaka-gantho iiama ayan ti 
ca vatva, Abhidhamma-pitakasmirh yeva samgaham aropayimsuti 
Digha-bhanaka vadanti, Majjhima-bhanaka pana Cariya-pitaka- 
Apadana-Buddhavamsesii saddhim sabbarn pi tarn Khuddaka- 
gantham suttanta-pitake pariyapannan ti vadanti." 

Atthasalim, p. 18 <4 Dhammapadabhanaka pana 
Anekajatisamsaram sandhavissam anibbisaih 
gahakarakaih gavesanto. Dukkha jati punappunam. 
Gahakaraka dittho 'si puna geham na kahasi, 
Sabba te phasuka bhagga gahakutam visankhitam, 
visankharagatam cittam tanhanam khayam ajjhaga ti 
I darn pathamabuddhavacanam n&ma ti vadanti ". 
See for other references Atthasalim, pp. 151, 399, 420 noticed 

for the first time by Mrs. Rhys Davids in her Buddhist Manual of 

Psychological Ethics, p. xxx. 

2 We mean such teachers as Tipi^aka Culanaga thera in the 
Atthasalim, pp. 229, 230, 266, 267, 284 and the Tipitaka Maha- 
dhammarakkhita thera in the ibid., pp. 267, 278, 286, 287. 

3 Cf. Vieuddhimagga, p. 313. 

SamyuttabhSnaka-Cu la-Si vathera. 


Before proceeding to deal with the Pali com- 
mentaries it would be interesting to record here 
biographical sketches of three of the most celebrated 
Buddhist scholiasts. 

Buddhadatta, a contemporary of Buddhaghosa, 
^ ^ wa s a celebrity of the Mahavihara 

Buddhadatta. e r* * j -L T_J .. r 

of Ceylon and was an inhabitant of 
the Kaveri region in the kingdom of the Cholas. 
He was born in Uragapura (modern Uraiyur) 1 and 
flourished during the reign of King Accutavikkanta 
of the Kalamba (Kadamba) dynasty. His works 
which were all written in the famous monastery 
erected by Kanhadasa (Kisnadasa) or Venhudasa 
(Visnudasa), evidently a new Vaisnava reformer 
of the Deccan, 2 on the banks of the river Kaveri are 
so far as known to comprise the following : 

(1) Uttaravinicchaya 

(2) Vinayavinicchaya 

(3) Abhidhammavatara 

Known as Buddha - 
datta's Manuals. 

(4) Ruparupavibhaga 
and (5) Madhuratthavilasim, a commentary on the 

He was a patriotic poet of considerable reputa- 
tion. It is stated in the Vinayavinicchaya that 
when Buddhadatta was going to India from Ceylon, 
he was met by Buddhaghosa who was then proceed- 
ing to Ceylon at the request of the Buddhist monks 
of India with the object of translating the Sinhalese 
commentaries into Pali. Hearing of the mission of 
Buddhaghosa of whose deep learning he was fully 
convinced and delighted thereat Buddhadatta spoke 

1 Barua, Religion of Asoka ; Bhandarkar, Asoka, 2nd Ed., 
p. 42. 

2 Skandapurana, Brahmakhanda. 

Pali Commentaries 385 

thus, " When you finish the commentaries, please 
send them up to me so that I may summarise your 
labours ". Buddhaghosa said that he would gladly 
comply with this request and the Pali commentaries 
were accordingly placed in the hands of Buddha- 
datta who summed up the commentaries on the 
Abhidhamma in the Abhidhammavatara and those 
on the Vinaya in the Vinayavinicchaya (vide 
Buddhadatta's Manuals or Summaries of Abhi- 
dhamma, edited by A. P. Buddhadatta, for the 
P.T.S. in 1915, p. xix). Buddhadatta was no doubt 
a great scholar. From the Vinayavinicchaya com- 
mentary we know that he was highly esteemed by 
the eminent commentators, Sariputta Sangharaja, 
Buddhaghosa, and other great scholars of the period 
for his scholarly attainments (cf . Madisapi kavi honti 
Buddhadatte divangate). 

Buddhadatta opens his scheme with a fourfold 
division of the compendium, e.g., mind, mental 
properties, material quality, and Nibbana ; while 
Buddhaghosa expounds his psychology in terms of 
the five Khandhas. In this respect Buddhadatta's 
representation is perhaps better than that of Buddha- 
ghosa. 1 

There is no reason to disbelieve the statement 
that the two teachers met each other. It is clear 
that they drew materials from the same source. 
This fact well explains why the Visuddhimagga and 
the Abhidhammavatara have so many points in 
common. Buddhadatta has rendered invaluable 
service to the study of the Abhidhamma tradition 
which has survived in Theravada Buddhism to the 
present day. The legendary account is that Buddha- 
datta put in a condensed shape that which Buddha- 
ghosa handed on in Pali from the Sinhalese com- 
mentaries. " But the psychology and philosophy 
are presented through the prism of a second vigor- 
ous intellect, under fresh aspects, in a style often 
less discursive and more graphic than that of the 

1 Mrs. Rhys Davids, Buddhist Psychology, Second Ed., p. 174. 

386 A History of Pali Literature 

great commentator, and with a strikingly rich 

As we have already pointed out that when on 
sea Buddhadatta met Buddhaghosa and learnt that 
the latter was going to Ceylon to render the Sinhalese 
commentaries into Pali. He requested Buddha- 
ghosa to send him the commentaries when finished 
so that he might summarise his labours. Buddha- 
ghosa complied with his request. Buddhadatta 
then summed up the commentaries on the Abhi- 
dhamma in the Abhidhammavatara and then on 
the Vinaya in the Vinayavinicchaya. Mrs. Rhys 
Davids says, " It is probably right to conclude that 
they both were but handing on an analytical formula 
which had evolved between their own time and that 
of the final closing of the Abhidhamma Pitaka 
(Buddhist Psychology, Second Ed., p. 179). 

Like Buddhaghosa, Buddhadatta employed the 
simile of the purblind and the lame to explain the 
relation between Nama and Rupa (Abhidhamma- 
vatara, P.T.S., p. 115). Buddhadatta's division of 
the term into Samuha and Asamuha is another 
interesting point (ibid., p. 83). It will be remembered 
that such a division of terms as this was far in 
advance of the older classification embodied in the 
Puggalapaiinatti commentary (P.T.S., p. 173). 

Supposing that Kumaragupta I of the Imperial 
Gupta dynasty was a contemporary King of Ceylon 
and that Buddhaghosa was a contemporary of 
Thera Buddhadatta it follows that King Accuta- 
vikkanta of the Kalamba dynasty was a contem- 
porary of Kumaragupta I. 

According to Rev. A. P. Buddhadatta, Buddha- 
datta was either older than Buddhaghosa or of the 
same age with him. "Ayampana Buddhadatta- 
cariyo Buddhaghosacariyena samana vassiko va 
thokam vuddhataro va ti sallakkhema " (Vinna- 
panam, pp. xiii-xiv, Buddhadatta's Manuals, 1915), 
This statement is however doubtful. In the Buddha- 
ghosuppatti (p. 50) we find Buddhadatta addressing 
Buddhaghosa by the epithet ' Avusa ' which is 

Pali Commentaries 387 

applied to one who is younger in age. The passage 
runs thus " Avuso Buddhaghosa, aham taya pubbe 
Lankadlpe Bhagavato sasanam katum agatomhi ti 

vatv,, aham appayuko ". This shows that 

according to the tradition recorded in the Buddha- 
ghosuppatti, Buddhaghosa was younger than 

The different accounts of the comparative age 
of Buddhadatta and Buddhaghosa are hardly re- 
concilable. The account given in the introduction 
of the Abhidhammavatara clearly shows that 
Buddhadatta lived to write abridgments of some 
of Buddhaghosa's works. This goes against the 
legend contained in the Buddhaghosuppatti that 
Buddhadatta left Ceylon earlier than Buddhaghosa 
without translating the Sinhalese Atthakatha 
apprehending that he was not to live long. 

In the history of Pali literature, the name of 
JJL t Buddhaghosa stands out pre-eminent 

Buddhaghosa. *2 , * , , r , , 

as one of the greatest commentators 
and exegetists. He is one of those Indian celebrities 
who have left for us no other records of their career 
than their teachings and works to be appraised for 
what they are worth. So far as his life history is 
concerned we have nothing except his commentaries 
and a few legends and traditions, and it is not an 
easy matter to separate the few grains of biographi- 
cal detail from the mass of extraneous matter 
gathered in them. Besides the meagre references 
that Buddhaghosa himself has made to the details 
of his life in his great commentaries, the earliest 
connected account of his life is that contained in 
the second part of Chapter XXXVII of the great 
Ceylonese chronicle, the Mahavamsa. This section, 
however, is considered to be later than the remaining 
portions of the Chronicle, having been added by 
Dhammakitti, a Ceylonese Sramana of the middle 
of the 13th century A.D. This compilation though 
made after the lapse of more than eight hundred 
years is not altogether unworthy of credence, and is 
very probably derived from older materials. 

388 A History of Pali Literature 

Buddhaghosa, according to this account, was a 
brahmin youth born in the neighbourhood of the 
terrace of the great Bo-tree in Magadha. After 
he had accomplished himself in the " Vijja " and 
the " Sippa " and achieved the knowledge of the 
three " Vedas ", he established himself in the 
character of a disputant, in a certain Vihara. There 
he was once met by a Buddhist thera who convinced 
the brahmin youth of the superiority of the Buddha's 
doctrine and converted him to the Buddhist faith. 
As he was as profound in his ' ghosa ' or eloquence 
as the Buddha, they conferred on him the appella- 
tion of Buddhaghosa or the voice of the Buddha. 
He had already composed an original work called 
' Sanodayam ' and written the chapter called 
" Atthasalim" on the Dhammasangani. He went to 
Ceylon to study the Sinhalese Atthakatha in order 
to undertake the compilation of a " Paritta-attha- 
katha " or a general commentary on the Pitakattaya. 
He visited the island in the reign of King Maha- 
nama, and there at the Mahapadhana Hall in the 
Mahavihara at Anuradhapura, he listened to the 
Atthakatha and the Theravada, became thoroughly 
convinced of the true meaning of the doctrine of the 
Lord of Dhanima, and then sought the permission 
of the priesthood to translate the Atthakatha. 
In order to convince them of his qualifications he 
composed the commentary called " Visuddhi- 
maggam " out of only two gathas which the priests 
had given him as a test. Most successfully he 
came out of the test to the rejoicings of the priest- 
hood ; and taking up his residence in the secluded 
Ganthakara Vihara at Anuradhapura, he translated 
according to the grammatical rules of the Magadhas, 
the whole of the Sinhalese Atthakatha (into Pali). 
Thereafter, the object of his mission being fulfilled, 
he returned to Jambudvlpa to worship the Bo-tree 
at Uruvela in Magadha. 

The most important service that Dhammakitti 
(the author of the supplementary chapter of the 
Mahavamsa from which the above account is com- 

Pali Commentaries 389 

piled) 1 renders to our knowledge of the great sage 
is that he fixes definitely the time when Buddha- 
ghosa lived. The King Mahanama as the Ceylonese 
chronicle shows, reigned in the first half of the 5th 
century A.D. ; and as Buddhaghosa visited Ceylon 
and worked there during this period we can be 
certain about the age he lived in. This date is 
also substantiated by internal evidence derived from 
the commentaries of Buddhaghosa himself. He 
shows his acquaintance with the Milinda Panha as 
also to other post-canonical Buddhist works, such 
as the Petakopadesa and Anagatavamsa besides 
some ancient Atthakathas, and other works which 
are no longer extant. 2 It is to be observed that in 
none of these cases there is the least reason for 
thinking that any of the works quoted from or 
referred to by Buddhaghosa was of a later date 
than that allotted to him by Dhammakitti. The 
Burmese tradition as recorded by Bishop Bigandet 
also points to the beginning of the 5th century A.D. 
as the time when the great commentator is said to 
have visited the shores of Suvannabhumi. 8 

Dhammakitti's account of Buddhaghosa's pro- 
ficiency in the Vedas and other branches of brahmani- 
cal learning is also substantially correct. It is 
confirmed by internal evidence from the great 
exegete's own commentaries ; they reveal that he 
was acquainted with the four Vedas as also with 
the details of Vedic sacrifices. But the Vedic texts 
were not the only brahmanical works known to 
Buddhaghosa. He reveals his knowledge of 
" Itihasa ", of the brahmanical sutras as also of the 
different systems of Hindu Philosophy. 

Besides these comparatively authentic accounts 
of the life of the great commentator, there is a mass 

1 The account given by Dhammakitti of the life of Buddhaghosa 
agrees generally with what the great exegetist has said about himself 
in his own commentaries, specially in the Nidanakatha or story 
of the origin of the works at their respective beginnings. For 
details see my " Buddhaghosa ", pp. 15-24. 

2 For details, see my " Buddhaghosa ", pp. 9-10. 

3 Buddhaghosa's Parables by Capt. T. Rogers, p. xvi, f.n. i. 

390 A History of Pali Literature 

of legendary accounts of his life. Such legends are 
found in the Buddhaghosuppatti, also known as the 
Mahabuddhaghosassa Nidanavatthu by the priest 
Mahamangala who lived in Ceylon evidently after 
the time when the Mahavamsa account was written. 
Other late works of the Southern school such as the 
Gandhavamsa, the Sasanavamsa, and the Saddham- 
masangaha furnish some additional details. But 
the accounts of all these works are of the nature of 
legends in which fact and fiction are often hopelessly 
blended together. In their kernel, however, they 
agree in more important points with Dhammakitti's 
account in the Mahavamsa. Of further points we 
learn that Buddhaghosa's father was one Kesi, a 
brahmin preceptor who used to instruct the king of 
the realm in the Vedas ; Kesi was, however, later 
on converted by his son. The Buddhaghosuppatti 
refers to Buddhaghosa's deep knowledge of Sanskrit 
displayed before the Ceylonese monks as also to his 
quick wisdom. 

Some are of opinion that after having completed 
his work in Ceylon, Buddhaghosa came to Burma 
to propagate the Buddhist faith. The Burmese 
ascribe the new era in their religion to the time 
when he visited their country from Ceylon. He is 
said to have brought over from that island to Burma, 
a copy of Kaccayana's Pali Grammar which he 
translated into Burmese. He is also credited with 
having written a commentary on it. A volume of 
Parables in Burmese language is also attributed 
to him. The Burmese code of Manu, too, is said 
to have been introduced into Burma from Ceylon 
by the same Buddhist scholar. But the code itself 
is silent on this point. The Chronicles of Ceylon to 
which we owe the information about Buddhaghosa, 
and which must have been well-informed on the 
subject, give no account of his journey to Burma. 
All serious scholars doubt this tradition. 1 

Buddhaghosa was not only a metaphysician. 

1 Hackinann's Buddhism as a Religion, p. 08. 

Pali Commentaries 391 

His scholarship was wide and deep and of an ency- 
clopaedic character. His works reveal his knowledge 
of Astronomy, Grammar, Geography, of the Indian 
sects and tribes and kings and nobles of Buddhist 
India, of the fauna and flora of the country, of ancient 
manners and customs of the land, and of the history 
of Ceylon. 

The quality and bulk of the work produced in 
a single life time show that Buddhaghosa must 
have been toiling steadily and indefatigably, year 
in and year out, working out the mission with which 
he was entrusted by his teacher, immured in a cell 
of the great monastery at Anuradhapura. Such a 
life is necessarily devoid of events, and we cannot 
expect to find in it the variety and fulness of the 
life-story of a great political figure. Born in Northern 
India, brought up in brahmanic traditions, versed 
in Sanskrit lore and an adherent of the system of 
Patanjali, it is really surprising to know how he 
acquired such a thorough mastery over the Pali 
language and literature and over Buddhist religion 
and philosophy. His was a useful career, and as 
long as Buddhism remains a living faith among 
mankind, Buddhaghosa will not cease to be re- 
membered with reverence and gratitude by Buddhist 
peoples and schools. 1 

An inhabitant of South India, Dhammapala 
Dhamma sia dwelt at Padaratittha in the realm 

ammapaa. ^ ^ e Damilas. He was also a 

celebrity of the Mahavihara. He seems to have 
based his commentaries on the Sinhalese Attha- 
kathas which were not preserved in the main land. 
T. W. Rhys Davids is of the opinion that Dhamma- 
pala and Buddhaghosa seem to have been educated 
at the same University. In support of this view 
he refers to the published works of the two writers, a 
careful study of which shows that they hold very 

1 For a fuller and more detailed treatment read my book, 
"The Life and Work of Buddhaghosa", Thacker Spink & Co., 
Calcutta, 1923. 

392 A History of Pali Literature 

similar views, they appeal to the same authorities, 
they have the same method of exegesis, they have 
reached the same stage in philological and etymolo- 
gical science and they have the same lack of any 
knowledge of the simplest rules of the higher criticism. 
The conclusion follows that as far as we can at 
present judge, they must have been trained in the 
same school (Hastings' Ency. of R. and E., Vol. 
IV, 701). 

It seems probable that Dhammapala was born 
at Kaiicipura, the capital of the Tamil country. 
Hiuen Tsang who visited Kancipura in the 7th 
oentury A.D. was told by the brethren there that 
Dhammapala had been born here at Kancipura. 

The Gandhavamsa (p. 60) enumerates the 
following works ascribed to Dhammapala: (1) 
Nettipakarana-atthakatha, (2 ) Iti vuttaka-attha- 
katha, (3) Udana-atthakatha, (4) Cariyapitaka- 
atthakatha, (5) Thera and Theri-gatha-atthakatha, 

(6) Vimalavilasim or the Vimanavatthu-atthakatha, 

(7) Vimalavilasim, or the Petavatthu-atthakatha, 

(8) Paramatthamafijusa, (9) Lmattha-pakasini on 
the four atthakathas of the four nikayas, (10) 
Linatthapakasim on the Jataka-atthakatha, (11) 
Nettittha-kathayatika, (12) Paramattha-dipam, and 
(13) Linatthavannana. 

Prom his works it appears that Dhammapala 
was well read and well informed. His explanation 
of terms is very clear. His commentaries throw 
considerable light on the social, religious, moral, and 
philosophical ideas of time like the commentaries 
of Buddhaghosa. In his commentaries Dhamma- 
pala follows a regular scheme. First comes an 
introduction to the whole collection of poems, giving 
the traditional account of how it came to be put 
together. Then each poem is taken separately. 
After explaining how, when, and by whom it was 
composed each clause in the poem is quoted and 
explained philologically and exegetically. 

Mrs. Rhys Davids in her introduction to the 
translation of the Therigatha (PSS. of the Sisters, 

Pali Commentaries 393 

p. xvi) says " In the 5th or 6th century A.D. either 
before or just after Buddaghosa had flourished, and 
written his great commentaries on the prose works 
of the Vinaya and Sutta Pitakas, Dhammapala of 
Kancipura, now Conjeeveram, wrote down in Pali 
the unwritten expository material constituting the 
then extant three Atthakathas on the Psalms and 
incorporated it into his commentary on three 
other books of the Canon, naming the whole ' Para- 
matthadipam or Elucidation of the Ultimate Mean- 
ing \ He not only gives the akhyana in each Psalm 
but adds a paraphrase in the Pali of his day, of 
the more archaic idiom in which the gathas were 
compiled.'* She further points out that the pre- 
sentation of verses, solemn or otherwise, in a frame- 
work of prose narrative is essentially the historical 
Buddhist way of imparting canonical poetry. 
Dhammapala's chronicles are, for the most part, 
unduplicated in any other extant work ; but not 
seldom they run on all fours, not only with parallel 
chronicles in Buddhaghosa's commentaries, but also 
with a prose framework of poems in Sutta Nipata 
or Samyutta Nikaya, not to mention the Jataka 
(PSS. of the Brethren, p. xxv). 

According to Indian tradition, a commentary 

means reading new meanings back 

Origin and j n t o old texts according to one's 

growth of the , ,. j xi i TX 

commentaries. own education and outlook. It 

explains the words and judgments 
of others as accurately and faithfully as possible ; 
and this remark applies to all commentaries, Sanskrit 
as well as Pali. The commentary or bhasya, as 
it is called in Sanskrit, implies, as suggested by the 
great Sanskrit poet Magha in his famous kavya, 
* Sisupalabadha ', an amplification of a condensed 
utterance or expression which is rich in meaning 
and significance : 

" Samkhiptasyapyatosyaiva vakyasyartha- 


Su vistarataravacobhasyabhuta bhavantu me' ' 

394 A History of Pali Literature 

but at the same time an element of originality is 
also implied by its definition as given by Bharata 
in his lexicography. " Those who are versed in 
the bhasyas call that a bhasya wherein the meaning 
of a condensed saying (sutra) is presented in words 
that follow the text and where, moreover, the own 
words of the commentator himself are given." 

" Sutrartho varnyate yatra padaih sutranu- 

Svapadani ca varnyante bhasyam bhasya- 


Iti Lingadisamgrahatikayam Bharatah " 


The need for an accurate interpretation of 
the Buddha's words which formed the guiding 
principle of life and action of the members of the 
Samgha, was felt from the very first, even during 
the life time of the Master. There was at that 
time the advantage of referring a disputed question 
for solution to the Master himself, and therein we 
can trace the first stage in the origin of the Buddhistic 
comments. The Buddhist and Jaina texts tell us 
that the itinerant teachers of the time wandered 
about in the country, engaging themselves wherever 
they stopped in serious discussions on matters 
relating to religion, philosophy, ethics, morals, and 
polity. Discussions about the interpretation of the 
abstruse utterances of the great teachers were 
frequent and the raison d'etre of the development of 
the Buddhist literature, particularly of the com- 
mentaries, is to be traced in these discussions. 
There are numerous interesting passages in the 
Tripitaka, telling us how from time to time con- 
temporary events suggested manifold topics of 
discussion among the bhikkhus, or how their 
peace was disturbed by grave doubts calling for 
explanations either from the Buddha himself or 
from his disciples. Whenever an interested sophist 
spoke vehemently in many ways in dispraise of the 
Buddha, the Doctrine, and the Order (Digha, I) ; 

Pali Commentaries 395 

whenever another such sophist misinterpreted the 
Buddha's opinion (Majjhima, Vol. Ill, pp. 207-8), 
whenever a furious discussion broke out in any con- 
temporary brotherhood (Majjhima, Vol. II, Samagama 
Sutta), or whenever a bhikkhu behaved improperly, 
the bhikkhus generally assembled under the pavilion 
to discuss the subject, or were exhorted by the 
Buddha or by his disciples to safeguard their 
interests by presenting a strong defence of their 
case. The Digha and Majjhima Nikayas contain 
many illuminating expositions of the Buddha, e.g., 
Ma h akamma vibhanga, the Salayatana vibhanga, 
(Majjhima, Vol. Ill, pp. 207-222), etc. Then we 
have from Thera Sariputta, the chief disciple of 
the Buddha, a body of expositions of the four Aryan 
truths, the Saccavibhanga. We have also to con- 
sider other renowned and profoundly learned disciples 
of the Buddha, among whom were some women, 
who in their own way helped forward the process 
of development of the commentaries. Mahakacca- 
yana wrote some exegetical works like Kaccayana- 
gandho, Mahaniruttigandho, etc. We have similar 
contributions from Mahakotthita, Moggallana, 
Ananda, Dhammadinna, and Khema, but it is 
needless to multiply instances. 

There is another class of ancient Buddhist 
literature, the poranas, of which our knowledge is 
at present based only upon some extracts in the 
atthakathas. We are told in the Gandhavamsa 
that those who are Poranacariya are also Attha- 
kathacariya, or teachers who wrote the atthakathas, 
and were evidently the earliest contributors to the 
commentary literature. A number of quotations 
made by Buddhaghosa may be found in his works 
concerning the views of the poranas. It shall be 
noted here that the poranas do not represent a 
consistent school of philosophical thought. Each 
teacher must have been responsible for himself 
alone, and it is hopeless to discover any organic 
connection among the numerous short and long 
passages attributed to the poranas in Buddhaghosa's 

396 A History of Pali Literature 

writings (vide my " The Life and Work of Buddha- 
ghosa," Chap. III. There is a paper on the origin of 
the Buddhist arthakathas with introduction by R. C. 
Childers, J.R.A.S., 1871, pp. 289-302, which should 
be consulted). 

The works of Buddhadatta, Buddhaghosa, and 

Dhammapala are the most important 

Works of three Pali commentaries. They are rich 

great Pali commen- . , . , I j.- 

tators. m matenals for reconstructing a 

secular and religious history of 
ancient India. They also throw a flood of light on 
the philosophical, psychological, and metaphysical 
aspects of the period with which they deal. A 
large variety of information is available from these 
commentaries and hence their importance is very 
great. Thanks to the indefatigable labours of the 
Pali Text Society, London, for printing and publish- 
ing a major portion of the Pali commentaries and 
making them accessible to the reading public. 
Besides, there are some other Pali commentaries, 
such as the Saddhammapajjotika or a commentary 
on the Niddesa written by Upasena ; Saddham- 
mapakasim, a commentary on the Patisambhi- 
damagga written by Mahanama Thera of Anuradha- 
pura, and the Visuddhajanavilasim or a commentary 
on the Apadana written by an unknown author. 


The Abhidhammavatara was written by Buddha- 
datta ; and it has been in continuous 
Abhidhamma- ase amongst the students of the 

vatara and Rupa- ^ jji . , . , T> ui i A.A. 

rupavibhaga. Buddhist scriptures. Buddhadatta 

was held as a personage of excep- 
tionally high scholarly attainments by Buddha- 
ghosa and others. It is interesting to note the 
incidents which led to the writing of this work. 
Buddhadatta was going from Ceylon to India when 
he was met by Buddhaghosa who was then pro- 
ceeding to Ceylon for the purpose of rendering the 
Sinhalese commentaries into Pali. Knowing the 

Pali Commentaries 397 

mission of Buddhaghosa, Buddhadatta was highly 
pleased and spoke thus, " When you finish the 
commentaries, please send them up to me that I 
may summarise your labours ". Buddhaghosa con- 
sented to comply with his request and the Pali 
commentaries were accordingly placed in the hands 
of Buddhadatta who summed up the commentaries 
on the Abhidhamma in the Abhidhammavatara 
and that on the Vinaya in the Vinayavinicchaya. 1 
He was the author of the Ruparupavibhaga and 
of the commentary on the Buddhavamsa. The 
Abhidhammavatara is written partly in prose and 
partly in verse. It discusses the following points : 

citta, nibbana, cetasika (that which relates to 
the mind), arammana (object ideation), vipaka 
citta (consequence of mindfulness), rupa (form), 
pafifiatti (designation), etc. 

The Ruparupavibhaga deals with rupa, arupa, 
citta, cetasika, etc. It is written in prose. Rev. 
A. P. Buddhadatta has edited Buddhadatta's 
Manuals or summaries of Abhidhamma (Abhi- 
dhammavatara and Ruparupavibhaga) for the first 
time for the P.T.S., London. 

The Vinayavinicchaya and Uttaravinicchaya 

containing the summaries of the 

Vinayavinicchaya Viuaya Pitaka have been edited by 

and Uttaravimc- ., v* * A T^ -r -i 11 i A A r 

chaya. the Rev. A. P. Buddhadatta or 

Ceylon, and published by the Pali 
Text Society of London. These two treatises on 
the Vinaya seem to have been composed, after the 
Samantapasadika, in an abridged form, in verses. 
The Vinayavinicchaya contains thirty-one chapters 
whereas the Uttaravinicchaya contains twenty- 
three chapters. The author of these treatises was 
a distinguished thera named Buddhadatta who was 
a native of Uragapur (or modern Uraiyur) on the 
banks of the Kaverl in the Chola Kingdom of South 
India. The Vinayavinicchaya was composed while 
he was residing in a monastery built by Pindidasa 

1 Vide Buddhadatta's Manuals, p. xix. 

398 A History of Pali Literature 

in the neighbourhood of Bhutamangala, a pros- 
perous town on the banks of the Kaveri, during the 
reign of King Acyutavikrama of the Kalamba clan. 
According to the editor of these treatises Buddha- 
datta and Buddhaghosa were contemporaries ; but 
the former was senior to the latter. Buddhadatta 
came to Ceylon earlier, studied the Sinhalese com- 
mentaries and summarised them in Pali. 

There are two Pali commentaries of these two 
treatises. The commentary on the Vinayavinicchaya 
is known as the Vinayasaratthadipani and that on 
the Uttaravinacchaya as the Uttaralmatthapakasini 
supposed to have been written by Vacissara Maha- 
sami. There is also a Sinhalese commentary on 
the Vinayavinicchaya written by King Parakrama- 
vahu II but this work is now extinct. 

The Vinayavinicchaya opens with the Parajika- 
katha in verses and is followed by the Sangha- 
disesakatha, Aniyatakatha, Nissaggiya-Pacittiya- 
katha, Patidesaniyakatha, and the Sekhiyakatha. 
Thus the Bhikkhuvibhanga is closed. Then this 
treatise deals with the Bhikkhunivibhanga under 
the following heads : Parajikakatha, Sanghadises&- 
katha, Nissaggiya-Pacittiyakatha and Patidesaniya- 
katha. Then khandhakakatha, kammakatha, 
pakinnakatha, and kammatthanakatha are narrated 
in verses. The treatise consists of 3,183 verses 
which are written in simple language and marked 
by good diction. 

The Uttaravinicchayakatha consists of 969 
verses. Under the Mahavibhanga it treats of the 
Parajikakatha, Patidesaniyakatha and Sekhiyakatha. 
Under the Bhikkhunivibhanga it deals with Parajika- 
katha, Sanghadisesakatha, Nissaggiyakatha, 
Pacittiyakatha, Catuvipattikatha, Adhikaranap- 
paccayakatha, Khandhakapuccha, Apattisamut- 
thanakatha, Ekuttaranaya, Sedamocakagatha, 
Sadharanasadharanakatha, Lakkhanakatha, and 

The Madhuratthavilasinl is a commentary on 
the Buddha vamsa. The author was Buddhadatta 

Pali Commentaries 399 

Thera. Spence Hardy mentions a commentary on 
the Buddhavamsa by Buddhaghosa. This is pro- 
bably the Atthakatha called the Madhuratthavilasin! 
whose authorship is assigned by Grimbolt not to 
Buddhaghosa but to a Buddhist monk living at the 
mouth of the Kaveri in South India. 1 There is a 
valuable edition of this commentary by Yogirala 
Pannananda Thera revised by Mahagoda Siri 
^anissara Thera, Colombo, 1922. 


The Visuddhimagga 2 was written by Buddha- 
visuddhima a ghosa at the request of the Thera 
imagga. a nghapala, it is generally believed, 
in Ceylon in the beginning of the 5th century A.D., 
when King Mahanaman was on the throne at Anura- 
dhapura. Buddhaghosa, on reaching the Mahavihara 
(Anuradhapura) entered the Mahapadhana Hall, 
according to the account of the Mahavamsa, the great 
Ceylonese Chronicle, and listened to the Sinhalese 
Atthakatha and the Thera vada, from the beginning to 
the end, and became thoroughly convinced that they 
conveyed the true meaning of the doctrines of the 
Lord of Dhamma. Thereupon paying reverential 
respect to the priesthood, he thus petitioned : "I 
am desirous of translating the Atthakatha ; give me 
access to all your books ". The Ceylonese priest- 
hood for the purpose of testing his qualification, 
gave only two gathas saying, " Hence prove thy 
qualification ; having satisfied ourselves on this 
point, we will then let thee have all our books ". 
From these (taking these gathas for his text), and 
consulting the Pitakattaya, together with the 
Atthakatha and condensing them into an abridged 
form, he composed the commentary called the 
" Visuddhimaggam ". 

1 Indian Antiquary, April, 1890, Vol. XIX, p. 119. 

2 The Visuddhimaggaganthi, a Burmese Pali work, explains 
the difficult passages of the Visuddhimagga (Bode, Pali Literature 
of Burma, p. 19, f.n.). 

400 A History of Pali Literature 

The Mahavamsa account of the circumstances 
that led to the composition of the " Visuddhimagga " 
agrees substantially with what Buddhaghosa has 
written about himself in the Nidanakatha or story of 
the origin of the works at their respective beginnings. 
Thus in the Nidanakatha to his Visuddhimagga, 
Buddhaghosa at the very beginning quotes the 
following gatha of Buddha's own saying : 

" Sile patitthaya naro sapaniio, 

Cittam pannam ca bhavayam, 
Atap! nipako bhikkhu, 

So imam vijataye jatanti." 

(After having been established in precepts, a wise 
person should think of samadhi and pafina, an active 
and wise bhikkhu disentangles this lock.) 

Next he proceeds to record the circumstances 
under which he wrote his compendium of Buddhism 
(i.e., the Visuddhimagga). " The real meaning of 
Sila, etc., is described by means of this stanza 
uttered by the great sage. Having acquired or- 
dination in the Order of the Jina and the benefit of 
the Sila, etc., which is tranquil and which is the 
straight path to purity, the yogis who are desirous 
of obtaining purity, not knowing purity as it is, 
do not get purity though they exert. I shall 
speak of the Visuddhimagga according to the 
instruction of the dwellers of the Mahavihara, which 
is pleasing to them, and which is the correct in- 
terpretation : Let all the holy men who are desirous 
of obtaining purity listen to what I say, attentively " 
(Visuddhimagga, P.T.S., Vol. I, p. 2). 

At the end of the work again, Buddhaghosa 
returns to that very gatha which he has adopted 
as his text for writing the Visuddhimagga, and 
after referring to his promise quoted above, thus 
delivers himself : " The interpretation of the mean- 
ings of the Sila, etc., has been told in the attha- 
kathas on the five nikayas. All of them being taken 
into consideration, the interpretation gradually be- 
comes manifest, being free from all faults due to 

Pali Commentaries 401 

confusion ; and it is for this reason that the 
Visuddhimagga should be liked by the Yogis who 
are desirous of obtaining purity and who have 
pure wisdom." 

Thus, according to Buddhaghosa, the whole of 
his Visuddhimagga was written as a commentary 
on that one gatha uttered by the Master. Evidently 
it was this gatha which the writer of the Maha- 
vamsa account had in his mind when he wrote that 
the Visuddhimagga was written as a comment on 
and expansion of the two gathas which were set by 
the Sinhalese Samgha residing at the Mahavihara 
to test Buddhaghosa's learning and efficiency. The 
Visuddhimagga is in fact an abridged edition of 
the three pitakas, the Vinaya, the Sutta, and the 
Abhidhamma, whose main arguments and con- 
clusions are here condensed into a single treatise. 
In the gatha itself, of which the Visuddhimagga is a 
commentary, there is however no mention either 
of the word " Visuddhi " or " Magga " ; but there 
is mention of sila, samadhi, and pafifia. Strict 
observance of the silas leads to the purification or 
visuddhi of the kaya or body, while the practice of 
samadhi leads to tide purity of soul and the thinking 
of pafifia to perfect Wisdom. A wise man alone 
is capable of disentangling the net of cravings and 
desires and is fit to attain Nirvana. The disentangl- 
ing of the lock, as it is called, is the final goal, it is 
called " visuddhi " ; and sila, samadhi, and pafifia 
are the ways or " magga " to attain to it. As the 
ways or " magga " to attain to Purity or " visuddhi " 
have been explained in the book, it is called 
" Visuddhimagga " or " Path of Purity ". 

The vocabulary of the text is astonishingly 
rich as compared with the archaic simplicity of the 
pitakas. The quotations in the Visuddhimagga 
from the pitakas, the Sinhalese commentaries, the 
poranas, etc., are numerous ; in other words it is 
an abridged compilation of the three pitakas to- 
gether with quotations from atthakathas. The work 
deals with kusala, akusala, avyakatadhammas,. 

402 A History of Pali Literature 

ayatana, dhatu, satipatthanas, kammas, pakati and 
many other topics of Buddhist philosophy, and may 
be said to contain, in fact, the whole of the Buddhist 
philosophy in a nutshell. Sila (conduct, precept), 
samadhi (concentration) and paniia (wisdom) are 
the three essential matters which are dealt with in 
this work. In the chapter on sila are explained 
cetanasila, cetasika sila and samvarasila. The 
advantage of sila is also mentioned therein. There 
are in it Patimokkhasamvarasila and Indriyasam- 
varasila. Patimokkha (monastic rule) is samvara 
(restraint) which purports to speak of restraint in 
form, sound, smell, contact, etc. It is interesting 
to read the section dealing with various kinds of 
precepts as well as the section on Dhutangas. 

The subject of concentration is next discussed 
its nature, its advantages and disadvantages. 
Meditation comes in next for explanation the four 
stages of meditation : meditation on fire, wind, water, 
delight, demerits, etc. The section on meditation 
on demerits is important containing the discussion 
of a variety of topics, viz. : Buddhanussati (re- 
collection of the Buddha), Dhammanussati (re- 
collection of dhamma), Samghanussati (recollection 
of samgha), caganussati (recollection of self-sacrifice), 
devatanussati (recollection of gods), purity on 
account of recollection, maranasati, kayagatasati, 
upasamanussati, mettabhavana, karunabhavana, 
upekkhabhavana, akasanaiicayatana-kammatthana, 
akincannayatanakammatthanam, nevasanfiana- 
sannayatanakammatthanam, and aharepatikula- 
sannabhavana. Ten iddhis or miraculous powers 
next come in for systematic treatment. There is 
one section on abhinna (supernatural knowledge) 
in which is discussed the nature and definition of 
wisdom, its characteristics, and the advantage of 
contemplating on it. Rupa, vedana, safiiia, and 
samkhara come one after the other for elucidation ; 
points worth considering in this connection are 
those on ayatana (abode), indriya (senses), sacca 
^truth), dukkha (suffering), paticcasamuppada 

Pali Commentaries 40$ 

(dependent origination) and namarupa (name and 

Maggamagga Nanadassanavisuddhi is this : 
this is the right path and this is not the right path, 
the knowledge which has been well acquired is what 
is called maggamaggananadassanavisuddhi. Further 
may be noted the discussions of the nine important 
forms, viz. : delight, knowledge, faith, thorough 
grasp, happiness, emancipation, knowledge of all 
the four paths, right realisation of the truth and 
lastly removal of all sins. 

The Visuddhimagga is really an encyclopaedia 
of Buddhism, a good abstract of Buddhist doctrines 
and metaphysics and a vast treasure house of 
Buddhist lore. It has earned for its author an 
everlasting fame. The Sumangalavilasin! records 
the contents of the Visuddhimagga in a nutshell. 
The contents may be stated as follows : nature of 
the silakatha, dhatudhamma, kammatthanam to- 
gether with all the cariyavidhani, jhanani, the 
whole scope of the samapatti, the whole of abhifina, 
the exposition of the panfia, the khandha, the 
dhatu, the ayatanani, indriyani, cattariariyasaccani, 
paccayakara, the pure and comprehensive naya, 
magga and vipassanabhavana. 

Buddhaghosa is strong in his attacks on Pakati- 
vada, i.e., the Sarhkhya and Yoga systems which 
believe in the dual principles of Purusa and Prakriti. 
He showed an extravagant zeal for differentiating 
the Buddhist conception of avijja from the Prakriti- 
vadin's conception of Prakriti as the root cause of 
things (Visuddhimagga, Vol. II, p. 525). The 
Visuddhimagga points out that the relation between 
phassa and its object is the relation between eye 
and form, ear and sound, mind and object of 
thought (p. 463). Vedana is of five kinds, sukham, 
dukkham, somanassam, domanassam and upekkha 
(Ibid., Vol. II, p. 460). Safina is only perception of 
external appearance of an object, while vinnana 
means thorough knowledge of the thing (Ibid., 
Vol. II, p. 462). According to the Visuddhimagga 

404 A History of Pali Literature 

(Chap. XIV) we have 51 Samkharas (confections) 
beginning with phassa (contact) and ending in 
vicikiccha (doubt). Kamma, according to Buddha- 
ghosa, means consciousness of good or bad, merit 
and demerit (Visuddhimagga, Vol. II, p. 614). 
Kamma is of four kinds : kamma which produces 
result in this life and in the next life, kamma 
which produces result from time to time and past 
kamma (Ibid., p. 601). There is no kamma, 
he says, in vipaka and no vipaka in kamma. Each 
of them is void by itself, at the same time there is 
no vipaka without kamma. A kamma is thus 
void of its vipaka (consequence) which comes 
through kamma. Vipaka comes into origin on 
account of kamma (Ibid., Vol. II, p. 603). Cons- 
ciousness is due to samkhara which is produced 
by ignorance (Ibid. y p. 600). Samkharas owed 
their existence in the past and will owe their existence 
in future to avij ja (Ibid. , 522 f . ). The Visuddhimagga 
enumerates the twelve ayatanas as cakkhu, rupa, 
sota, sadda, jhaiia, gandha, jihva, rasa, kaya, 
phottabba, mana, and dhamma (Ibid., Vol. II, 
p. 481). The sense organs are due to kamma and 
it is kamma which differentiates them (Ibid., 
pp. 444-445). In the section on rupakkhandha, 
Buddhaghosa has divided rupa into two, viz. : 
bhutarupa and upadarupa. By bhutarupa four 
great elements are implied whereas by upadarupa 
are implied twenty-four kinds (Ibid., Vol. II, p. 259 ; 
Ibid., pp. 443-444). 

The Visuddhimagga contains a description of 
the evil effects of the violation of sila (Vol. I, pp. 6- 
58). Buddhaghosa takes the word " Inda " in the 
sense of the Buddha (Visuddhimagga, p. 491). In 
his Visuddhimagga (Vol. II, Ch. XVI) he mentions 
twenty-two indriyas beginning from cakkhundriya 
or organ of the eye and ending with annatavindriya. 
Upekkha (indifference) according to him is of ten 
kinds beginning from chalanga (six senses) and 
ending with parisuddhi (purification) (Visuddhi- 
magga, Vol. I, p. 160). The advantages of practis- 

Pali Commentaries 405 

ing meditation are the five kinds of happy living 
(Ibid., Vol. I, p, 84 foil.). Nirvana includes absence 
of passion, destruction of pride, killing of thirst, 
freedom from attachment and destruction of all 
sensual pleasures. These are the attributes of 
Nirvana (Visuddhimagga, Vol. I, p. 293) which 
can be attained, it is suggested, through meditation, 
wisdom, precept, steadfastness, etc. (Vol. I, p. 3). 

Buddhaghosa had a fair knowledge of Anatomy 
as is evident from his account of the thirty-two 
parts of the body recorded in his Visuddhimagga 1 
(Vol. I, pp. 249-265). 

The Samanatapasadika * is a voluminous com- 
mentary on the five books of the 

SamantapSsadikS. T7 . TVA i TJ. -j.j. ^ 

Vinaya Pitaka. It was written by 
Buddhaghosa at the request of the Thera Buddhasiri. 
The principal contents of the book are as follows : 

(I) The cause that led to the holding of the Buddhist 
council, (2) Selection of members for thejCouncil, (3) 
The Council cannot be held without Ananda, (4) 
Place of the Council, (5) What Ananda did with 
Gandhakuti, (6) Eighteen Mahaviharas, (7) Building 
of a nice pandal for the meeting, (8) Recital of the 
first and last words of the Buddha, (9) Classification 
of the Vinaya, Sutta, and the Abhidhamma, (10) 
How Vinaya was handed down to the third Council, 

(II) Life of Moggali Brahmana, (12) Account of 
Asoka, (13) Preachers sent by Asoka, (14) Discussions 
on pitisukha and jhanas, (15) Importance of Vajji- 
bhumi and Vajjiputtaka, (16) Various kinds of 
pregnancy, (17) Account of Mahavana at Vesali, 
(18) Importance of Bharukaccha as a port, (19) 

1 There is a book called Paramatthamanjusa which is a scholium 
on Visuddhimagga. Besides the P.T.S. edition of the Visuddhi- 
magga there is an incomplete edition of this work in Bengali by 
Gopaldas Choudhury and Samana Punnananda, 1923. 

Read H. C. Warren's paper on Buddhaghosa' s Visuddhimagga 
(9th International Congress of Orientalists, London, 1893). 

2 Read "Pali Elements in Chinese Buddhism", 
of Buddhaghosa's Samantapasadika, a commentar; 
found in the Chinese Tripi^aka by J. Takakusu, 

406 A History of Pali Literature 

Account of Kutagarasala at Mahftvana at Vaisall, 
(20) Discussions on kammatthana, sati, samadhi, 
patisambhida, citta, viniiana, indriya and four 
parajikadhammas, etc. Unlike other commentaries 
of this nature, Samantapasadika is free from any 
elaborate tangle of similes and metaphors, and is 
written in an easy language. 1 

The facts and contents of historical and geo- 
graphical interest in this commentary may in short 
be stated as follows : 

Once when they were much troubled on account 
of a famine at Veranja, the bhikkhus wanted to repair 
to another place. The Buddha, therefore, crossed 
the Ganges at Prayag direct from Veranja and 
reached Benares (Vol. I, 201). 

King Ajatasattu ruled Magadha for 24 years 
(Vol. I, 72). He bore the cost of repairing at 
Rajagaha 18 Mahaviharas which were deserted by 
the bhikkhus after the parinibbana of the Buddha 
(Vol. I, 9). 

The Blessed One passed away in the eighth 
year of Ajatasattu's reign (Vol. I, p. 72). 

The missionaries who were sent to various 
places to preach the dhamma of Asoka were all 
natives of Magadha. 

Udaya Bhadda was one of the kings of Magadha 
who reigned for 25 years. He was succeeded by 
Susunaga who ruled for 18 years. Kalasoka had 
ten sons who ruled for 23 years. Then came the 
Nandas who ruled over the country for the same 
period. The Nanda dynasty was overthrown by 
Candgutta who ruled the kingdom for 24 years and 
he was succeeded by Bindusara who sat on the 
Magadhan throne for 18 years. He was succeeded 
by Asoka who also followed his father for some time 

1 Portions of this work have been edited by Drs. Takakusu and 
Nagai for the P.T.S., London. Siamese, Sinhalese, and Burmese 
editions are available respectively in Siam, Ceylon, and Burma. A 
portion of the Pali Samantapasadika was rendered into Chinese by 
Samghabhadra in the 5th century A.D. (See Narirnan's Literary 
History of Sanskrit Buddhism, p. 263.) 

Pali Commentaries 407 

in making donations to non-Buddhist ascetics and 
institutions. But being displeased with them he 
stopped further charities to them, and gave charities 
to the Buddhist bhikkhus alone (Vol. I, 44). 
Asoka's income from the four gates of the city of 
Pataliputta was 4,00,000 kahapanas daily. In the 
sabha (council) he used to get 1,00,000 kahapanas 
daily (Vol. I, 52). Rajagaha was a good place 
having accommodation for a large number of 
bhikkhus (Vol. I, 8). Asoka is said to have enjoyed 
undivided sovereignty over all Jambudipa after 
slaying all his brothers except Tissa. He reigned 
without coronation for four years (Vol. I, 41). 

Two other kings of Magadha are mentioned in 
the Samantapasadika, Anuruddha, and Munda (Vol. I, 
72-73). Anuruddha succeeded his father Udayi 
Bhadda and reigned for 18 years. Then came 
Naga Dasaka who reigned for 24 years. Naga 
Dasaka was banished by the citizens who anointed 
the minister named Susunaga as King (Vol. I, 72-73). 

Bimbisara is stated to have hundred sons (p. 41), 
and Asoka is said to have built 84,000 viharas in 
the whole of Jambudipa (p. 115). Reference is 
made to Pataliputta (p. 35) where the King Dham- 
masoka would appear and rule the whole of 

There were eighteen Maha viharas at Rajagaha 
(p. 9). On one occasion Mahakassapa asked 
Ananda about dhamma (p. 15). 

This commentary records the first and the 
last words of the Master (p. 17). 

The different classifications of the Vinaya, 
Sutta, and Abhidhamma Pitakas (p. 18) are detailed 
in this commentary. It contains also an interesting 
account of how Vinaya was handed down till the 
third council (p. 32). 

Then we have accounts of the Thera Moggali- 
putta Tissa (p. 37), who once went to a mountain 
named Ahoganga. In order to refute the doctrines 
of others, the thera composed the Kathavatthuppa- 
karana (p. 61). The commentary then gives an 


408 A History of Pali Literature 

account of the missionaries sent to different countries 
by Moggaliputtatissatthera (63-64). 

The Samantapasadika refers to Kusinara, a 
town of the Mallas, where between the two Sala 
trees, on the full moon day of the month of Vesakha, 
the Blessed One passed away (p. 4). 

There are references to Campa and Gaggara 
(p. 121), and to many other places, e.g., Veranja 
(once visited by famine), Savatthi, Tambapanni, 
Suvannabhumi, Uttarapathaka visited by traders 
in horses (p. 175) ; Uttara-kuru, Kapilavatthu in- 
habited by many good families (p. 241), Bhaddiya, 
a city (p. 280), etc. Further, we are referred to the 
river Ganges, Baranasi (which was once reached by 
the Buddha after crossing the Ganges), Soreyya, 
Vesali, and Mahavana (p. 201). Mention is made 
of a village of the Vajjis (p. 207). We are told of 
the kings of the Licchavigana (p. 212). There is a 
reference to Uppalavanna, a beautiful daughter of 
a banker of Savatthi (p. 272). The commentary 
speaks of the Gijjhakuta mountain at Rajagaha 
where once the Blessed One dwelt (p. 285) and where 
Dabba, a Mallian, was once seen with a bhikkhu 
named Mettiya (p. 598), of Isigili, a mountain, and 
Kasi-Kosala countries (p. 286). Bimbisara is 
mentioned here as the Lord of the Magadhas who 
had an army of troops (p. 297). 

There was a golden cetiya (dagoba) built by 
Prince Uttara (Samantapasadika, Vol. Ill, p. 544). 
A banker named Ghosita built a monastery which 
was named after him (Ibid., p. 574). Veluvana was 
a garden surrounded by lapis lazuli and it was 
beautiful and of blue colour having a vault with a 
wall 18 cubits in circumference (Ibid., p. 575). 
During the reign of King Bhatiya there arose a 
dispute regarding the doctrine between the theras 
of Mahavihara and Abhayagiri (Ibid., 582). Kltagiri 
is described as a janapada (Ibid., 613). Savatthi is 
described as a city containing 57 hundred thousand 
families and Rajagaha is mentioned as a city in- 
habited by 18 kotis of human beings (Ibid., p. 614). 

Pali Commentaries 409 

There is a reference to the Gotamaka Cetiya in 
Vesali visited by the Buddha (Ibid,, p. 636). 
There is a reference to the Maha-atthakatha and 
Kurundatthakatha (p. 299). 

The Kankhavitaram is a masterly commentary 
.... . . on the Patimokkha, a book of the 

Kankhavitarani. T7 . ^.^ , , % ... , 

Vmaya Pitaka l ; and was written by 
Buddhaghosa in his own initiative some time between 
410 and 432 A.D. A manuscript of an ancient 
Sinhalese glossary on this work is preserved in the 
Government Oriental Library, Colombo. The work 
is remarkable for the restraint and mature judgment 
that characterise Buddhaghosa's style. While com- 
menting on the precepts of the Patimokkha, he 
has incidentally brought in much new information 
throwing light on the later development of the 
monastic life of the Buddhists. 

The Sumangalavilasim 2 is a famous com- 
commentaries on mentary on the Digha Nikaya, 
the Sutta Pitaka written by the celebrated Buddhist 
limlnrthe g c a om: exegete Buddhaghosa at the request 
mentary on the of the Sanghathera Datha. It is 
Di?ha Niksya. rich in historical information and 

folklore, and abounds in narratives which throw 
a flood of light on the social, political, philosophical, 
and religious history of India at the time of the 
Buddha. A vivid picture of sports and pastimes 
as well as valuable geographical and other data of 
ancient days are carefully provided in it. 3 The 
book gives us a glimpse of the erudite learning of 
Buddhaghosa who flourished in the 5th century 
A.D. Its language is a bit less confused than that 
of his other commentaries. 

In the introductory verses of his Sumangala- 
vilasim, Buddhaghosa makes the following reference 

1 We have Sinhalese and Burmese editions of this work. 

2 Read Pat/hamasaratthamanjusa which is a scholium on the 

3 The whole work has been printed and published in Burma, 
two of the sermons in two parts have been published in Ceylon 
and there is also an excellent Sinhalese edition in three parts. 

410 A History of Pali Literature 

to the history of the composition of his commentaries. 
Thus he observes : " Through the influence of 
serene mind and merit which are due to the salutation 
of the Three Refuges and which put an end to 
obstacles, in order to explain the meaning of the 
Digha Nikaya containing long suttas, which is a 
good Sgama, described by the Buddhas and minor 
Buddhas, which brings faith, the Atthakathas have 
been sung and afterwards resung from the beginning 
by five hundred theras, and are brought to the 
island of Lanka by the wise Mahinda and put in 
the language of the island of Lanka for the welfare 
of its inhabitants. Discarding the Sinhalese language 
and rendering the Atthakathas into a good language 
which is like Tanti and which is free from faults 
and not rejecting the explanations of the theras 
who are the dwellers of the Mahavihara, who are 
the lamps of the group of theras and who are good 
interpreters, I shall explain the meanings, avoiding 
repetitions, for the delight of the good men and for 
the long existence of Dhamma." 

Here also Buddhaghosa refers to his Visuddhi- 
rnagga (S.V., pt. I, p. 2) thus : " I shall not again 
discuss what has been well told in the Visuddhimagga. 
Standing in the midst of the four agamas, the 
Visuddhimagga will explain the meaning which 
has been told there, this being done, you will under- 
stand the meaning of the Digha Nikaya taking it 
along with this Atthakatha " (i.e., Sumangalavilasim). 

There are according to Buddhaghosa four kinds 
of suttas : (1) Attajjhasayo, i.e., sutta delivered 
by the Buddha of his own accord ; (2) Parajjhasayo, 
i.e., sutta delivered to suit the intention of others ; 

(3) Pucchavasiko, i.e., sutta delivered in answer to 
the question of the Supremely Enlightened One ; 

(4) Atthuppatiko, i.e., sutta delivered in course of 
delivering other suttas. 

The examples of each class are given below : 
(1) e.g., Mahasatipatthana, Akankheyya Suttam, 
Vatthasuttam, etc., (2) e.g., Cularahulavada, Mahara- 
hulavada, Dhammacakkapavattana, etc., (3) e.g., 

Pali Commentaries 411 

Mftrasamyutta, Devatasamyutta, Sakkapanhasut- 
tam, Samaiinaphalasuttam, etc., (4) e.g., Dham- 
madayada, Cullasihanada, Aggikkhandupama, 
Brahma jfilasutta (Sumangalavilasini, pp. 50-51). 

The Sumangalaviiasim furnishes us with some 
information regarding a bhikkhu's daily life. In 
the day time a bhikkhu should free his mind from 
all obstacles by walking up and down and sitting. 
In the first watch of the night he should lie down 
and in the last watch he should walk up and down 
and sit. Early in the morning he should go and 
cleanse the space surrounding the cetiya and the 
Bodhi-tree. He should give water to the root of 
the Bo-tree, and keep water for drinking and wash- 
ing. He should then perform all his duties towards 
his teacher. After finishing ablution, he should 
enter his own dwelling place, take his rest on the 
ground and think of kammatthana. At the time 
of going for alms, he should sit up from meditation, 
and after taking his alms-bowl and garment he 
should first of all go to the Bodhi-tree and after 
saluting it he should go to the Cetiya. After he 
has saluted the Cetiya, he should enter the village 
for alms and after having finished begging for alms, 
he should give religious instruction to many persons 
so desirous of hearing it. Then he should return to 
the vihara (S.V., pt. I, pp. 186-187). 

The Sumangalavilasini gives the following 
reasons for calling Buddha the Tathagata 1 : 

1. He has come in the same way. 

2. He has gone in the same way. 

3. He is endowed with the sign of Tatha 


4. He is supremely enlightened in Tatha- 

dhamma (truth). 

5. He has seen Tatha (truth). 

6. He preaches Tatha (truth). 

1 Read two interesting papers on the Tathagata, one by 
R. Chalmers, J.R.A.S., 1898, pp. 311 foil. ; another by Dr. Walleser 
in the Journal of the Taisho University, 1930. 

412 A History of Pali Literature 

7. He does Tatha (truthfully). 

8. He overcomes all. 

These reasons are explained in detail as 
follows : 

1. As previous Buddhas, e.g., Vipassin, Sikhi, 
Vessabhu, Kakusandha, Konftgamana, Kassapa, 
came, as the previous Buddhas obtained Buddha- 
hood by fulfilling ten Paramitas (perfections), 1 by 
sacrificing body, eyes, wealth, kingdom, son, and 
wife, by practising the following kinds of cariyas : 
Lokatthacariya, i.e., exertion for knowledge ; 
Buddhatthacariya, exertion for Buddhahood, and 
by practising four sammappadhanas (four kinds of 
right exertion), four iddhipadas (four miracles), 
five indriyas (five senses), five balas (five potentia- 
lities), seven bojjhangas (seven supreme knowledges), 
and the Noble Eightfold Path (ariya atthangika 

2. The Buddha Gautama walked seven steps 
towards the north just after his birth as Vipassi, 
Kassapa, and other Buddhas did. He looked all 
round by sitting under a white umbrella and made 
the following declaration: 

" I am the first in the world, I am the chief 
in the world, I am the most prominent in the 
world. This is my last birth, there is no future 
birth to me." 

The Buddha Gautama destroyed desire for 
sensual pleasures by renunciation, destroyed hatred 
by non-hatred, torpor by steadfastness, doubt by the 
analysis of Dhamma, ignorance by knowledge, 
etc., like the former Buddhas, e.g., Vipassi, Kassapa, 
and others. 

3. The Buddha fully realised the true charac- 
teristics " Tathalakkhanam " of four elements, sky, 

1 The ten perfections are the following : 

dana (charity), sila (precepts), nekkhamma (renunciation), 
adifcthana (determination), sacca (truth), metta (compassion), 
upekkha (indifference), khanti (forbearance), viriya (energy), and 
paftna (wisdom). 

Pali Commentaries 41$ 

consciousness, forms, sensation, perception, con- 
fections, discursive thought, decisive thought, joy, 
happiness, and emancipation. 

4. The Buddha realised four sublime truths 
known as tathadhamma, suffering, origin of suffering, 
cessation of suffering, and the path leading to the 
cessation of suffering. He also realised dependent 
origination (paticcasamuppada). 

5. The Buddha saw all the forms which in- 
clude four elements which are produced by the 
combination of four elements in the human world 
as well as in the world of gods. He heard, knew, 
touched, tasted, and thought of all that were in 
existence in the human world as well as in the 
world of gods. 

6. From the time of his enlightenment by 
conquering Mara till the time of his parinibbana, 
what he preached, was complete and perfect in 
meaning and exposition and to the point, and 
leading to the destruction of passion, hatred and 
delusion, and was true. 

7. His bodily action was in agreement with his 
action and speech and vice versa. He did what he 
said and vice versa. 

8. He overcame everything commencing from 
the highest Brahmaloka to the Avici hell and endless 
lokadhatus (worldly elements) all around by sila 
(precepts), samadhi (concentration), panna (wisdom), 
and vimutti (emancipation). There was no equal 
to him and he was the unsurpassed king of kings, 
god of gods, chief of all Sakkas, and chief of all 
Brahmas (S.V., pt. I, pp. 59-68). 

The Buddha had to perform fivefold duties : 
(1) Duties before meal, (2) Duties after meal, (3) 
Duties in the first watch, (4) middle watch, and the 
(5) last watch of night. 

1. Duties before meal included the following : 
Ablution early in the morning, and sitting alone till 
the time of begging ; at the time of begging alms 
he used to robe himself ; tieing his waist with belt 
and taking his alms-bowl he used to go for alma 

414 A History of Pali Literature 

sometimes alone, sometimes surrounded by the 
bhikkhusangha in villages or towns, sometimes in 
natural posture, and sometimes by showing miracles, 
e.g., wind cleaning the street which he was to 

After collecting alms and partaking ol them 
he used to preach to the dayakas (alms-givers) 
according to their intelligence. 

After hearing religious instruction, some of 
the dayakas used to take refuge in the three gems, 
some used to establish themselves in the five pre- 
cepts, some used to attain fruition of the first, 
second, and third stages of sanctification and some 
after renouncing the world used to attain Arahatship. 
After preaching the dhamma he used to return 
waiting for the arrival of the bhikkhus from begging 
tour. After they had all returned he used to enter 
Gandhakuti (perfumed chamber). 

2. Duties after meal : His attendant used to 
prepare seat for him in the Gandhakuti and he 
after sitting on it, used to wash his feet. Standing 
on the step of the staircase of a Gandhakuti, he 
used to instruct the bhikkhus to perform their 
duties diligently. He spoke thus, " The appearance 
of the Buddha is rare, it is difficult to be born as 
human being, good opportunity is also difficult to 
be obtained, ordination as bhikkhus is also difficult 
to be had, and the hearing of the Saddhamma (true 
law) is also difficult to be obtained ". Some of the 
bhikkhus used to seek his instructions in kammat- 
thanas (objects of meditation). The Blessed One 
used to give instructions in the Kammatthanas 
suitable to their nature. The bhikkhus used to 
return to their dwelling-place or to the forest after 
saluting the Buddha. Some used to retuni to the 
Catummaharajika Heaven or to the Paranimmi- 
tavasavatti Heaven. 1 After giving instructions, the 
Blessed One used to enter the Gandhakuti and lie 

1 See my book, " Heaven and Hell in Buddhist Perspective ", 
pp. 7, 15, etc. 

Pali Commentaries 415 

down on the right side. He used to see the world 
with his eye of wisdom after refreshing himself. 
He then used to give instructions to the people who 
assembled in the preaching hall with scented flowers, 
etc., and then the people after listening to the 
religious instructions, used to return after saluting 
the Buddha. 

3. In the first watch of the night if he desired 
to bathe himself, he used to get up from his seat 
and enter the bath-room and bathed himself with 
water supplied by the attendant who made ready 
the seat for him in the Gandhakuti. The Blessed 
One used to put on red coloured under-garment 
tieing his waist with belt. Then he used to put on 
the upper garment keeping one shoulder open, 
and then he used to sit on his seat alone in a mood 
of meditation. The bhikkhus used to come from 
all sides to worship him. Some bhikkhus used to 
ask him questions, some used to ask his instructions 
on kammatthana, and some used to request him to 
give religious instructions. The Buddha used to 
satisfy the bhikkhus by fulfilling their desires. 
Thus he used to spend the first watch of the night. 

4. Duties in the middle watch : After the 
bhikkhus had left him, the devatas used to come 
from 10,000 lokadhatus (world cycles), and the 
Blessed One used to spend the middle watch in 
answering the questions of the devas. 

5. Duties in the last watch of the night: 
The last watch of the night was divided into three 
parts. He used to spend the first part by walking 
up and down, the second part by lying down on the 
right hand side in the Gandhakuti, and the last 
part by seeing with his eyes the person who acquired 
competency in knowing dhamma on account of the 
acquisition of merit by serving the previous Buddhas 
(S,V., pt. I, pp. 45-48). 

The Buddha performed double miracles 1 at 
the gate of the city of Savatthl in the seventh 

1 The so-called Yamaka-patfhSriya. 

416 A History of Pali Literature 

year after his enlightenment at the foot of Gandam- 
baka tree, e.g., fire was burning on the upper part 
of the body and water flowing down from the 
lower part, fire coming out of one of the pores of 
the skin of the body and water of six colours coming 
out of another pore of the skin of the body, six 
kind of rays coming out of the body of the Buddha 
and illuminating all the ten thousand Cakkavalas 
(world cycles). 

Buddhaghosa describes the Buddha's fulfilment 
of ten perfections (paramitas) during four asankha 
kalpas and 1,00,000 kalpas. He renounced the 
world at the age of twenty-nine, took ordination 
on the bank of the Anoma river. For six years he 
exerted simultaneously. On the Vaisakha full- 
moon day he took honeyed rice-gruel offered by 
Sujata at Uruvela and in the evening he entered the 
Bodhi terrace by the south gate and thrice went 
round the Asvattha tree. Going to the north- 
east side of the tree he spread a seat of grass and 
seated on it crosslegged facing the east and keeping 
the Bo-tree at the back, he first of all meditated 
upon metta (friendliness, love). 

At dusk he defeated Mara and in the first 
watch of the night he acquired the knowledge of 
previous birth, in the middle watch he acquired 
celestial insight and in early morning he acquired 
the knowledge of dependent origination and attained 
the fourth stage of meditation on inhalation and 
exhalation. Depending on the fourth stage of 
meditation, he increased insight and successively 
acquired all the qualities of the Buddha (S.V., pt. I, 
pp. 57-58). 

The Buddha used to take two kinds of journey 
tarita (quick) and atarita (slow). In order to 
convert a fit person who was at a distance, he 
used to travel long distance within a short time as 
we find in the case of the Buddha going to receive 
Mahakassapa who was at a distance of three 
gavutas in a moment. The Buddha also took 
tarita journey for Alavaka, Angulimala, Pukkusadi, 

PdU Commentaries 417 

Mahakappina, Dhaniya, and Tissasamanera, a pupil 
of Sariputta. 

The Buddha daily used to take a short journey 
in order to do good to the people by preaching to 
them and accepting their offerings, etc. This was 
known as atarita journey. The atarita journey was 
divided into three mandalas, e.g., mahamandala, 
majjhimamandala, and antomandala. The maha- 
mandala was extended over an area of 900 yojanas, 
Majjhimamandala 600 yojanas, and antomandala 
300 yojanas. He had to start on the day following 
the Mahapavarana (i.e., last day of the lent) ; 
if he had to undertake the mahamandala journey 
he had to start at the beginning of Agrahayana and 
in case of antomandala journey, he could start 
at any time suitable to him (S.V., pt. I, pp. 239-242). 

Among the Buddha's contemporaries were 
Jivaka Komarabhacca, Tissasamanera, Pokkharasati, 
and Ambattha. It will not perhaps be out of place 
to record here a few interesting facts about them. 

Jivaka Komarabhanda was reared up by 
Abhayakumara, one of the sons of Bimbisara, so 
he was called Komara-bhanda. Once Bimbisara 
and Abhayakumara saw from the roof of the palace, 
Jivaka lying down on the floor at the gate of the 
palace surrounded by vultures, crows, etc. The 
king asked, " What is that ? " He was told that 
it was a baby. The king asked if it were alive. 
The reply was in the affirmative. Hence he was 
called JiVaka (S.V., pt. I, p. 133). 

Once Jivaka caused the Buddha to take some 
purgative. When the Buddha became all right in 
health, Jivaka offered the Buddha a pair of valuable 
clothes. The Buddha accepted his offering and 
gave him suitable instructions with the result that 
he was established in the fruition of the first stage 
of sanctification. He offered his mango-garden to 
the Buddha for his residence with his pupils, as 
Jivaka thought that it would be difficult for him to 
go to the Veluvana where the Buddha used to 
five for attending on him and which was far from 

418 A History of Pali Literature 

his house. In the mango-garden, Jlvaka prepared 
rooms for spending day and night for the Buddha 
and his bhikkhus. Wells, etc., were sunk for them. 
The garden was surrounded by a wall and a 
Gandhakuti (perfumed house) was built for the 
Buddha in the Mango-garden (S.V., pt. I, p. 133). 

Tissasamanera : Once Sariputta wanted to go 
to his pupil. The Buddha expressed his willingness 
to go with him and ordered Ananda to inform 20,000 
bhikkhus who were possessed of supernatural powers 
that the Blessed One would go to see Tissa. The 
Buddha with Sariputta, Ananda, and 20,000 
khmasava-bhikkhus (the monks who were free from 
sins) traversed the path of 2,000 yojanas through 
sky and got down at the gate of the village where 
Tissa was and they robed themselves. The 
villagers received them all and offered them rice 
gruel. After the Buddha had finished his meal, 
Tissa returned from alms-begging and offered food 
to the Buddha, which he (Tissa) had received on his 
begging tour. The Buddha visited Tissa's dwelling 

Pokkharasadi : His body was like the white 
lotus or like the silver gate of Devanagara. His 
head was very beautiful and popular. At the time 
of Kassapa Buddha, he was well-versed in the three 
Vedas and in consequence of his offering charity 
to the Buddha, he was reborn in the Devaloka. 
As he did not like to enter the womb of a human 
being, he was reborn in a lotus in a big lake near 
the Himavanta. An ascetic who lived near the 
lake reared him up. He made the child learn the 
three Vedas and the child became very much learned, 
and was regarded as the foremost brahmin in the 
Jambudipa. He showed his skill in arts to the king 
of Kosala. The king being pleased with him gave 
him the city of Ukkattha as Brahmottara property 
(i.e., the property offered to the brahmin) (S.V., 
pt. I, pp. 244-245). 

Ambattha : He was the chief disciple of 
Pokkharasadi or Pokkharasati. He was sent to the 

Pali Commentaries 419 

Buddha to see whether the Buddha deserved the 
praises offered to him. He attempted in various 
ways to defeat the Buddha but in vain. He also 
expressed his opinion that no samanadhamma could 
be practised by living in such a vihara. He came 
back to his teacher after being defeated (S.V., 
pt. I, p. 253). 

The Sumangalavilasini supplies us with some 
new interesting geographical informations, some of 
them being more or less fanciful in their origin. 

Ahga : On account of the beauty of their body, 
some princes were known as Angas. The place was 
named Anga because those princes used to dwell 
there (S.V., pt, I, p. 279). 

Not far from the city of Anga, there was the 
tank of Gaggara, so called because it was dug by a 
queen named Gaggara. On its bank all round, 
there was a great forest of Campaka trees decorated 
with flowers of five colours, blue, etc. This account 
of Campa has, however, hardly any geographical 
value. Buddhaghosa also gives us his own in- 
terpretation of the term Anga. According to him, 
it is so called because of the beauty of the princes 
of the country. The explanation seems to be 
rather fanciful (S.V., pt. I, p. 279). 

Daksinapatlia or the Deccan : Buddhaghosa 
defines Dakkhinapatha or the Deccan as the tract 
of land lying to the south of the Ganges (S.V., 
pt. I, p. 265). Many ascetics used to five there 
and one of the forefathers of Ambattha went there 
and learnt ambatthavijja, a science through the 
influence of which the weapon once raised could be 
brought down. He came to Okkaka and showed 
his skill and secured a post under him (S.V., pt. I, 
p. 265). 

Ghositarama : In the past there was a kingdom 
named Addila. In this kingdom a poor man named 
Kotuhalaka while going to another place at the time 
of famine, being unable to carry his son, threw him 
on the way. The mother out of affection went 
back and brought the child and returned to the 

420 A History of Pali Literature 

village of gopalas (cowherds) who gave them milk- 
rice to eat. Kotuhalaka could not digest the milk 
and died at night of cholera and was reborn in the 
womb of a bitch. The young dog was the favourite 
of the head of the cowherds, who used to worship 
a paccekabuddha. The cowherd used to give a 
handful of cooked rice to the young dog which 
followed the gopalas to the hermitage of the pacceka- 
buddha. The young dog used to inform the pacceka- 
buddha by barking that rice was ready and used 
to drive away wild beasts on the way by barking. 
As the young dog served the paccekabuddha, he 
was reborn after death in heaven and was named 
Ghosadevaputta who, fallen from heaven, was 
reborn in a family at Kosambi. The banker of 
Kosambi being childless brought him up and when 
a legitimate child was born to the banker, he 
attempted to kill Ghosa seven times but on account 
of the accumulation of merit Ghosaka could not 
be killed. He was saved by the instrumentality 
of a banker's daughter whom he eventually married. 
After the death of the banker who attempted to 
kill him, he succeeded him and was known as 
Ghosakasetthi. At Kosambi there were two other 
bankers named Kukkuta and Pavariya. At this 
time five hundred ascetics came to Kosambi and 
the three bankers, Ghosaka, Kukkuta, and Pavariya 
built hermitages in their respective gardens for 
the ascetics and supported them. Once the ascetics 
while coming from the Himalayan region through 
a forest became very much hungry and thirsty, and 
sat under a big banian tree thinking that there 
must have been a powerful devata residing in the 
tree who would surely help them. The presiding 
deity of the tree helped the ascetics with water to 
quench their thirst. The deity when asked as to 
how he (deity) acquired such splendour, replied 
that he was a servant in the house of a banker 
Anathapindika who supported the Buddha at 
Jetavana. On a sabbath day the servant went 
out to walk in the morning and returned in the 

Pali Commentaries 421 

evening. He enquired of the other servants of 
the house and learning that they had accepted 
uposatha, he went to Anathapindika and took 
precepts. But he could not observe the precepts 
fully and in consequence of the merit accumulated 
due to the observance of half the uposatha at 
night, he became the deity of this tree endowed 
with great splendour. They went to Kosambi and 
informed the setthis of this matter. The ascetics went 
to the Buddha and acquired ordination and Arahat- 
ship. The setthis afterwards went to the Buddha and 
invited the Buddha to Kosambi. After returning to 
Kosambi, they built three hermitages and one of them 
was known as Ghositarama (S.V., pt. I, pp. 317-319). 

Kosala : The Poranas say that prince Maha- 
panada did not laugh even after seeing or hearing 
objects that are likely to rouse laughter. The 
father of the prince promised that he would decorate 
with various kinds of ornaments the person who 
would be able to make his son laugh. Many, 
including even the cultivators, gave up their ploughs 
and came to make the son laugh. They tried 
in various ways but in vain. At last, Sakka the 
chief of the gods sent a theatrical party to show 
him a celestial drama to make the prince laugh. 
The prince laughed and men returned to their 
respective abodes. While they were returning home 
they were asked on the way, " Kacci bho kusalam, 
kacci bho kusalam " (are you all right ?). From 
this word kusalam, the country came to be known 
as Kosala (S.V., pt. I, p. 239). 

Rajagaha : A name of the town in which 
Mandhata and Mahagovinda took their abode. At 
the time of the Buddha it was a town, at other 
times it was empty (S.V., pt. I, p. 132). 

The Sumangalavilasini serves as a glossary of 
important terms, a few of which may be enumerated 

Adinnadana : It strictly means accepting that 
which is not given. It also means stealing the pro- 
perty of others, the thing which can be used by 

422 A History of Pali Literature 

others according to their wish and by using which 
they are not liable to be punished, if that thing 
be taken with the intention of stealing it, then he is 
guilty of theft ; if the thing stolen be of greater 
value, then the offence will be greater and if it is 
of less value the offence will be less. If the 
thing stolen belongs to a person of greater quality, 
the offence will be greater and if it belongs to a 
person of less quality, the offence will be less. 

One is guilty of theft if the following conditions 
are there : 

(1) the thing stolen must belong to others ; 

(2) the thief must be conscious at the time of 

stealing, that the thing which he is 
stealing belongs to others ; 

(3) he must have the intention to steal ; 

(4) he must make effort to steal and that effort 

must bring about the theft of the thing 
belonging to others (S.V., Vol. I, p. 71). 

Musavada : It means application of word or 
bodily deed to bring about dissension. Conscious- 
ness due to the application of word or bodily deed 
with the intention of bringing about dissension is 
called speaking falsehood. 

Musa in another sense means : 

(1) the thing not happened before, 

(2) untrue thing. 

Vada means making known thing which is 
untrue to be true and a thing unhappened before 
to have happened. 

Musavada is nothing but consciousness of the 
person who is willing to make known a thing which 
is untrue to be true and an unhappened thing to 
have happened. 

Buddhaghosa cites some examples in this 
connection : 

If a witness gives false evidence, he becomes 
liable to greater fault ; if a bhikkhu makes exaggera- 
tion humorously he will be liable to less fault ; 

Pali Commentaries 42$ 

and if a bhikkhu says that he has seen a thing not 
seen by him, that he has heard of a thing unheard 
by him, he will surely be liable to greater fault. 

One is guilty of falsehood if the following 
conditions are there : 

1. His subject or object must be false. 

2. He must have the intention of creating 

disunion or dissension. 

3. He must make the effort created by that 


4. His act of creating disunion must be known 

to the parties concerned. He must 
commit the offence himself. Buddha- 
ghosa is of opinion that if a person 
instigates others to commit falsehood, 
and instigates others to do the offence 
by letters or by writing on walls, etc., 
and if he himself commits the offence, 
in all these cases, the nature of offence 
must be the same (Ibid., p. 72). 

Pharusavaca : According to Buddhaghosa, 
Pharusavaca really means intention to wound the 
feelings of others. It means harsh words (S.V., 
pt. I, p. 75). According to him a thoughtless speech 
should be pleasing to the ear, producing love, 
appealing to the heart and agreeable to many 
(S.V., pt. I, pp. 75-76). 

Pisunavaca : The person to whom the word 
is spoken takes a favourable view of the speaker 
but unfavourable view of the person about whom 
it is spoken. It is nothing but consciousness of 
the person who speaks to make himself closely 
acquainted with the person to whom the word is 
spoken and the person about whom it is spoken. 

One is guilty of pisunavaca if the following 
conditions be fulfilled : 

1. He must have the intention of creating 

dissension and making himself frier " 

2. He must have the effort to 


424 A History of Pali Literature 

3. The act of creating disunion must be known 

to the parties concerned. 

4. The persons before whom the dissension is 

created must be in existence (S.V., pt. 
I, p. 74). 

There are references to the following sports 
and pastimes in the Sumangalavilasini : 

Atthapadam : Dice. 

Akasam : A kind of pastime which is played 

after imagining a kind of dice-board in the 


Candalam : Sporting with an iron ball. 
Ghatikam : A sport in which large sticks are 

beaten by short ones. 
Vamsam : Sporting with a bamboo which is 

turned in various ways. 
Pariharapatham : A kind of sport which is 

played on the ground on which many paths 

having fences are prepared to puzzle the 

player (S.V., pt. I, pp. 84-85). 

References to various kinds of seats are found 
in this work : 

Asandim : A big seat. 

Gonakam : A carpet with long hairs. 

Koseyyam : A silk seat bedecked with gems. 

Kuttakam : A kind of woollen seat in which 
sixteen dancing girls can dance together. 

Pallankam : A seat having feet with figure 
of deer, etc. 

Patalika : Thick woollen seat with various 
designs of flowers. 

Patika : Woollen seat. 

Vikatika : A seat having the figure of lion or 

Dhopanam : It is a ceremony among the south- 
ern Indian people who wash the bones of 
their dead relatives after digging them out 
and after having besmeared them with 
scents and collecting all the bones in one 

Pali Commentaries 425 

place. On a certain auspicious day they eat 
up various kinds of food and drink collected 
for the occasion while crying for their 
departed relatives (S.V., pt. I, pp. 84-87). 

A person is called Puthujjano because various 
kinds of sins are committed by him. His view 
is that the body which is soul is not gone. He is 
so called because he is merged in various kinds of 
ogha (floods) and because he is burnt by various 
kinds of heat. As he is attached to five kinds of 
sensual pleasures and as he is covered by five 
hindrances and as he does innumerable low deeds, 
so he is called puthujjano. As he is separated by 
Ariyas from the sila (precepts), suta (learning), 
etc., he is called puthujjano (Ibid., p. 59). 

Raja : He is so called because he pleases 
(rafijeti) his subjects. 

Silas : Poranas say that sila (precept) is the 
ornament of a Yogi and sila is the object of decora- 
tion of a Yogi. The Yogis being adorned with silas 
have acquired perfection in matters of decoration. 
One should observe silas just as a kiki bird protects 
her egg. One should observe silas properly just as 
one eyed man protects his only eye (S.V., pt. I, 
pp. 55-56). Buddhaghosa says that all good deeds 
are based on silas just as all the trees and vegetables 
grow on the earth (S.V., pt. I, p. 56). 

Cullaslla : Panatipata means slaughter of life. 
Pana ordinarily means living beings but in reality 
it is vitality. The thought of killing vitality is 
what is called panatipata. To kill a lower animal 
which is devoid of good qualities and a small being, 
brings small amount of sin and to kill a big creature 
full of sins brings large amount of sin because a 
good amount of effort is needed to kill a big animal 
whereas to kill a small animal, little effort is required. 
To kill with great effort a creature having good 
qualities brings about much sin, whereas to kill 
with the same effort a creature having no quality 
or having quality not of great amount brings about 

426 A History of Pali Literature 

less sin. If the body and the quality possessed 
by it be of equal standard, there will be a difference 
in the acquisition of sin according to greatness or 
smallness of kilesas (sins). 

One will be guilty of life-slaughter if the 
following conditions be fulfilled : 

(1) there must be a living being ; 

(2) the killer must be conscious at the time 

of killing that he is going to kill a 
living being ; 

(3) he must have the intention to kill ; 

(4) then he must make the effort to kill ; 

(5) the effect of that effort must lie in the 

death of the being living. 

The six kinds of efforts are : 

Sahatthika (killing by own hand), anattika 
(order to kill), nissaggika (throwing with the inten- 
tion that living being should die), vijjamaya (killing 
by magic), iddhimaya (killing by miracle), thavara 
(killing by instruction written on immovable pillars), 
etc. (Ibid., pt. I, p. 70). 

The Sumangalavilasim contains some more 
interesting historical materials. It speaks of the 
origin of the &akyas which is traced back to King 
Okkaka (i.e., Iksvaku). King Okkaka had five 
queens. By the chief queen, he had four sons 
and five daughters. After the death of the chief 
queen, the king married another young lady who 
extorted from him the promise to place her son 
upon the throne. The king thereupon requested 
his sons to leave the kingdom. The princes accord- 
ingly left the kingdom accompanied by their sisters 
and going to a forest near the Himalayas, began 
to search for a site for building up a city. In 
course of their search, they met the sage Kapila 
who said that they should build a town in the 
place where he (the sage) lived. The prince built 
the town and named it Kapila vatthu (Kapila vastu). 
In course of time the four brothers married the 
four sisters, excepting the eldest one and they came 

Pali Commentaries 427 

to be known as the Sakyas (pt. I, pp. 258-260). 
The only grain of fact hidden in this fanciful story 
of the origin of the Sakyas seems to be that there 
was a tradition which traced their descent from 
King Okkaka or Iksvaku. Buddhaghosa in his 
great commentaries, though a very reliable guide as 
regards exposition and exegesis and the unravelling 
of metaphysical tangles, becomes quite the reverse 
when any point of history or tradition conies up. 
Here he accepts the wildest theories and takes as 

fospel truth even the most improbable stories, 
ister-marriage was not in vogue in ancient India 
even in the earliest times of which we have any 
record, as the story of Yama and Yarn! in the 
Rigveda amply demonstrates. It was a revolting 
idea to the Indians from the time of the Rigveda 
downwards. Yet we see that Buddhaghosa in the 
case of the Licchavis and again here in that of the 
&akyas, tries to explain the origin by sister-marriage. 
Perhaps Buddhaghosa was actuated by the idea 
of purity of birth by a union between brothers 
and sisters as in the case of the Pharaohs of Egypt. 
The great Ceylonese chronicle, the Mahavamsa, 
also traces the origin of the Sakyas to the same 
King Okkaka and goes further back to Maha- 
sammata of the same dynasty. 

When the Buddha was at Kosambi, he delivered 
the Jaliya Sutta at the Ghositarama before a large 
gathering of people including a number of setthis 
among whom there were Kukkuta, Pavariya, and 
Ghosaka who built three monasteries for the Buddha. 
Ghosaka built the Ghositarama, Kukkuta built the 
Kukkutarama, and Pavariya built Pavarika- 
ambavana (S.V., pt. I, pp. 317-319). 

On one occasion the whole of Rajagaha was 
illumined and decorated and was full of festivities 
and enjoyments. Ajatasattu with his ministers 
went to the terrace and saw the festivities going 
on in the city. The moon-lit night was really very 
pleasing ; and the thought arose within him of 
approaching a Samana or Brahmana who could 

430 A History of Pali Literature 

to heat them on the fire of Khadira charcoal. The 
barber went to Bimbisara who thought that his 
son had come to realise his folly and become kind 
to him. The barber when asked by the king about 
his mission, intimated to him the order of King 
Ajatasattu. The barber carried out the ghastly 
operations required by the royal order. Bimbisara 
breathed his last with the words, " Buddha and 
Dhamma". After death Bimbisara was reborn 
in the Catummaharajika heaven as an attendant 
of Vessavana named Javanavasabha (Ibid., I, p. 137). 
On the day Bimbisara died, a son was born to 
Ajatasattu. Both the reports, one conveying the 
news of the death of his father, and the other, 
that of the birth of his child were received by his 
ministers at the same time. The ministers first of 
all handed over the letter conveying the news of 
the birth of his child to King Ajatasattu. On 
receipt of the letter the king's mind was filled with 
filial affection and at that moment all the virtues 
of his father rose up before his mind's eye and he 
realised that similar filial affection arose in his 
father's mind when the latter received the news of 
his (Ajatasattu's) birth. Ajatasattu at once ordered 
the release of his father but it was too late. On 
hearing of his father's death, he cried and went to 
his mother and asked her if his father had any 
affection for him. The mother replied, "When a 
boil appeared on your finger, you were crying and 
none could pacify you and you were taken to your 
father w;hen he was administering justice at the 
royal court. Your father out of affection put your 
finger with the boil into his mouth and the boil 
was burst open. Out of filial affection he swallowed 
up the blood and pus instead of throwing them 
away." Ajatasattu heard this and shed hot tears. 
The dead body of his father was burnt. Shortly 
afterwards Devadatta went to Ajatasattu and urged 
him to order his men to go and kill the Buddha 
too. Devadatta sent Ajatasattu's men to kill the 
Master and himself took several steps to bring 

Pali Commentaries 431 

about his death. He himself went to the top of 
the Gijjhakuta mountain and hurled at the Buddha 
a big stone, then he set the mad elephant Nalagiri 
against the Enlightened One but all his attempts 
were baffled. All his gain and fame were lost, and 
he became very miserable (Ibid., pt. I, pp. 138-139). 
A conversation once took place between 
Brahmadatta and Suppiya, a paribbajaka. Suppiya 
said that the Buddha was a propounder of non- 
action, annihilation, and self-mortification. He 
further said that the Buddha was of low birth and 
he did not possess any super-human knowledge. 
Brahmadatta, on the other hand, was of opinion 
that he should not follow his teacher in performing 
evil deed. He said that if his teacher worked with 
fire, it did not behove him to do so ; if his teacher 
played with a black snake, it was not intended 
that he should also do like that. He further said, 
" All beings enjoy the fruits of their karma. Karma 
is their own, father is not responsible for his son's 
deeds and son is not responsible for his father's 
deeds. So also mother, brother, sister, pupil, and 
others are not responsible for one another's action. 
Three jewels (Triratana) namely, the Buddha, 
Dhamma, and Samgha are abused by me. To 
rebuke an ariya (elect) is a great sin." Brahmadatta 
spoke highly of the Master thus : " The Buddha 
is the Blessed One, an arahat (saint), supremely 
wise, etc. " He also spoke highly of the Dhamma 
and the Samgha. Thus Suppiya and his pupil 
Brahmadatta were holding contrary views. In the 
evening all of them arrived in the garden of the 
king named Ambalatthika. In that garden the king 
had a beautiful garden-house. The Buddha took 
his residence at that house for one night. Suppiya 
also took shelter in the garden. At night bhikkhus 
were seated surrounding the Buddha calmly and 
without the least noise. In the first watch of the 
night the bhikkhus sat in the mandalamala (sitting- 
hall) of the house. The Buddha went to the spot 
and asked them about the topic of their discussion. 

432 A History of Pali Literature 

The bhikkhus told him that they were discussing 
the contrary views of Suppiya and Brahmadatta 
and the endless virtues of the Buddha. The Buddha 
then solved their topics of discussion by the long 
discourse known as the Brahmajala Suttanta (S.V,, 
pt. I, pp. 26-44). 

The Sumangalavilasim furnishes us with an 
account which embodies the tradition regarding the 
recital of the Digha Nikaya in the First Council. 

One week after the parinibbana of the Buddha 
at the salavana of the Mallas near Kusinara, on the 
full-moon day in the month of Vaisakha, a monk 
named Subhadda who took ordination in old age 
spoke thus, ** Friend, you need not lament, you 
need not grieve. We are free from the Mahasamana 
who used to trouble us by asking us to perform this 
or that act." Hearing this Mahakassapa thought 
that in order to save the monks from such people 
and to save the saddhamma from destruction, it 
was necessary to hold a council. He addressed the 
assembly of monks to rehearse the Dhamma and 
Vinaya. On the 21st day after the Buddha's 
parinibbana, five hundred theras who were all 
Arahats and possessed of analytical knowledge were 

The people worshipped the dead body of the 
Buddha with incense, garland, etc., for a week. 
It was placed on a funeral pyre but there was no 
fire for a week and in the third week since his death, 
his bones, etc., were worshipped in the Mote-hall 
and the relics were divided on the fifth day of the 
bright half of the month of Jaistha. At the time 
of the distribution of relics many bhikkhus were 
assembled among whom five hundred were selected. 
The five hundred bhikkhus were given time for 
40 days to remove all their hindrances in order to 
enable them to take part in the proposed rehearsal. 
Mahakassapa with the five hundred bhikkhus went 
to Rajagaha. Other Mahatheras with their own 
retinue went to different places. At this time a 
Mahathera named Purana with 700 bhikkhus con- 

Pali Commentaries 433 

soled the people of Kusinara. Ananda with five 
hundred bhikkhus returned to Jetavana at Savatthl. 
The people at Savatth! seeing Ananda coming there 
thought that the Buddha would be in their midst ; 
but being disappointed in this and learning the 
news of the Master's parinibbana they began to cry. 
Ananda worshipped the Gandhakuti where the 
Buddha used to dwell, opened its door and cleansed 
it. While cleansing the Gandhakuti, he cried saying, 
" The Blessed One, this is the time of your taking 
bath, preaching, instructing the bhikkhus, this is 
the time of your lying down, sleeping, washing your 
mouth, and face ". He went to Subha's house for 
alms where he preached Subhasuttam of the Digha 
Nikaya. After leaving the bhikkhus at Jetavana, 
he went to Rajagaha to take part in the proposed 
rehearsal. Other bhikkhus who were selected to 
take part in the rehearsal also came to Rajagaha. 
All the selected bhikkhus observed uposatha on the 
full-moon day of the month of Aadha and spent the 
rainy season. The bhikkhus approached Ajatasattu 
and requested him to repair eighteen mahaviharas 
of Rajagaha. The king had them repaired. He 
also built a beautiful and well-decorated pandal near 
the Vebhara mountain at the foot of the Sattapanni 
cave, for them. This pandal was like that built by 
Vissakamma in heaven. Five hundred seats were 
prepared in this pandal for five hundred bhikkhus. 
The seat of the President was on the south facing 
the north. In the middle there was a dhammasana 
in which Ananda and Upali took their seats and 
preached Dhamma and Vinaya. Then Dhamma and 
Vinaya were repeated simultaneously by the five 
hundred bhikkhus. The question arose as to the 
competency of Ananda to take part. He was not an 
Arahat. Hearing this Ananda became ashamed 
and after exertion he acquired saintship at night. 
All the theras were present while Ananda's seat was 
vacant. Some said that Ananda came to the 
spot after coming through the sky and some were 
of opinion that he came through the earth. Maha- 

434 A History of Pali Literature 

kassapa declared the attainment of Arahatshij 
Ananda by shouting " Sadhu, Sadhu ". Maha- 
kassapa asked whether Dhamma was to be rehearsed 
first or the Vinaya. The opinion of the assembly 
was that Vinaya should be rehearsed first as the 
existence of the Buddhasasana depended on Vinaya. 
The question arose as to who would answer the 
questions of Vinaya. It was decided that Upali 
would be the first person to answer such questions. 
Mahakassapa taking the consent of the assembly 
asked him where the first parajika rule was enacted. 
The reply was that at Vaisali it was enacted concerning 
Sudinna Kalandakaputto on the subject of methuna- 
dhamma (sexual intercourse). All the questions 
were put to Upali who answered them and all the 
bhikkhus repeated and remembered them. The 
question arose whether Ananda was competent to 
answer the questions of Vinaya. In the opinion 
of the assembly Ananda was competent, but Upali 
was selected because the Buddha gave him the 
first place among the Vinayadhara bhikkhus. 
Ananda was selected by the assembly to answer 
the questions on Dhamma. The Digha Nikaya 
of the Sutta Pitaka was taken up first for rehearsal. 
The Brahma jalasutta was first rehearsed by Ananda 
and the assembly recited it in chorus. All the 
suttas of the five Nikayas were then rehearsed one 
after another (S.V., pt. I, pp. 2-25). 

The Sumangalavilasim further records some 
interesting information. Ujunna is the name of a 
town. Kannakatthala is the name of a beautiful 
spot. Migadaya is so called because it was given 
for the freedom of deer (S.V., pt. II, p. 349). The 
Blessed One who was dwelling in a great monastery 
at Gijjhakuta, listening to the conversation held 
between the paribbajaka Nigrodha and the disciple 
Sandhana, went through the sky and came to them 
and answered the questions put to by Nigrodha 
(Ibid., p. 362). The kingdom of Gandhara built by 
the sage Gandhara is a trading centre (p. 389), 
Salavatika is the name of a village. It is called 

Pali Commentaries 435 

Salavatika because it is surrounded on all sides by 
the sala trees appearing like a fence (p. 395). 
Manasakata is the name of a village (p. 399). 
Ambavana is a thicket of mangoe-trees. It is a 
beautiful spot having sands scattered on the ground 
like silver leaves and on the top having thick branches 
and leaves of the mangoe-trees. Here the Exalted 
One lived finding delight in solitude (p. 399). In 
the interior of Jetavana there are four big houses, 
e.g., Karerikuti, Kosambakuti, Gandhakuti, and 
Salalaghara. Salalaghara was built by King Pasenadi 
and the rest by Anathapindika (p. 407). There is a 
reference to trees, e.g., sala, sirisa, udumbara or fig 
tree, banyan, and assattha (p. 416). Jambudipa is 
great and it is 10,000 yojanas in extent. There is 
also Majjhimadesa and in the east there is Kajangala 
country (p. 429). There is a reference to seven 
gems, e.g., cakka (wheel), hatthi (elephant), assa 
(horse), mani (jewel), itthi (woman), gahapati or 
householder, painayaka or leader (p. 444). Catum- 
maharajika heaven contains 90,00,000 gods who 
obtain celestial happiness (p. 472). The Abhassara 
gods are those whose bodies shed lustre (p. 510) and 
whose lease of life is 8 kalpas (p. 511). Gijjhakuta 
is so called because it has a pinnacle like a vulture 
and vultures dwell in it (p. 516). Sarandada cetiya 
has been described here as a vihara (p. 521). 
Sunldha and Vassakara were endowed with great 
riches (p. 540). Nadika has been described as a 
village of relatives. Near the lake Nadika, there 
are two villages belonging to the sons of Cullapiti- 
Mahapiti (p. 543). Mara engages creatures to do 
mischief to others and kill them (p. 555). There 
are lakes, e.g., Kharassara, Khandassara, Kakassara, 
Bhaggassara, etc. (p. 560). There is a reference to 
weavers in Benares who produce soft and beautiful 
garments (p. 563). Buddhaghosa understands 
sukara-maddava by the flesh of a grown-up hog 
neither too young nor too old. It is soft and 
glossy (p. 568). Buddhaghosa refers to four kinds 
of bed, e.g., the bed of one who is merged in sensual 

436 A History of Pali Literature 

pleasures, the bed of the departed spirit, the bed 
of a lion, and the bed of the Tathagata (p. 574). 
There is a mention of the three pitakas, five nikayas, 
nine angas, and 84,000 dhammakkhandhas (p. 591). 
Buddhaghosa interprets " attha Malla-pamokkha 
in the sense that the eight Mallarajas were middle- 
aged and were endowed with strength (p. 596). 
Makutabandhana is a cetiya of the Mallas and is a 
sala (covered hall) which gives satisfaction and 
blessings to the Malla chief (p. 596). Bajagaha is 
25 yojanas in extent from Kusinara (p. 609). 
Jambudipa is 10,000 yojanas in extent, Aparagoyana 
is 7,000 yojanas in extent, and Uttarakuru is 8,000 
yojanas in extent (p. 623). Jotipala is so called on 
account of his lustre and rearing others up (p. 660). 
The Sakiyas and the Koliyas cultivated lands well 
because they confined the river Rohim by a bund. 
This river flows between the territories of the 
Sakyas and the Koliyas (p. 672). 

The Papaficasudam is an extensive commentary 
on the Majjhima Nikaya written 
(2) Papancasu- by Buddhaghosa at the request of a 

^% C he m M e al." thera named Buddhamitta in the 

Nikaya. style more or less of the Sumangala- 

vilasini. In the commentary on 
the first ten suttas of the Majjhima Nikaya, Buddha- 
ghosa * discusses the following topics : the four 
suttanikkhepas, balabojjhanga, Dhammacakka, the 
origin of all the dhammas, Nibbana, earth, Tatha- 
gata, Abhisambuddha, destruction of sin, false 
belief, saddha, faith, four puggalas, obstacles in the 
path leading to Nibbana, contact, old age, death, 
suffering, right recollection, mindfulness, pleasing 
sensation, and lastly emancipation. 2 

The Papaficasudam furnishes us with some 

1 This commentary by Buddhaghosa has been edited for the 
P.T.S., London, by J. H. Woods and D. Kosambi. 

2 There is a printed Burmese edition of this work published by 
the P. G. Mundine Pitaka Press, Rangoon (J.R.A.S., 1894) ; and 
also an excellent Siamese edition of this commentary printed and 
published in three volumes. 

Pali Commentaries 437 

interesting historical and geographical details. There 
was a janapada named Kuru and the kings of that 
province used to be called Kums (p. 225), of whose 
origin a fanciful story is told in the commentary. 
King Mahamandhata was a cakravartti-raja, a 
title which he had acquired for his having had a 
cakraratana with the help of which he could go to 
any place he liked. He conquered Pubbavideha, 
Aparagoyana, Uttarakuru besides the devalokas. 
While returning from Uttarakuru, a large number 
of the inhabitants of that country followed Maha- 
mandhata to Jambudipa and the place in Jambudipa 
where they settled became known as Kururattham 
including provinces, villages, towns, etc. It is in 
this sense that the word Kurusu (i.e., among the 
Kurus) occurs in the Pali-Buddhist Literature 
(pp. 225-226). 

There is also another fanciful explanation 
of the origin of the name of Savatthi. Savatthi 
was a place where one could get, it is asserted, what- 
ever he wanted ; hence it is called Savatthi (Sabba- 
atthi). In answer to a question by some merchants 
as to what the place contained, it was told " sabbam 
atthi " (there is everything). Hence it is called 
Savatthi (vol. I, p. 59). The commentary refers in- 
cidentally to Ganga and Yamuna (p. 12), to Savatthi, 
Jetavana, and Giribbaja which is so called because 
it stands like a cow-pen surrounded by a mountain 
(p. 151). It also refers to four more rivers of India 
besides Ganga and Yamuna, e.g., Bahuka, Sundarika, 
Sarassati, and Bahumati (p. 178), and to a mountain 
named Cittala, It relates the activities of Gautama 
Buddha among the Kurus (p. 225), at the Bodhi 
tree, and at Lumbinivana (p. 13). It is pointed 
out that the abode of Tavatimsa gods is beautiful ; 
that the four great kings were the employees of 
Sakka, king of gods ; that Vejayanta palace is one 
thousand yojanas in extent and that the Sudhamma 
or the mote-hall of the gods is 500 yojanas in length 
and the chariot of the Vejayanta heaven is 150 
yojanas in extent (p. 225). In this book we find 

438 A History of Pali Literature 

that there are two kinds of Buddha's instructions ; 
Sammutidesana and Paramatthadesana. The 
Paramatthadesana includes anicca (impermanent), 
dukkham (suffering), anatta (impermanent), 
khandha (constituents), dhatu (elements), ayatana 
(sphere), and satipatthana (right recollection) (p. 137). 
A most important information is found in this 
book of Damilabhasa and Andhabhasa, i.e., the 
languages of the Tamils and the Andhras who may 
now roughly be said to be represented by the 
Telegus (p. 138). Tree worship was in practice ; 
there were trees, it is said, which were worthy of 
worship in villages and countries (p. 119). Cultiva- 
tion and cow-keeping are the main occupations of a 
householder and they are for his good (p. 111). 
Five kinds of medicines are mentioned, e.g., sappi 
(clarified butter, ghee), navamta (butter), tela (oil), 
madhu (honey), and phanita (molasses) {p. 90). In 
this text, Mara is called Pajapati because he lords 
over a large assembly (p. 33). There are four 
kinds of pathavi (earth) : earth with signs, earth 
with load, earth with sense object, and earth 
with selection (p. 25). 

The Paparicasudam (Vol. II) further narrates 
that the Himavanta (Himalayas) is 3,000 yojanas in 
width (p. 6). Vesali is so called because it expanded 
itself (p. 19). Rajagaha is 60,000 yojanas in distance 
from Kapilavatthu (p. 152). Nadika has been 
referred to as a lake (p. 235). Ghositarama is so 
called because the arama or monastery was built 
by the banker, named Ghosita (p. 390). Jambudipa 
is mentioned here as a forest and Pubba-Videha, an 
island (p. 423). 

The Saratthapakasim is a commentary on the 

Samyutta Nikaya written by 

(3) ssrattha- Buddhaghosa at the request of a 

SSS-IS *; thera named Jotipala. 

Samyutta Nikaya. It has been published in two 

volumes by the P.T.S. under the 

able editorship of F. L. Woodward. The following 

are the manuscripts and printed editions available : 

Pali Commentaries 439 

(1) Palm-leaf manuscript in Sinhalese 

character at the Adyar Oriental 
Library, Madras. 

(2) Incomplete Sinhalese printed edition by 

Vajirasara and Saninda Theras, 
Colombo, 1900-1911. 

(3) Simon Hewavitarne Bequest edition of 

1924, Vol. I, revised and edited by 
W. P. Mahathera. 

(4) A beautifully written palm-leaf manuscript 

in Sinhalese character. 

In this commentary the word c guru ' is always 
used in this world (loke) as referring to the Buddha. 
The Blessed One is described as the possessor of 
ten potentialities (dasa baladharo) (Vol. I, p. 12). 
The commentator speaks of a land where the cows 
graze near the Ganges and the Yamuna (Ibid., p. 13). 
Anga and Magadha are described as having plenty 
of food (p. 15). There is a reference to the four 
Buddhas (cattaro Buddha) : sabbafmu Buddha 
(all knowing), pacceko Buddha (individual), catusacco 
Buddha (master of four truths), and suta Buddha 
(Buddha who has heard) (Ibid., p. 25). 

Saddhamma is explained in this commentary as 
the term which includes the five silas, ten silas, and 
four objects of recollection or mindfulness (p. 55). 
The Mahavana is described here as a big natural 
forest extending up to the Himalayas (p. 67). 
Pancaveda is meant here as the five Vedas including 
the Itihasa (p. 81). By vimuttacitta the com- 
mentator means a mind which is free from the 
Kammatthanas (p. 104). Nathaputta is explained 
here as Nathassaputta or the son of Natha (p. 130), 
Mallika is mentioned as the daughter of a poor 
garland-maker (p. 140). According to the com- 
mentator, Kisagotami was kisa or lean because 
she had not got much flesh (p. 190). Loka refers 
to the khandhaloka (the world of constituents), 
dhatu loka (the world of elements), ayatana loka 
(the world of abode), sampattibhavaloka (the world 


440 A History of Pali Literature 

of prosperity), and vipattibhavaloka (the world of 
adversity) (p. 201). 

There is a reference to the Mandakinipok- 
kharam which is 50 yojanas in extent (p. 281) 
and to the Kailasa mountain inhabited by a celestial 
being named Nagadanta (p. 282). Gaya is 
mentioned here as a village (p. 302). Siha-nada is 
explained as great uproar (Vol. II, 46). Ganga and 
Yamuna are mentioned as two great rivers (p. 54). 
Dakkhinagiri is a janapada on the southern side 
of the hill encircling Rajagaha (p. 176). There is a 
reference to cow-killer who kills cows and severs 
the flesh from the bone (p. 218). 

The Manorathapuram l is a commentary on the 
Anguttara Nikaya written by 
(4) Manoratha- Buddhaghosa at the request of a 
SS^-S; th named Bhaddanta. 2 
Ahguttara Nikaya. The Manorathapurani deals with 

the following topics : sloth and 
stupor, haughtiness, desire for sensual pleasures, 
friendliness, mental emancipation, suffering, right 
realisation, functions of the mind, bojjhanga 
(supreme knowledge), thirty-two signs of a great 
man, puggala (human types), Tathagata, realisation 
of the four patisambhidas or analytical knowledge, ac- 
counts of Aiinakondafina, Sariputta and Moggallana, 
Mahakassapa, Anuruddha, Bhaddiya, Pindolabhara- 
dvaja, Punna-Mantaniputta, Mahakaccana, Culla- 
Maha-Panthaka, Subhuti, Revata, Kahkharevata, 
Sona Kolivisa, Sona Kutikanna, Sivali, Vakkali, 
Bahula-Ratthapala, Kundadhana, Varigisa, Upasena, 
Dabba, Pilindavaccha, Bahiya-Daruciriya, Kumara 
Kassapa, Mahakotthita, Ananda, Uruvela Kassapa, 
Kaludayi, Bakkula, Sobhita, Upali, Nanda, Nandaka, 
Mahakappina, Sagata, Radha, Mogharaja, Maha- 

1 There is a #ka on the Manorathapurani written by a pupil 
of Sumedha Thera who flourished in the reign of Parakramabahu. 
This work is also known as the Catutthasaratthamarijusa. 

2 Dr. Max Wallesar has edited the first volume of this work 
for the P.T.S., London. The complete work has been printed 
and published in Ceylon, Burma, and Siam. 

Pali Commentaries 441 

pajapati Gotami, Khema, Uppalavanna, Patacara, 
Dhammadinna, Nanda, Sona, Sakiila, Bhadda- 
Kundalakesa, Bhadda-Kapilani, Bhadda-Kaccana, 
Kisagotami, Sigalakamata, Tapassa-Bhallika, 
Sudatta Gahapati, Citta Gahapati, Hatthaka, Maha- 
iiama Sakka, Ugga Gahapati, Sura, Jivaka Komara- 
bhacca, Nakulapita Gahapati, Sujata Senanidhlta, 
Visakha Migaramata, Khujjuttara-Samavati, Uttara 
Nandamata, Suppavasa Koliyadhita, Suppiya, 
Katiyani, Nakulamata Gahapatani, Kaliupasika. 1 

This commentary contains an interesting 
account of the theras and theris. As to the account 
of the theris contained in this commentary, the 
readers are referred to my work, " Women in 
Buddhist Literature ", Chap. VIII. An account of 
some of the prominent theras is given below. 

Anuruddha was the foremost among those who 
had the divine eye. At the time of the Buddha's 
visit to Kapilavatthu, the Sakiyan princes, 
Anuruddha, brother of Mahanama, Bhaddiya, 
Ananda, Bhagu, Kimbila, and Devadatta followed 
by the barber Upali renounced the worldly life 
with the intention of becoming monks. They 
asked admission into the congregation and the 
Master ordained them (Manorathapurani, P.T.S., 
Vol. I, pt. I, pp. 183-192). 

Pindola-Iihdradvdja was also one of the eminent 
of the biiikkhus. He was born in a brahmin family 
at Rajagaha. He was versed in the three Vedas. 
He was called Pindola, for wherever he went he 
asked for food. He once heard the Master preaching 
the Norm at Rajagaha. Full of faith he asked for 
admission into the Order. The Blessed One or- 
dained him, as he soon attained arahatship (Ibid., 
pp. 196-199). 

Punna-Mantdniputta was the son of a brahmani 
named Mantam. He was born in a brahmin family 

1 Vide " Women Leaders of the Buddhist Reformation ", pub- 
lished in the J.R.A.S., 1893 ; it is an English translation of some 
portions of the Manorathapurani. 

442 A History of Pali Literature 

at Donavatthunagara which was not far off the 
city of Kapilavatthu. He was the nephew of the 
thera Annakondanna, one of the five bhikkhus who 
were converted by the Master at Isipatana where 
he first set rolling the wheel of Law. It was through 
Annakondanna that Punna was inspired with faith 
in the Buddha. He received ordination and in 
due course attained arahatship. He had five 
hundred disciples who also attained arahatship 
under his guidance. He was also declared by the 
Lord as one of the foremost of the bhikkhus (Ibid., 
pp. 199-204). 

Mahdkdccdna was the foremost among those 
who could fully explain the brief utterances of the 
Tathagata. He was born as the son of a chaplain 
at Ujjeni. At the request of the King Canda- 
pajjota, Mahakaccana went to the place where the 
Buddha was in order to bring the Blessed One to 
Ujjeni. Mahakaccana heard the Master preaching 
the Norm. At the end of the discourse he won 
arahatship. He informed the Buddha of king's 
desire. The Blessed One did not grant his request, 
but bade him go back to Ujjeni and assured him 
that the king would be glad to see him alone. 
The king was highly pleased with Mahakaccana 
for his attainments (Ibid., pp. 204^-209). 

Revata was the foremost among those who were 
dwellers in a forest. He was the younger brother of 
Sariputta. He received ordination from the 
bhikkhus and performed the duties of a monk in 
the forest. He attained arahatship in time (Ibid., 
pp. 223-230). 

Sona-Koliwsa was the foremost among those who 
put forth great efforts (araddhaviriyani). He was 
born in a Setthikula. He was brought up in great 
luxury. Once he heard the Master preaching the 
doctrine. He took permission from his parents and 
received ordination. He perceived that the highest 
end could not be attained in luxury. So he put 
forth great efforts and suffered every sort of morti- 
fications. But he could not attain arahatship. 

Pali Commentaries 443 

He desired to return to the worldly life and perform 
meritorious acts. The Lord came to know the 
thera's thought, and exhorted him. The thera in 
due course won arahatship (Ibid., pp. 231-237). 

Rahula-Ratthapala. Rahula was the foremost 
of the Samaneras, and Ratthapala of the youths 
who left the world in search of * amata \ Rahula 
was the son of the Buddha and Ratthapala was 
born in a setthi family of the kingdom of Kuru. 
At the time of the Buddha's visit to Kapilavatthu 
Rahula received ordination from the Buddha. In 
course of time he attained arahatship. 

Once the Lord visited the Thullakotthita-nigama 
(in the Kururattha) the place of Ratthapala's 
birth. Ratthapala took permission from his parents 
and received ordination from the Master and went 
with the Buddha to Savatthi. He attained arahat- 
ship. In order to see his parents he once went to 
Thullakotthita-nigama and admonished them. Then 
he came back to the place where the Buddha was 
(Ibid., pp. 251-260). 

Vanglsa was born in a brahmana family at 
Savatthi. He was versed in the three Vedas. He 
learnt the ' chavasisa mantam ' by which he could 
tell the place of birth of deceased persons. He 
travelled into different places and gained his living 
by this sippa. He once met Buddha and had 
conversation with him. The result was that 
Vanglsa received ordination. He soon attained 
arahatship. Whenever he visited the Buddha he 
visited him with a hymn of praise. Accordingly he 
was reckoned as the foremost of the Patibhana- 
vantanam or those possessed of intelligence or ready 
wit (Ibid., pp. 266-270). 

Kumdra Kassapa was born at Rajagaha. His 
mother, when she was pregnant, received ordination 
and became a Samaneri. As the rearing up a child 
was not consistent with the life of a Samaneri, 
the child was reared up by Pasenadi, King of 
Kosala. When he grew up he received ordination, 
eventually won arahatship, and shined among the 

444 A History of Pali Literature 

preachers. Accordingly he was reckoned as the 
foremost of the ' cittakathikanam ' or a wise speaker, 
an orator or a preacher (Ibid., pp. 283-285). 

MaMkotthita was the foremost among those 
who possessed analytical knowledge. He was born 
in a brahmin family at Savatthl. He learned the 
three Vedas. He once heard the Master preaching 
the Norm. Full of faith he received ordination 
and attained arahatsliip through analytical know- 
ledge (Ibid., pp. 285-286). 

Ananda was the foremost among those who 
were vastly learned in the doctrine. He with 
Anuruddha, Bhaddiya, Bhagu, Kimbila, and Deva- 
datta followed by Upali received ordination from 
the Master. He was the personal attendant of the 
Buddha, and attained arahatship just before the 
work of the First Buddhist Council began (Ibid., 
pp. 286-296). 

Urn vela Kassapa was the foremost of those who 
had great followings. He with his two brothers 
became ascetics of the Jatila sect. All the three 
had a good number of followers. The Lord first 
converted the eldest brother, Uruvela Kassapa, 
by showing him his supernatural powers. The 
next two brothers naturally followed suit (Ibid., 
pp. 297-300). 

Updli was the foremost of those who knew 
the Vinaya rules. He was a barber. The Sakiyan 
princes Anuruddha, Ananda, and others with their 
attendant Upali, the barber, visited the Blessed 
One with the intention of becoming monks. They 
asked for admission into the Order, and in order 
to curb their pride, they requested that the barber 
should be first ordained. Their request was granted 
(Ibid., pp. 311-312). 

Buddhaghosa wrote commentaries 

Commentafieson Qn three books Q f th Khuddaka 

the Khudclaka Ni- _ 

the Khud- Nikaya, e.g., (1) Khuddakapatha, 
m " W Dhammapada, and (3) Sutta 

Pali Commentaries 445 

Khuddakapatha Atthakatha is known as the 
Paramatthajotika. * 

Like other commentaries of Buddhaghosa, the 
Paramatthajotika, too, contains a good deal of 
interesting information. To start with, there is a 
very interesting but mythical origin of the Licchavis 
which is summarised as follows : 

" There was an embryo in the womb of the 
chief queen of Benares. Being aware of it, she 
informed the king who performed the rites and 
ceremonies for the protection of it. With the embryo 
thus perfectly protected, the queen entered the 
delivery chamber when it was fully mature. With 
ladies of great religious merit, the delivery took 
place at the dawn of day. A lump of flesh of the 
colour of lac and of bandhu and jivaka flowers 
came out of her womb. Then the other queens 
thought that to tell the king that the chief queen 
was delivered of a mere lump of flesh while a son, 
resplendent like gold, was expected, would bring 
the displeasure of the king upon them all ; therefore, 
they, out of fear of exciting displeasure of the 
king, put that lump of flesh into a casket, and after 
shutting it up, put the royal seal upon it, and placed 
it on the flowing waters of the Ganges. As soon 
as it was abandoned, a god wishing to provide 
for its safety, wrote with a piece of good cinnabar 
on a slip of gold the words, * the child of the chief 
queen of the King of Benares ' and tied it to the 
casket. Then he placed it on the flowing current 
of the Ganges at a place where there was no danger 
from aquatic monsters. At that time an ascetic 
was travelling along the shore of the Ganges close 
by a settlement of cowherds. When he came down 
to the Ganges in the morning and saw a vessel 
coming on, he caught hold of it, thinking that it 

1 There is a valuable edition of the Commentary on the Khudda- 
kapatha by Welipitiya Dewananda Thera and revised by Mahagoda 
Siri Sfanissara Thera, Colombo, 1922. 

Tt includes the commentaries on Jataka, Sutta Nipata, Dham- 
mapada, and Khuddakapatha. 

446 A History of Pali Literature 

contained rags (pamsukula), but seeing the tablet 
with the words written thereon and also the seal 
and mark of the King of Benares, he opened it 
and saw that piece of flesh. Seeing it, he thus 
thought within himself : 6 It may be an embryo 
and there is nothing stinking or putrid in it ', and 
taking it to his hermitage, he placed it on a pure 
place. Then after half a month had passed, the 
lump broke up into two pieces of flesh ; the ascetic 
nursed them with still greater care. After the 
lapse of another half month, each of the pieces of 
flesh developed fine pimples for the head and the 
two arms and legs. After half a month from that 
time, one of the pieces of flesh became a son resplen- 
dent like gold, and the other became a girl. The 
ascetic was filled with paternal affection for the 
babies, and milk came out of his thumb. From 
that time forward, he obtained milk from rice ; 
the rice he ate himself and gave the babies the 
milk to drink. Whatever got into the stomach of 
these two infants looked as if put into a vessel of 
precious transparent stone (mani), so that they 
seem to have had no skin (nicchavi) ; others said, 
' The two (the skin and the thing in the stomach) 
are attached to each other (Hna-chavi) as if they 
were sewn up together, so that these infants owing 
to their being nicchavi, i.e., having no skin, or on 
account of their being Hna-chavi, i.e., attached 
skin or same skin, came to be designated as 
Licchavis. The ascetic having to nurse these two 
children had to enter the village in the early morning 
for alms and to return when the day was far 
advanced. The cowherds coming to know this 
conduct of his, told him, * Reverend Sir, it is a great 
trouble for an ascetic to nurse and bring up children ; 
kindly make over the children to us, we shall nurse 
them, do you please attend to your own business '. 
The ascetic assented gladly to their proposal. On 
the next day, the cowherds levelled the road, 
scattered flowers, unfurled banners, and came to 
the hermitage with music. The ascetic handed 

Pali Commentaries 447 

over the two children with these words : * The 
children are possessed of great virtue and goodness, 
bring them up with great care and when they are 
grown up, marry them to each other ; please the 
king and getting a piece of land, measure out a 
city, and install the prince there \ c All right, 
sir ', promised they, and taking away the children, 
they brought them up. The children, when grown 
up, used to beat with fists and kicks the children 
of the cowherds whenever there was a quarrel in 
the midst of their sports. They cried and when 
asked by their parents, 4 Why do you cry ? ' They 
said, * These nurslings of the hermit, without 
father and mother, beat us very hard \ Then the 
parents of these other children would say, c These 
children harrass the others and trouble them, 
they are not to be kept, they must be abandoned ' 
(vijjitabba). Thenceforward that country measur- 
ing three hundred yojanas is called Vajji. Then 
the cowherds securing the good will and permission 
of the king, obtained that country, and measuring 
out a town there, they anointed the boy, King. 
After giving marriage of the boy, who was then 
sixteen years of age, with the girl the king made 
it a rule : c No bride is to be brought in from the 
outside, nor is any girl from here to be given away 
to any one '. The first time they had two children 
a boy and a girl, and thus a couple of children 
was born to them for sixteen times. Then as these 
children were growing up, one couple after another, 
and there was no room in the city for their gardens, 
pleasure groves, residential houses and attendants, 
three walls were thrown up round the city at a 
distance of a quarter of a yojana from each other ; 
as the city was thus again and again made larger 
and still larger (visalikata), it came to be called 
Vesali. This is the history of Vesali " (Para- 
matthajotika on the Khuddakapatha, P.T.S., 
pp. 158-160). 

In the Khuddakapatha Commentary we read 
that at Savatthl, there was a householder who was 

448 A History of Pali Literature 

rich and wealthy. He had faith in the Buddha, 
One day he fed the Buddha along with the Bhikkhu- 
samgha. Once King Pasenadi being in need of 
money sent for the householder who replied that he 
was concealing the treasures and he would see the 
king with them afterwards (pp. 216-217). 

While the Buddha was at Savatthi, many 
bhikkhus of different places went to him to learn 
kammatthana (objects of meditation). Buddha 
taught them kammatthana suitable to their nature. 
Five hundred bhikkhus learnt kammatthana from 
him and went to a forest by the side of the Himalayas 
to practise it. The tree deities of the place became 
frightened at seeing them there and tried to drive 
them out in various ways. The bhikkhus being 
troubled by them went to the Buddha to whom 
they related the story of their trouble. The Buddha 
said that they cherished no friendly feelings (metta) 
towards the deities and that was the cause of 
trouble. Accordingly the Buddha taught them 
mettasuttam and asked them to practise it. After- 
wards the deities became their friends (pp. 231 

The Khudclakapatha Commentary l furnishes us 
with many new and important materials concerning 
religious and political history of ancient India. It 
has references to the hermitage of Anathapindika 
at Jetavana (p. 23), Kapilavatthu (p. 23), 18 great 
monasteries in Rajagaha (p. 94), Sattapanni cave 
(p. 95), Vesali (p. 161), Magadha, Gayfiafoa '(p. 204), 
Ganga (p. 163), Bimbisara (p. 163), Licchavi (p. 163), 
Upali (p. 97), Mahakassapa (p. 91), Ananda (p. 92), 
Mahagovinda (p. 128), Visakha, Dhammadinna 
(p. 204), Mallika (p. 129), etc. 

In this commentary, the explanations are dis- 
proportionate to the short readings of the text. 
Its style is heavy and laboured, and its disquisitions 
are in many places redundant. It seems, therefore, 

1 The Khuddakapatfia Commentary has been edited for the 
P.T.S. by Helmer Smith from a collation by Mabel Hunt. 

Pali Commentaries 449 

highly doubtful if this work can really claim to 
have been written by Buddhaghosa. 

The Dhammapada-atthakatha * is a voluminous 
work which explains the stanzas of 
the Dhammapada and contains a 
mass of illustrative tales of the 
nature of the Jatakas. It derives a considerable 
number of its stories from the four nikayas, the 
Vinaya, the Udana, the works of Buddhaghosa, 
and the Jataka Book. But it is more intimately 
related to the Jataka Book, for over fifty stories 
of the Dhammapada Commentary are either deriva- 
tives of Jataka stories or close parallels. In addition 
many other Jataka stories are referred to and many 
Jataka stanzas are quoted. So it is certain that the 
Jataka Book is earlier than the Dhammapada 

The Dhammapada-atthakatha is a commentary 
on the stanzas of the Dhammapada which is an 
anthology of 423 sayings of the Buddha in verses. 
An analysis of each story in the Dhammapada 
Commentary shows that each story consists of eight 
subdivisions : (1) Citation of the stanza (gatha) to 
which the story relates, (2) mention of the person 
or persons with reference to whom the story was 
told, (3) story proper, or, more strictly, story of the 
present (Pacciippanna-vatthu), closing with the 
utterance of the (4) stanza or stanzas, (5) word-for- 
word commentary or gloss on the stanza, (6) brief 
statement of the spiritual benefits which accrued 
to the hearer or hearers, (7) story of the past, 
or, more accurately, story of previous existences 
(atita-vatthu), and (8) identification of the personages 
of the story of the past with those of the story of 
Ihe present. Sometimes the story of the past 

1 Prof. H. C. Norman has edited the complete volume for the 
P.T.S. ; Mr. E. W. Burlingame has translated it into English under 
the title of * Buddhist Legends ' in three parts (Harvard Oriental 
Series edited by Lanman, Vols. 28, 29, and 30) ; C. Duroiseile has 
translated it into English in the periodical Buddhism, Vol. II, 
Rangoon, 1905-1908. 

460 A History of Pali Literature 

precedes the story of the present, and not infre- 
quently more than one story of the past is given 
{Buddhist Legends, pt. I, pp. 28-29). 

Mr. BurUngame in his Introduction to stories 
of Dhammapada Commentary (Buddhist Legends, 
pt. I, p. 26), has rightly said that the Dhamma- 
pada-atthakatha (as a matter of fact all other Pali 
atthakathas) is in name and form a commentary. 
But in point of fact it has become nothing more 
or less than a huge collection of legends and folk- 
tales. The exegesis of the text has become a matter 
of secondary importance altogether and is relegated 
to the background. 

The Jataka Book consists of 550 stories relating 
to previous births of the Buddha. Our present 
edition (FausbolTs edition) is not an edition of the 
text but of the commentary. 

Each Jataka consists of the following sub- 
divisions : a verse together with a commentary 
without which the verse will be unintelligible, a 
framework of story stating when and where and 
on what occasion the story is supposed to have been 
spoken by the Buddha ; and finally the conclusion 
in which the characters of the story are identified 
with the Buddha and his contemporaries in a 
previous birth. 

We have pointed out the characteristics of a 
Jataka story and also of a Dhammapada-atthakatha 
story and it is not unreasonable to say that in 
general character and structure of parts, the Jataka 
Book and the Dhammapada-atthakatha do not differ. 

Doubts have been raised whether the work 
can really be attributed to Buddhaghosa. The 
colophon, however, definitely ascribes the authorship 
to the celebrated commentator, and there is hardly 
any reason to doubt its authority. The scheme of 
the commentary is systematic and can easily be 
followed. Each story has been amplified by a good 
story, and at the end of each story interpretations 
of words have been given. The language is easily 
intelligible. The work as a whole is full of materials 

Pali Commentaries 451 

which, however, should be properly and carefully 
read and utilised for the study of social, religious, 
political, and economic conditions of India in the 
5th century A.D. Besides, there are in this work 
humorous tales, animal stories, e.g., the story of 
Parileyyaka, legends of saints, e.g., Visakha, Pata- 
cara, etc. Some stories of the Dhammapada are 
derived from the Vinaya Pitaka, e.g., Devadatta, 
Bodhirajakumara, Channa, etc. ; some from Udana, 
e.g., Mahakassapa, Samavati, Visakha, Sona Koti- 
karma, Sundari, Nanda, Suppavasa, etc. Some of 
the Jataka stories correspond to some of the stories 
of the Dhammapada Commentary, e.g., Devadhamma, 
Kulavaka, Telapatta, Salittaka, Babbu, Godha, 
Cullapalobhana, Ananusociya, Kesava, Saliya, Kusa, 
Ghata, etc. The Dhammapada Commentary, Then- 
gatha Commentary, and the Anguttara Nikaya Com- 
mentary have some of the stories in common, e.g., 
Kundalakesi, Patacara, Nanda, Khema, Dhamma- 
dinna, etc. Mr. Burlingame is able to point out that 
from the Samyutta are derived seventeen stories, 
fifteen of them almost word for word (Buddhist Le- 
gends, pt. I, pp. 45-46). Milinda Panha contains some 
of the stories mentioned in this work, e.g., Mattha- 
kundali, Sumana, Ekasataka brahmana, Pesakara- 
dhita, Sirima, etc. (vide Buddhist Legends, pt. I, 
pp. 60-62). Parallels to the stories of this work are 
found in the Divyavadana and Tibetan Kandjur 
(Ibid., pp. 63-64). Buddhaghosa says in the pro- 
logue of the Dhammapada-atthakatha that he 
translated the Sinhalese commentaries into Magadhi 
(tanti) adding notes of his own at the request of the 
thera named Kumarakassapa (Dhammapada 
Commentary, Vol. I, pp. 1 and 2). Buddhaghosa 
often mixes up fact and fable without exercising 
any discrimination whatsoever as we find in the 
story of King Parantapa of Kosambi (Dhamma- 
pada-atthakatha, Vol. I, pt. II). The commentator 
also records the account of the c 
Vasavadatta with Udayana as we find 
Svapnavasavadatta. Udayana had ; 

452 A History of Pali Literature 

named Magandiya, the daughter of a brahmin, 
in the Kuru kingdom (Udenavatthu, pp. 161 ff.) 
Anathapindika built a vihara known as the Jetavana 
Vihara for the Buddha at the expense of 54 Kotis of 
Kahapana (Dhammapada Commentary, Vol. I, 
pp. 4-5). A girl of Anathapindika's family went to 
the kingdom of Satavahana and there she offered 
alms to a bhikkhu. A great thera informed King 
Satavahana of it and eventually the girl was made 
the chief queen of the monarch (Ibid., Burmese 
edition, p. 333). Buddhaghosa refers to flying 
through the air on the back of a garuda-bird made 
of wood and sufficient for the accommodation of 
three or four persons (Ibid., Vol. Ill, pp. 134 ff.). 
In the Dhammapada Commentary, Buddhaghosa 
makes mention of a bird called Hatthilinga which is 
described as an animal possessing the strength of 
five elephants. It was in the habit of looking back 
on the track already trodden (Vol. I, pt. 11). 
Buddhaghosa refers to the Mahavihara in Ceylon 
(Dhammapada Commentary, Vol. IV, p. 74) where, 
presumably his commentaries were written. Prof. 
Hardy points out (J.R.A.S., 1898, pp. 741-794) 
that the story of the merchant Ghosaka as related 
by Buddhaghosa in his Manorathapuram, the com- 
mentary on the Anguttara Nikaya, differs from the 
same story told in the Dhammapada-atthakatha. 
It should be borne in mind that Buddhaghosa was 
not the writer of an independent commentary on 
the canonical texts, but he was for the most part 
translating or compiling from various Sinhalese 
commentaries, sometimes from the Maha-attha- 
katha, sometimes from the Mahapaccari, and some- 
times from the Kurunda-atthakatha. Buddhaghosa 
cannot, therefore, be held responsible for variations 
in the narratives which might have been due to the 
differences in the authorship of the great old com- 
mentaries which were the embodiments of joint 
labours of a large number of Buddhist sages and 
scholars who had been working at the interpretation 
of the Master's sayings ever since they were uttered. 

Pali Commentaries 453 

The Dhammapada-atthakatha abounds in 
references to kings, e.g., Bimbisara, Ajatasattu, 
Pasenadi ; to Acelakas, Niganthas, Ajivakas, Jatilas, 
Micchaditthikas ; to lakes, e.g., Anotattadaha ; to 
principal cities, e.g., Takkaslla, Kapilavatthu, 
Kururattha, Kosambi, Kosala, Baranasi, Soreyya, 
Magadha, Rajagaha, Savatthi, Vesali ; to mountains, 
e.g., the Himalayas, Sineru, Gandhamadana, 
Gijjhakuta ; to principal Buddhist women, e.g., 
Mahapajapati Gotami, Khema, Yasodhara, Sumana- 
devi, Mayadevi, Mallika, Patacara, Sujata, Rahula- 
mata, Vasuladatta, Visakha, Suppavasa, Dinna, 
Kisagotami, Rupananda ; to the heavens, e.g., 
Tavatimsa, Tusita ; to forests and tanks, e.g., 
Veluvana, Mahavana, Jetavana, Maiigalapok- 
kharani ; to rivers, e.g., Ganga, Rohim (Vol. II, 
p. 99) ; to the famous physician Jivaka ; to ancient 
Indian tribes, e.g., Licchavis, Mallas ; to distinguished 
persons, e.g., Siddhattha, Sariputta, Mahinda, 
Rahula, Ananda, Vessavana, Sona Kutikanna, 
Moggallana, and Mendaka. 

In the Dhammapada-atthakatha we read that 
there lived at Kosambi a householder's son, Kosambi- 
vasT Tissa Thera, who took ordination from the 
Buddha. His supporter offered his son who was 
seven years old to Tissa. The boy was made a 
samanera by Tissa and as the hair of the samanera 
was being cut, he attained arahatship (Vol. II, 
pp. 182-185). 

Buddhaghosa records legend which has some 
points of agreement with a story in the Skanda- 
purana (Ch. 5, Brahmakhanda). It is recorded 
that there lived at Kosambi a king named Parantapa. 
One day he sat under the sun with his pregnant 
wife who was covered with a red blanket when a 
bird named Hatthilinga having the strength of 
five elephants, took her to be a lump of flesh, came 
to her, and took her away with its claws. The 
queen thought that before it could eat her, she 
would cry out and it would leave her. It was in 
the habit of looking back on the track. The queen 

454 A History of Pali Literature, 

also cried accordingly and the bird left her. At 
that time rain poured heavily and continued through- 
out the night. Early in the morning when the sun 
arose, a son was born to her. A hermit came to 
the spot where the son was born and saw the queen 
on the Nigrodha tree which was not far from his 
hermitage. When the queen introduced herself as a 
Ksatriyani, the hermit brought down the baby 
from the tree. The queen came to the hermitage of 
the sage who accompanied her with her infant son. 
The queen succeeded in tempting him to take her 
as his spouse and they lived as husband and wife. 
One day the hermit looked at the stars and saw 
the star of Parantapa disfigured. He informed her 
of the death of Parantapa of Kosambi. The 
queen cried and told him, "He is my husband and 
I am his queen. If my son had lived there, he 
would have become the king now." The hermit 
assured her that he would help her son to win the 
kingdom. Her son eventually became king and 
was known as Udayana. The new king married 
Samavati, a daughter of the treasurer of 
Kosambi. Buddhaghosa records moreover the 
account of the elopement of Vasavadatta with 
Udayana as we find it in the Svapnavasavadatta 
by Bhasa (Vol. I, pt. II). 

The Dhammapada Commentary gives us de- 
tails regarding the life of the Thera Mahakaccayana. 
We are told that when he was dwelling at Avanti, 
the Buddha was residing at the palace of the 
renowned upasika at Savatthi, Visakha Migaramata ; 
nevertheless, though separated by such a long 
distance from the Master, yet whenever any sermon 
was delivered by the latter on Dhamma, Maha- 
kaccayana used to be present. Therefore a seat 
was reserved for him by the bhikkhus (Vol. II, 
pp. 176-177). We also read in the same commentary 
that when Mahakaccayana was living at the city of 
Kuraraghara in Avanti, an upasaka named Sona 
Kutikanno was pleased with him after listening to 
his religious sermon. The upasaka requested him 

Pali Commentaries 455 

to give him ordination which was given (Vol. IV, 
p. 101). A naga king named Erakapatta was 
taught by the Buddha at the foot of the Sattasiri- 
saka tree at Benares that it was very difficult to be 
born as a human being (Vol. Ill, p. 230). A trader 
of Benares used to trade by putting his goods on 
the back of an ass. Once he went to Taxila for 
trade and gave his ass rest there by taking down 
the goods from its back (Vol. I, p. 123). A trader 
of Benares was going to Savatthi with five hundred 
carts full of red cloth, but he could not cross the 
river as it was full of water, so he had to stay there 
to sell his goods (Vol. Ill, p. 429). At Benares 
there was a rich banker named Mahadhanasetthi. 
His parents taught him dancing and music. Another 
rich banker had a daughter who was trained in 
dancing and music and both of them were married. 
Mahadhanasetthi began to drink wine and was 
addicted to gambling, with the result that he lost 
his own wealth as well as his wife's. Afterwards 
he began to beg for alms (Vol. Ill, pp. 129 foil.). 
A king of Benares learnt a mantra from a young 
brahmin by paying him 1,000 kahapanas as teacher's 
fee. The king saved his life from the hands of the 
barber who was instigated by the senapati to kill 
him by that mantra (Vol. I, pp. 251 foil. ). A brahmin 
of Taxila sent his son Suslma to learn Vedic mantra 
from a teacher who was his father's friend. The 
teacher taught him well (Vol. Ill, p. 445). A young 
man of Benares went to Taxila to learn archery 
from a distinguished teacher and he was well versed 
in the art, and the teacher being satisfied gave his 
daughter in marriage to him (Vol. IV, p. 66). We 
read that a king of Benares went out in disguise to 
enquire whether any of his subjects spoke ill of 
him. For 1,000 kahapanas he learnt from a 
young brahmin of Benares a mantra which enabled 
him to read the evil thoughts of people (Vol. I, 
pp. 251 foil.). In spite of the good government, 
the country was not free from crime. Cakkhupala 
was a physician at Benares. He gave medicine to 

456 A History of Pali Literature 

a woman who deceived him by telling a lie. He 
being angry with her gave her a medicine which 
made her blind (Vol. I, p. 20). Pasenadi, son of 
Mahakosala, was educated at Taxila and Mahali, 
a Lacchavi prince, and a Malla prince of Kusmara 
were his class-mates (Vol. I, pp. 337-338). Kosala 
was not inhabited by the setthis previous to Pasenadi 
of Kosala who asked Mendakasetthi and Dhanaii- 
jayasetthi to settle in the country and they did 
settle there (Vol. I, pp. 384 foil.). Pasenadi of 
Kosala was enamoured of a beautiful woman and 
tried to win her by killing her husband, but he gave 
up this idea when warned by the Buddha (Vol. II, 
pp. 1 foil.). Some thieves were caught and brought 
before the king of Kosala. He ordered them to be 
bound in ropes and chains. They were thrown in 
prison. This information was given by the bhikkhus 
to the Buddha who was asked whether there was any 
stronger tie than this. Buddha replied, " attach- 
ment to wives, sons, and wealth is stronger than other 
ties " (Vol. IV, pp. 54-55). In Kosala a cowherd 
named Nanda was rich and wealthy. He used to 
go to Anathapindika's house from time to time 
taking with him five kinds of preparations from 
cow's milk. He invited the Buddha who accepted 
the invitation. Nanda continued charities for a 
week. On the seventh day Buddha delivered a ser- 
mon on dana, sila, etc., upon which Nanda obtained 
the first stage of sanctification (Vol. I, pp. 322- 
323). Mahasuvanna, a banker of Savatthi, had 
two sons, the first son became a bhikkhu under the 
Buddha and was known as Cakkhupala (Vol. I, 
pp. 3 foil.). Matthakundali was the son of a rich 
and stingy brahmin of Savatthi. Only by saluting 
the Buddha he went to heaven (Ibid., pp. 25 foil.). 
Thullatissa was the Buddha's father's sister's son 
and lived at Savatthi as a bhikkhu. He was 
pacified by the Buddha (Ibid., pp. 37 foil.). Kali- 
yakkhin! was a Yakkhini worshipped by the 
people of Savatthi. She could foretell drought and 
excessive rainfall (Ibid., pp. 45 foil.). Savatthi 

Pali Commentaries 457 

contributed a fair number of the bhikkhus and 
bhikkhunls who acquired fame and renown in the 
Buddhist congregation for the purity of their lives. 
Patacara was the daughter of a rich banker of 
Savatthl. She afterwards became a bhikkhuni after 
great bereavements and came to be known as 
Patacara (Vol. II, pp. 260 foil.). Kisagotami was 
the daughter of a setthi of Savatthl. After the 
death of her only child she went to the Buddha 
with the dead body and requested him to bring 
the dead to life. The Buddha delivered a sermon 
which led her to become a bhikkhuni (Ibid., Vol. II, 
pp. 270 foil.). Anitthigandhakumara fallen from the 
Brahmaloka was reborn in a rich family of Savatthl. 
He used to cry when touched by women. He was 
afterwards converted by the Buddha (Ibid., Vol. Ill, 
pp. 281 foil.). Vakkali born in a brahmin family 
of Savatthl became a bhikkhu seeing the beauty of 
the Buddha's body (Ibid., Vol. IV, p. 118). A 
servant of a brahmin of Savatthl became a bhikkhu 
and subsequently attained arahatship (Ibid., Vol. IV, 
p. 167). Nanda was the son of Mahapajapati 
Gotami. He was made a bhikkhu by the Buddha 
at Savatthl (Ibid., pp. 15 foil.). 

The Dhammapada Commentary refers to the 
long continued jealousy of the heretics towards 
Buddhism. Moggallana, one of the chief disciples 
of the Buddha, was struck by certain heretics with 
the help of some hired men (Vol. Ill, pp. 65 foil.). 
He used to dwell in Kullavalagama in Magadha. 
At first he was very lazy, but being encouraged by 
the Buddha he exerted strenuously and fulfilled 
savakaparami. It is to be noted that Sariputta 
who was a Magadhan obtained paramita here (Ibid., 
Vol. I, p. 96). The same commentary also gives us 
legends about Bimbisara, King of Magadha, who 
went to see the most beautiful palace of Jotiya 
in the mythic land of Uttarakuru. Ajatasatru 
was his son. Both of them took their meals at 
Jotiya's palace. Jotiya presented Bimbisara with 
a valuable gem, the light of which was enough to 

458 A History of Pali Literature 

illuminate the whole house (Dh. Com., Vol. IV, 
pp. 209 foil.). A large number of heretics of the 
Samsaramocaka caste, who were opponents of 
Buddhism, employed some hired men to assault 
Moggallana, one of the chief followers of the 
Buddha (Dh. Com., Vol. Ill, pp. 65 foil.). Two 
chief disciples of the Buddha went to Rajagaha 
and the inhabitants of Rajagaha showered charities 
upon them. A silk robe which was given in charity 
was given to Devadatta (Ibid., Vol. I, pp. 77 foil. ). A 
daughter of a banker of Rajagaha obtained Sotapatti 
(Ibid., Vol. Ill, p. 30). Sirima was a beautiful 
prostitute of Rajagaha. She asked pardon of 
Uttara, daughter of Punnakasetthi for her faults, 
in the presence of the Buddha. She afterwards 
became one of his lay devotees and spent a large 
sum for him and his disciples (Ibid., Vol. Ill, 
pp. 104 foil.). The mother of Kumarakassapa was 
the daughter of a banker of Rajagaha. When 
she grew up, she asked permission from her parents 
to receive ordination which was refused. She then 
went to her husband's place. She pleased her 
husband very much and got permission from him 
to receive ordination (Ibid., Vol. Ill, pp. 144-145). 
A brahmin of Savatthi became an arahant of 
Gijjhakuta. He was very proud of seeing the 
beauty of the Buddha's body. The Buddha told, 
*'No use seeing my body, see my Dhamma and 
you will see me " (Ibid., Vol. IV, pp. 117-118). 

This work further relates that Kundalakesi, 
a beautiful daughter of a banker of Rajagaha, 
remained unmarried till the age of sixteen. It is 
there incidentally pointed out that at this age 
women long for men (Vol. II, p. 217). Magha, a 
householder of Magadha, married his maternal uncle's 
daughter named Sujata (Vol. I, p. 265). Ananda 
was enamoured of the beauty of his father's sister's 
daughter named Uppalavanna and wanted to marry 
her (Ibid. 9 Vol. II, p. 49).' ' Vepacitti, King of the 
Asuras, refused to give his daughter in marriage 
to any of the Asura princes. So he said, " My 

Pali Commentaries 459 

daughter shall choose for herself such a husband 
as she sees fit ". He then assembled the host of 
Asuras, made over a garland of flowers to his 
daughter and said to her, " Choose for yourself a 
husband who suits you". The girl selected one 
as her husband and threw the wreath over his 
head (Dh. Com., Vol. I, pp. 278-279). We are 
informed by this commentary that a rich man's 
daughter, when she attained marriageable age, was 
lodged by her parents in an apartment of royal 
splendour on the topmost floor of a seven-storied 
palace, with a female slave to guard her. No male 
servant was kept in that house (Vol. II, p. 217). 
Daughters of noble families did not ordinarily 
come out of their house, but they travelled in 
chariots and the like while others entered an ordinary 
carriage or raised a parasol of a palmyra-leaf over 
their heads ; but if this was not available, they 
took the skirt of their undergarment and threw it 
over their shoulder (Vol. I, p. 391). From the 
instances cited above it is reasonable to hold that 
elopement and the preservation of chastity inter alia 
contributed largely to the observance of ' purdah ' 
by the tender sex before or after marriage. But 
there are exceptions, Visakha, for example, while 
going to her father-in-law's house just after her 
marriage entered the city of Savatthi not under 
the c purdah ' but standing up " in a chariot un- 
covered showing herself to all the city (Vol. I, 
pp. 384 foil.). Daughters of respectable families, 
who did not ordinarily stir out, used to go on foot 
during a festival, with their own retinue, and bathe 
in the river (Vol. I, pp. 190-191 and 388). Instances 
of dowry being given by the bride's father are 
referred to in the Visakhayavatthu of the Dhamma- 
pada Commentary (Vol. I). The Savatthian 
treasurer, Migara, on the occasion of the marriage 
of his daughter, Visakha, well-known in the Buddhist 
literature, gave her as dowry five hundred carts 
filled with vessels of gold, five hundred filled with 
vessels of silver, five hundred filled with copper 

460 A History of Pali Literature 

vessels, five hundred filled with garments made of 
various kinds of silk, five hundred filled with ghee, 
five hundred filled with plows, plowshares, and 
other farm implements. Sixty thousand powerful 
bulls and sixty thousand milch cows, and some 
powerful bull-calves were also given to her. 

Princess Vajira was the daughter of Pasenadi 
of Kosala. She was given in marriage to Ajatasattu 
of Magadha. Kasigama was given to her by her 
father for bath and perfume money (Dh. Com., 
Vol. Ill, p. 266). The Savatthian treasurer, Migara, 
gave his daughter, on her marriage, fifty crores of 
treasure to buy aromatic powders for the bath 
(Ibid., I, p. 398). The custom of collecting presents 
(punnakaram) on the occasion of a marriage 
ceremony is met with in the Dhammapada Com- 
mentary where we read that on the occasion of the 
marriage ceremony of Visakha, daughter of Dhan- 
anjaya setthi with the son of Migara setthi, presents 
including a hundred each of all kinds of gifts were 
collected from hundred villages (Vol. I, pp. 384 
foil. ). After marriage the girl was sent to her father- 
in-law's house with the following directions l : 

1. Do not carry outside the indoor fire. 

2. Do not carry inside the outdoor fire. 

3. Give only to him that gives. 

4. Do not give him that does not give. 

5. Give both to him that gives and him that 

does not give. 

6. Sit happily. 

7. Eat happily. 

8. Sleep happily. 

9. Tend the fire. 

10. Honour the household divinity. 

1 Antoaggi bahi na niharitabbo, bahi aggi an to na pavesetabbo, 
dadantass' eva databbam, adantassa na databbam, dadantassapi 
adantassapi databbam, sukham nislditabbam, sukham bhunji- 
tabbam, sukham nipajjitabbam, aggi paricaritabbo, antodevata 
pi namassitabba' ti idam dasavidham ovadam (Dh. Com., I, 397- 

Pali Commentaries 461 

These ten admonitions were interpreted as 
follows : 

1 . If the mother-in-law or other female members 
of the household engage in a private conversation 
within the house, their conversation is not to be 
communicated to slaves, whether male or female, 
for such conversation is tattled about and causes 

2. The conversation of slaves and servants is 
not to be communicated to persons within the 
household ; as such conversation is talked about and 
causes quarrels. 

3. This means that one should give only to 
those who return borrowed articles. 

4. This means that one should not give to 
those who do not return borrowed articles. 

5. This means that one should help poor 
kinsfolk and friends who look for succour, without 
considering their capability of repaying. 

6. This means that a wife seeing her mother- 
in-law or her father-in-law should stand and not 
remain sitting. 

7. This means that a wife should not eat 
before her mother-in-law, father-in-law, and husband 
have taken their meals. She should serve them 
first, and when she is sure that they have had all 
they care for, then and not till then may she herself 

8. This means that a wife should not go to 
bed before her mother-in-law, father-in-law, and 
husband. She should first perform all the duties 
which she owes them and then she may herself 
lie down to sleep. 

9. This means that a wife should regard her 
mother-in-law, her father-in-law, or her husband as 
a flame of fire or as a serpent king. 

10. When a monk after keeping residence in 
a remote lodging comes to the door of a house, 
and the housewife sees him, she must give to such 
a monk whatever food there is in the house both 

462 A History of Pali Literature 

hard and soft ; and then she may eat (Dh. Com., 
Vol. I, pp. 403-404). A Magadhan householder, 
named Magha, had four wives at a time, viz., Nanda, 
Citta, Sudhamma, and Sujata (Ibid., I, p. 269). The 
first wife of a householder of Savatthi being barren 
brought another wife for her husband. When her 
co-wife became pregnant, she was jealous and 
effected abortion by administering medicine. Thrice 
did this woman commit this heinous crime with 
the result that her co-wife succumbed at last to 
the effect of the abortive medicine. But the cruel 
woman did not escape the penalty for doing this 
sinful deed. She was beaten to death by her husband 
who declared her to be the cpoise of the death of 
his pregnant wife and destroyer of his line (Dh. 
Com., Vol. I, pp. 45 foil.). 

Besides her household duties a slave woman 
had to husk paddy (Dh. Com., Vol. Ill, p. 321) 
and to go to market (Ibid., Vol. I, p. 208). 

Khuj juttara, a maid-servant of Samavati, queen 
of Udena, King of Kosambi, had to buy flowers 
daily for eight kahapanas for the queen. But 
she used to steal four kahapanas daily. One day 
while she went to the garland-maker's house to 
buy flowers, she heard the sermon delivered by the 
Buddha. She obtained sotapattiphalam. Since 
then she discontinued stealing and bought flowers 
for eight kahapanas. The queen questioned her 
how she had bought so many flowers for eight 
kahapanas. The maid-servant could no longer 
conceal anything, as by this time her faith in the 
Buddha had become very strong. She confessed 
her guilt and said that after hearing the Buddha's 
sermon she had come to realise that stealing a 
thing is a sin. The queen asked her to repeat the 
Dhamma she had heard. Khujjuttara did so in 
the presence of the queen and her five hundred 
female attendants. The queen did not reproach 
her for her stealing four kahapanas daily, on the 
contrary, she praised her much for letting her 
hear the Buddha's Dhamma. Since then the maid- 

Pali Commentaries 463 

servant was regarded as a mother and teacher by 
the queen and her five hundred female attendants, 
who asked her to go to the Master daily to hear 
the Dhamma and repeat it to them. In course of 
time she mastered the Tripitaka (Dh. Com., Vol. I, 
pp. 208 foil.). 

Sirima was the youngest sister of Jivaka, 
the well-known physician. She was a courtesan of 
unique beauty. She lived at Rajagaha. Once she 
was appointed for a fortnight by the female lay 
disciple, Uttara, wife of the treasurer's son, Sumana, 
and daughter of the treasurer, Punnaka, for one 
thousand pieces of money per night (Dh. Com., 
Vol. Ill, pp. 308-309) in order to minister to Uttara's 
husband. One day she offended Uttara, but desiring 
to be on good terms with her again, she begged 
pardon of her. Uttara assured her that she would 
pardon her if the Exalted One would do the same. 
One day the Master and the congregation of monks 
came to Uttara's house. When the Master had 
finished his meal, Sirima begged his pardon. The 
Teacher pronounced thanksgiving and delivered 
discourse to which Sirima listened attentively. 
Then she attained the first stage of sanctification. 
Since then she regularly gave alms to eight monks 
(Dh. Com., Vol. Ill, pp. 104 foil.). On her death, 
Sirima's dead body was not burnt. It was kept in a 
charnel-house (amakasusanam) and watched by a 
guard against its being devoured by crows and 
dogs. King Bimbisara informed the Buddha of 
her death, and the Buddha requested the king not 
to burn her dead body but to preserve it so that it 
could be seen by the bhikkhus daily for asubha- 
bhavana. The bhikkhus saw it daily and realised 
that the most beautiful body becomes rotten, worm- 
eaten, and finally the bones remain without flesh. 
The citizens, too, were compelled to behold Sirima's 
dead body, for there stood the royal proclamation, 
" All who refuse to do so shall be fined eight pieces 
of money ". This was done with a view to impress 
on the citizens the idea of transitoriness of human 

464 A History of Pali Literature 

beauty which is but skin-deep (Dh. Com., Vol. Ill, 
pp. 106-109). 

Dinna was an upasika of the Buddha. She 
was the queen of King Uggasena. A king promised 
to the deity of a nigrodha tree that he would worship 
the deity with blood of one hundred kings of 
Jambudlpa, if he got the throne after his father's 
death. He then defeated all the kings one by one 
and went to worship the deity, but the deity, seeing 
that many kings would be lulled, took compassion 
for them and refused his worship on the ground 
that the queen of King Uggasena whom he defeated 
was not brought. The king had her brought and 
she preached a sermon on the avoidance of life- 
slaughter in their presence. The deity approved 
and the king refrained from life-slaughter and 
released the defeated and captured kings who 
praised Dinna for her act. It was due to her 
that so many kings were saved (Dh. Com., Vol. II, 
pp. 15 foil.). 

Kisagotami came of a respectable family at 
Savatthi. She was married to a rich banker's son 
who had 40 kotis of wealth (Dh. Com., Vol. II, 
pp. 270-275). Bodhisatta was her maternal uncle's 
son. One day while the Bodhisatta was returning 
home after receiving the news of Rahula's birth, 
he was seen by Kisagotami from her palace. 
Buddha's physical grace and charm gladdened the 
heart of Kisagotami and she uttered that the 
mother who had such a child and the father who 
had such a son and the wife who had such a husband 
were surely happy (nibbuta); but the Bodhisatta 
took the word nibbuta in the sense of nibbanam. 
The Bodhisatta presented her with a pearl necklace 
for making him hear such an auspicious and sacred 
word (Dh. Com., Vol. I, p. 85). After the Bodhi- 
satta had become the Buddha, Kisagotami once 
came through the sky to worship the Buddha ; but 
she saw that Sakka with his retinue was then 
seated before the Master. She, therefore, chose it 
not to descend and come near to the Buddha ; 

Pali Commentaries 465 

but did her worship from the sky and went away. 
Being questioned by Sakka who had seen KisagotamI 
performing her worship, the Buddha answered that 
she was his daughter. Kisagotaml was the foremost 
among the bhikkhunis who used very rough and 
simple robes (Dh. Com., Vol. IV, pp. 156-157). 

Once Pasenadi invited the Buddha to teach 
Dhamma to queens Mallika and Vasabhakhattiya 
who were desirous of learning it. But as it was 
not possible for him to go everyday, the Buddha 
asked the king to engage Ananda for the purpose. 
Mallikadevi in due course learnt it thoroughly 
well ; but Vasabhakhattiya was inattentive and 
could hardly, therefore, learn it (Dh. Com., Vol. I, 
382). Mallika once induced her husband, King 
Pasenadi, to go to the Buddha and receive instruc- 
tions from him, and thus saved the life of many 
living beings who were brought before the king for 
sacrifice to save the king himself from the evil effect 
of hearing four horrible sounds at midnight, and 
she made the following arrangements on the occa- 
sion of Pasenadi's offering unique gift to the Buddha 
and the Buddhists: 

1. She made a canopy with sala wooden parts 
under which five hundred bhikkhus could sit within 
the parts and five hundred outside them. 

2. Five hundred white umbrellas were raised 
by 500 elephants standing at the back of five 
hundred bhikkhus. 

3. Golden boats were placed in the middle of 
the pandal and each khattiya daughter threw 
scents standing in the midst of two bhikkhus. 

4. Each khattiya princess was found standing 
in the midst of two bhikkhus. 

5. Golden boats were filled with scents and 
perfumes (Dh. Com., Vol. Ill, pp. 183 foil.). 

Mallikadevi had, however, to suffer after death, 
in the Avici hell, because she had once deceived 
her husband by telling a lie about her misconduct 
(Dh. Com., Vol. Ill, pp. 119 foil.). 

466 A History of Pali Literature 

The daughter of Queen Mallika was also named 
Mallika. She was the wife of General Bandhula, 
but was childless for a long time. Bandhula, 
therefore, once for all, sent her to her father's 
house, when on the way she went to the Jetavana 
to salute the Buddha and told the Master that her 
husband was sending her home as she was childless. 
The Buddha asked her to go back to her husband's 
house. Bandhula came eventually to know of this 
fact, and thought that the Buddha must have got 
the idea that she would be pregnant. The sign of 
pregnancy was soon visible in her and she desired 
to drink water and bathe in the well-guarded tank. 
Her husband made her bathe and drink water of 
the tank (Dh. Com., Vol. I, pp. 349-351). 

Uttara and her husband were serving a setthi 
at Rajagaha. Once the setthi went to attend a 
famous ceremony and Uttara with her husband 
stayed at home. One morning, the husband of 
Uttara had gone to the fields to till the soil, and 
Uttara was going with cooked food to feed her 
husband there. On the way she met Sariputta 
who had just got up from nirodhasamapatti and 
offered the food to him with the result that she 
became the richest lady at Rajagaha and her 
husband became a setthi named Mahadhanasetthi 
(Dh. Com., Vol. Ill, pp. 302 foil.). 

Punna was the maid-servant of a banker of 
Savatthl. Once while engaged in husking paddy 
at night, she went outside the house to take rest. 
At this time Dabba, a Mallian, was in charge of 
making arrangements for the sleeping accommoda- 
tion of the bhikkhus who were guests. Punna with 
some cakes went out to enquire of the cause of 
their movements with lights at night, and met the 
Buddha who had come out on that way for alms. 
She offered all the cakes to the Buddha without 
keeping anything for her, and the Buddha accepted 
all of them. Punna was thinking whether Buddha 
would partake of her food ; but the Buddha most 
unhesitatingly did partake of it in her house. The 

Pali Commentaries 467 

effect of this offer was that Punna obtained sota- 
pattiphalam at the place where the offer was made 
(Dh. Com., Vol. Ill, pp. 321 foil.). 

Rohini was Anuruddha's sister. She was 
suffering from white leprosy, and did not go to her 
brother as she feared she might contaminate 
him. Anuruddha sent for her and asked her to 
build a rest-house for bhikkhus to get rid of her sin. 
She did so, and kept the rest-house clean even when 
it was under construction. After she had done it 
with great devotion for a long time, she eventually 
became free from her disease. Shortly afterwards 
the Buddha went to Kapilavatthu and sent for 
Rohim. When she came, he told her that she had 
been the queen of Benares in her former birth. 
The king of Benares was at that time enamoured 
of the beauty of a dancing girl. The queen knowing 
this was jealous of the girl and to punish her she 
put something in her cloth and poured in bathing 
water which produced terrible itching all over the 
body. On account of this sin, she had got this 
disease. She however obtained sotapattiphalam and 
the colour of her body was golden (Dh. Com., 
Vol. Ill, pp. 295 foil.). 

A cultivator's daughter was in charge of a 
paddy-field. She was once frying paddy in the 
field, when at that time Mahakassapa was engaged 
in meditation for a week in the Pipphali cave. 
Rising up from meditation he went to the girl for 
alms ; and she with a delightful mind offered fried 
grains to him which he accepted. While the girl 
was returning from the presence of Mahakassapa 
to the spot where she was frying she was smitten 
by a poisonous snake and died instantly. After 
death she was reborn in the golden mansion of the 
Tavatimsa heaven on account of this meritorious 
deed, and was named there as Lajadevadhita who 
had come from heaven to get more merit by serving 
Mahakassapa. She used to cleanse his monastery 
and keep water ready for his use. But after two 
days, she was forbidden to serve him any more 

468 A History of Pali Literature 

as she was found out to be a devi. She lamented 
much for not being able to serve the great arahat. 
The Buddha came to know of this and preached a 
sermon to her with the result that she obtained 
sotapattiphalam (Dh. Com., Vol. Ill, pp. 6-9). 

The mother of Kumarakassapa had become 
pregnant before she renounced the worldly life ; 
but she was herself unaware of it. After she had 
become a bhikkhum it was known that she was 
pregnant. The matter was referred to the Buddha 
who asked Upali to enquire into the matter. Upali 
referred to Pasenadi, Anathapindika, and Visakha. 
Visakha was afterwards solely entrusted to decide 
the matter. Visakha found out that she had become 
pregnant before her renouncing the world (Dh. 
Com., Vol. Ill, pp. 144 foil.). 

Rupananda was the Buddha's step-mother. 
She thought that her eldest brother had renounced 
the world and had become a Buddha. Her younger 
brother Nanda was a bhikkhu ; Bahulakumara 
had also obtained ordination ; her husband too had 
become a bhikkhu ; and her mother Mahapajapati 
Gotami, a bhikkhuni. She, therefore, thought that 
as so many of her relatives had renounced the 
world, so she too must follow their path. She did 
not go before the Buddha as she was proud of her 
beauty while the Buddha used to preach imper- 
manence and worthlessness of rupa. The other 
bhikkhunis and bhikkhus always used to praise 
Buddha in her presence and told her that all, in 
spite of their having different tastes, had become 
pleased on seeing the Buddha (Dh. Com., Vol. Ill, 
p. 115). Nanda, wife of Nandasena, a householder of 
Savatthi, had no faith in the Buddha. One day 
she thought of going to the Buddha with other 
bhikkhunis, but she would not show herself to 
the Buddha. The Buddha came to know that with 
other bhikkhunis Nanda too had come ; and he 
desired to lower down the pride of her beauty. 
By his miraculous power, the Buddha created a 
most beautiful girl by his side who at once engaged 

Pali Commentaries 469 

herself in fanning the Buddha. Nanda saw the 
beauty of the girl, and readily discovered that 
her own beauty was much inferior. The attendant 
girl was seen gradually but miraculously attaining 
youth, the state of mother of one child, and the 
old age and disease and death. Nanda saw this 
happening before her eyes and gave up the pride of 
her beauty and came to realise the impermanence 
of physical beauty. The Buddha knowing the 
state of her mind delivered the sermon (Dh. 
Com., Vol. Ill, pp. 113 foil.). 

Visakha was the daughter of Dhananjayasetthi, 
son of Mendakasetthi, who lived in the city of 
Bhaddiya in the kingdom of Ariga. The family of 
Mendaka was greatly devoted to the Buddha. 
Dhananjayasetthi at the request of Pasenadi, 
Bang of Kosala, went to his kingdom and settled 
at Saketa. Visakha was married to Punnavaddhana, 
son of Migarasetthi, who was, however, a follower 
of the Niganthas. After marriage, she lived with 
her father-in-law at Savatthi. One day Migara- 
setthi invited five hundred naked ascetics (niganthas) 
and when they came he asked his daughter-in-law 
to come and salute the arahats. She came hearing 
about the arahats and seeing them, she said, 
" Such shameless creatures can't be arahats. Why 
has my father-in-law called me ? " Saying this 
she blamed her father-in-law and went to her 
residence. The naked ascetics seeing this, blamed 
the setthi and asked him to turn her out of the 
house as she was a follower of Samana Gotama. 
But the setthi knowing that it was not possible to do 
so, apologised to them and sent them away. After 
this incident the setthi sitting on a valuable seat 
was drinking milk-porridge with honey from a 
golden pot and VisSkha stood there fanning him. 
At that time a Buddhist monk entered the house 
for alms and stood before him, but th 
no notice of him. Seeing that, Vis* 
the thera "Go to another house, Sir, i 
law is eating a stale food ". At thi 

470 A History of Pali Literature 

grew angry. He then stopped eating and ordered 
his men to drive her out. Thereupon, Visakha 
said that he should examine her shortcomings. 
The setthi welcomed the idea and summoned her 
relations and told them that his daughter-in-law 
had said to a Buddhist monk that he was eating 
stale food while he was drinking milk porridge 
with honey. Visakha's relations enquired about 
the truth of the statement. Visakha said that she 
did not say so. She only said that her father-in- 
law was enjoying the fruition of his merit in the 
previous birth. In this way Visakha explained 
away everything that was considered by her father- 
in-law to bring blame upon her. While she was 
found not guilty by her relations, she prepared to 
leave the house of her father-in-law. Thereupon the 
banker apologised and entreated his daughter-in- 
law to remain in the house. She, however, con- 
sented to remain on one condition only, namely, 
that she could be allowed to entertain the bhikkhus 
in the house at her will. Next day she invited the 
Buddha to her house. The naked ascetics knowing 
that the Buddha had entered the house of Migara- 
setthi surrounded the house. Visakha requested 
her father-in-law to come and serve the Buddha 
himself. The naked ascetics prevented him from 
going there. Thereupon Visakha herself served the 
Buddha and his disciples and when their meal was 
finished, she again requested her father-in-law to come 
and listen to the sermon of the Buddha. The naked 
ascetics again said that it was extremely improper to 
go at that time, but when he went to listen to the 
Buddha's sermon, he saw that the naked ascetics 
had gone there earlier and placed the curtain and 
requested the setthi to sit outside it. The setthi sat 
outside the curtain, listened to the Buddha's sermon, 
obtained the fruition of the first stage of sanctifica- 
tion, went up to his daughter-in-law and said to her, 
" Henceforward you are my mother ". From that 
time Visakha came to be known as Migaramata or 
Migara's mother. Migara was converted to 

Pali Commentaries 471 

Buddhism. Visakha afterwards made a vihara at 
Savatthi at the cost of twenty-seven crores of 
coins (Dh. Com., Vol. I, pt. II, pp. 384 foil.). 

Sutta Nipdta Commentary. The Sutta Nipata 
Commentary written by Buddhaghosa is a mine of 
various sorts of valuable information geographical, 
historical, religious, and otherwise. Illuminating 
definitions of raga, tanha, mana, dosa, moha, 
anusaya, and akusalamula ; and interpretations of 
the words, e.g., sati, brahmaloka, uposatha, 
sankappa, pamada, jhana, dhamma, gambhira- 
panna, musavada, panatipata, upadhi, etc., occur 
briskly in it sometimes systematically, sometimes at 
random. To give one example, the very interesting 
word c Nibutta ' is explained in connection with 
the account of Dhaniya, the cowherd. In con- 
nection with another account, namely, that of the 
Khaggavisana Sutta, we are referred to three kinds 
of dramas. Besides mentioning mountains and 
mountain caves, e.g., Gandhamadana and Canda- 
gabbha, the commentator reveals his knowledge of 
geography when he makes mention of Baranasi, 
Magadha, Savatthi, Kapilavatthu, Kosala, Neran- 
jara, etc., nor does he seem to be deficient in his 
knowledge of history, for he mentions Bimbisara, 
Sundariparibbajaka, and Kosalaraja Pasenadi. 
Bimbisara, we are informed, was called Magadha, 
because he was the lord of the Magadhas. He was 
the possessor of a big army, hence he was called 
Seniya. It adds, besides, that Bimbisara was so 
called because his colour was like that of excellent gold 
(p. 448). Bajagaha was ruled by famous kings like 
Mandhata and Mahagovinda. In the time of the 
Buddha, it became a city, and in other times, it came 
to be vacant and then inhabited by the yakkhas. 

Interesting side-lights are thrown by other 
accounts, a few of which may profitably be re- 
counted here. A carpenter of Benares prepared 
mechanical wooden birds by which he conquered 
a tract of land in the Hiniavanta and became the 
ruler of that land. His capital was known as 

472 A History of Pali Literature 

Katthavahanagara. He sent valuable presents to 
the king of Benares and made friendship with him. 
The king in return sent him the news of the advent 
of the Buddha Kassapa in Benares, but when they 
reached Benares the Buddha had obtained maha- 
parinibbana. Afterwards, the yuvaraja with a 
bhikkhu and the relics of the Buddha went back to 
the Katthanagara, and the bhikkhu was later on 
successful in converting the king and his subjects 
into Buddhism (Vol. II, pp. 575 foE). A trader of 
Benares went to buy goods with 500 carts to a 
frontier country, and bought sandal wood (Vol. II, 
pp. 523 ff.). 

There lived at Savatthi a paribbajaka, named 
Pasura, who was a great disputant. He planted a 
branch of a Jambu tree declaring that he who 
would be able to hold discussion with him, would 
uproot it. Sariputta did uproot it. Pasura had a 
discussion with Sariputta about sensual pleasures 
and eye-consciousness with the result that the 
paribbajaka was defeated. The paribbajaka went 
to the Jetavana in order to be ordained by Sariputta 
and to learn Vadasattam (art of disputation). He 
met Laludayi at the Jetavana vihara. Thinking 
that this Laludayi must be greatly wise, he took 
ordination from him. He defeated Laludayi in 
disputation and made him a paribbajaka even while 
he was wearing the dress of a bhikkhu. Pasura 
again went to Savatthi to hold discussion with 
Gautama. He held discussion with Gautama but 
was defeated. The Buddha then gave him in- 
struction and he was converted into Buddhism 
(Vol. II, pp. 538 foil.). 

The Jdtaka Commentary. As to the authorship 
of the Jataka Commentary there is a great dispute 
which has not yet been settled. Some ascribe the 
authorship to Buddhaghosa. 

Buddhaghosa wrote a commentary on the 
Dhammasahgani known as the Atthasalim. 1 It 

1 There is a scholium on the Atthasalini called the Patfia- 
maparamatthapakaeini. Read Abhidhammakatha, a Pali prose 

Pali Commentaries 473 

simply gives the meaning of the terms that occur 
in the Dhammasangani. In some 
Commentaries on places word-for-word explanations 
have been gi ven which are apparently 
tedious but are certainly useful to 
students of Buddhism. 1 
The Atthasalini contains some historical and 
geographical information besides some explanations 
of certain technical terms of Buddhist psychology. 
It refers to some rivers, e.g., Aciravati, Ganga, 
Godavari, Neranjara, Mahi, Sarabhu, and Anoma. 
It also refers to some cities, islands, etc., e.g., 
Kasipura, Penambangana, Kosala, Isipatana, Jam- 
fa udipa, Jetavana, Tambapanni, Aparagoyana, Patali- 
putta, Pubbavideha, Bandhumati, Bharukaccha, 
Rajagaha, Saketa, Savatthi, Sihaladipa. There are 
references to some historical personages as well, 
e.g., Ajita, Annakodanna, Abhayathera, Assagutta, 
Ananda, Alara Kalama, Uttiya, Udayi, Uddaka, 
Upaka, Kassapa, Channa, Dutthagamani, Abhaya, 
Dasaka, Dipamkara, Nagasena, Buddhaghosa, 
Bhaddaji, Mallika, Mahakassapa, Mahinda, Moggali- 
putta Tissa, Revata, Vipassi, Vissakamma, Sariputta, 
Sujata, Sumana, Sonaka, Metteyya, Pingalabuddha- 
rakkhita, Cakkana Upasaka. Buddhaghosa in the 
introductory verses laid down that after he had 
already dealt with some subjects in his previous 
composition, the Visuddhimagga, he had only to 
supplement it by way of writing a commentary on 

work being a guide to metaphysics of Buddhism for beginners 
extracted from the Atthasalini. The Atthasalini has been edited 
by Prof. E. Muller for the Pali Text Society. A translation of this 
work has been brought out by Mr. Pe Maung Tin, and revised 
by Mrs. Rhys Davids. It is widely studied by students of Buddhism 
and by the Burmese monks ; and is often quoted by authors of the 
Abhidhamma works. 

1 Mr. Maung Tin speaks of the two Burmese translations of 
the Atthasalini, namely, old Nissaya (MSS. Bernard Free Library, 
Rangoon) by Ariyalankara of the earlier part of the 19th century, 
and the new Nissaya printed in Kemmendine, Rangoon, 1905, by 
Pyi Sadaw of the middle of the 19th century. On the whole 
the translation will be useful in reading the text. In the Bernard 
Free Library, Rangoon, there are original manuscripts of the 

474 A History of Pali Literature 

the Dhammasangani. But though the Atthasfilinf 
aims to be an exposition of the Dhammasangani, 
yet there is some anomaly in the contents and 
arrangements of the two books. There are some 
chapters of the text which the commentary omits 
and some chapters which it adds independently 
of the text itself. Unlike the Dhammasangani the 
chapters in the AtthasalinI are clearly marked so 
that the treatment is more scientific than that of 
the former. Buddhaghosa at the outset gives an 
introductory chapter. In this he deals with various 
questions, both literary and philosophical. His 
dissertation on literary subjects helps us to a great 
extent in fixing the chronology of the texts of the 
Sutta, Vinaya, and Abhidhamma. He says that 
the commentary on the Abhidhamma was sung in 
the First Council and was rehearsed in the succeeding 
Councils. Mahinda brought it to Ceylon and it was 
translated into Sinhalese. Buddhaghosa defines 
Abhidhamma as one which excels all other dhammas 
in qualities. The chief difference between Suttanta 
and Abhidhamma is that in the Suttanta the five 
aggregates are classified partially while in the 
Abhidhamma this classification has been done 
according to three methods, namely, the Suttanta 
classification, the Abhidhamma classification, and 
Catechism. He shows that Suttanta classification is 
incomplete and defective. He next deals with the 
Abhidhamma books themselves which are seven in 
number and records that the very nature of the 
Kathavatthu makes its position untenable in the 
very classification itself, for it dates from the in- 
cidents of the Third Council. But Buddhaghosa 
relying on the traditional number seven in the 
Abhidhamma class and showing the internal defects 
of Mahadhammapadaya or Mahadhatukatha as the 
possible substitutes for the Kathavatthu, holds that 
the Kathavatthu falls within Abhidhamma class 
particularly because Tissa followed the contents 
and method of the Teacher who himself foresaw this 

Pali Commentaries 475 

The author then gives a table of contents of 
each of the seven Abhidhamma books after which 
he gives a history of the first Abhidhamma thought 
and compilation as emanating from the Buddha 
himself. To Sariputta he attributes the origin of 
the number and order of the books. Buddhaghosa 
quotes many poetical passages as an introductory 
explanation of the Sutta, Vinaya, and Abhidhamma 

He says that the Abhidhamma is intended for 
those only who think that there is " I ", " This is 
mine ", and who fail to understand that the ultimate 
self is merely a collection of things. The main 
purpose of the Abhidhamma is, according to him, 
to lay a distinction between mind and matter and to 
train one in higher and metaphysical understanding. 

The author then justifies the fact that the 
three pitakas are the words of Buddha himself, for 
those bhikkhus who are well practised in Vinaya 
arrived at the three kinds of knowledge while those 
who are well versed in the Sutta arrive at the six 
kinds of super-knowledge and bhikkhus well cultivat- 
ed in Abhidhamma arrive at the four analyses. 
He then explains why each of the nikayas or 
groups is so called. The first one is Digha, because 
it contains 34 long suttas. The second one con- 
taining 152 suttas is called Majjhima, because they 
are of medium length. The Samyutta Nikaya 
contains seven thousand seven hundred and sixty- 
two suttas. The Anguttara contains nine thousand 
five hundred and fifty-seven suttas. 

The Khuddaka is one which excludes the four 
nikayas, the Vinaya, the Abhidhamma, and includes 
such books as Khuddakapatha, Dhammapada, 
etc. Then follows an enumeration of the nine 
Ahgas, the eighty-four thousand units of texts. 
Buddhaghosa then says that the Abhidhamma is a 
pitaka by pitaka classification and holds it as a 
word of the Buddha. The Abhidhammikas claim 
to be the best expositors of the Dhamma. But the 
Abhidhamma is a field for the Buddha and not for 

476 A History of Pali Literature 

others. The author quotes the Elder Tissabhuti 
who while seeking to trace the origin of the Abhi- 
dhamma at the place of the great enlightenment 
quoted Padesavihara Sutta where the Buddha 
intuited all his qualities and possessions. He then 
recommends the introduction of the Abhidhamma 
to all its readers. The author then compares the 
introductory portions both of the Sutta and the 
Abhidhamma. He says that unlike the Sutta 
which has one, the Abhidhamma has two intro- 
ductions, the one dealing with the life and equip- 
ment of the Buddha and the other with the events 
just before the Dhammacakkapavattana. The 
author then traces the history of Abhidhamma 
teaching in Ceylon. According to him, Abhidhamma, 
originated with faith and nurtured in the 550 
Jatakas, was taught by the Buddha. It contained 
exactly Buddha's words and was handed down by 
the unbroken line of teachers till the Third Council 
beginning with Sariputta and followed by the 
long line of disciples. An examination of the 
Atthasalim shows that it was composed after the 
Samantapasadika to which it refers in pages 97 
and 98 of the P.T.S. edition. 

The Sammoha-vinodam or the commentary on 
the Vibhanga (Vibhanga-atthakatha) written by 
Buddhaghosa has been edited for the P.T.S. by 
A. P. Buddhadatta Thera in 1923. This com- 
mentary was published in Burma several times, but 
in Ceylon about half of the book has been printed. 
In many places we find that this commentary and 
the Visuddhimagga comment on the same subjects. 
This book consists of 18 sections dealing with the 
expositions of five khandhas (e.g., rupa, vedana, 
saiina, sankhara, and vinfianam), ayatanas (spheres), 
dhatus (elements), sacca (truth), indriyas (senses), 
paccayakara (causes interdependent), satipatthana 
(right recollection), sammappadhana (right con- 
centration), iddhipadas (bases of miracles), seven 
bojjhangas (supreme knowledge), magga (the Noble 
Eightfold Path), j liana (stages of meditation), 

Pali Commentaries 477 

appamanna (four appamannas consisting in an 
unlimited or perfect exercise of the qualities of 
friendliness, compassion, good will, and equanimity), 
sikkhapadas (precepts), patisambhida (analytical 
knowledge), nana (true knowledge), khuddaka- 
vatthu (minor points), and dhammahadaya (re- 
ligious heart). It should be noted that in the 
section on the dhatus, 32 parts of the body 
have been discussed. In the section dealing with 
truth, the noble truths (ariyasaccam) are dealt with. 
In the section on the Paccayakaras we find a dis- 
cussion of the topic of dependent origination. 
The Satipatthana Vibhanga should be read along 
with the Mahasatipatthana Suttanta of the Digha 
Nikaya and Satipatthana Suttanta of the Majjhima 
Nikaya. The Sammohavinodani contains short 
notes on avijja (ignorance), kaya (body), jati 
(birth), jara (old age), tanha (desire), domanassa 
(despair), nibbana, nama-rupa (name and form), 
bhava (existence), bodhi (enlightenment), macchariya 
(sloth), marana (death), maya (illusion), etc. 

There is a tika on the Sammohavinodani known 
as the Sammohavinodamlmattha. 

The Dhatukathapakarana-atthakatha is a 
commentary on the Dhatukatha written by Buddha- 
ghosa. It has 14 sections containing interpreta- 
tions of the five khandhas, twelve ayatanas (spheres), 
sixteen dhatus (elements), etc. 

The Puggalapannatti-atthakatha is a com- 
mentary on the Puggalapanfiatti. This work has 
been edited for the P.T.S. by G. Landsberg 
and Mrs. Rhys Davids (J.P.T.S., 1913-1914). 
The available manuscripts are (1) palm-leaf 
Sinhalese manuscript procured for the P.T.S. by 
Grooneratne, (2) paper Sinhalese manuscript, and 
(3) Pyi Gyi Mandyne Press edition, Rangoon, in 
Burmese character. 

The Kathavatthu-atthakatha is a commentary 
on the Kathavatthupakarana written by Buddha- 
ghosa. According to this commentary (Kathavatthu 
Commentary), two truths, dukkham and dukkha- 

478 A History of Pali Literature 

samudayam, are mundane (belonging to the world 
of re-birth) and the other two truths (nirodha and 
nirodhag&minipatipada) are supramundane (belong- 
ing to the paths). Of the indriyas, ten belong to 
the region of sense-desire, nine to the next two 
worlds, and three to the supramundane. Samaya- 
vimutta, according to the commentator, applies 
to sotapanna, sakadagami, and anagami, and asama- 
yavimutta applies to sukkhavipassaka-khinasavas. 
Kuppadhamma is applied to an ordinary person 
who has attained eight samapattis. It is also 
applied to a stream-attainer and to an once-returner. 
It means a person who is unsteady or not firmly 
established in the path. It is so called because in 
his case the mental conditions which are antagonistic 
to samadhi and vipassana have not been com- 
pletely stopped nor well washed off, and it is for 
this reason that their attainment perishes and falls 
away. Akuppa-dhamma is applied to an ana- 
gami who has attained eight samapattis and to a 
khinasava. It means a person who does not go 
astray. He is steady or firmly established in the 
path. Hindrances of samadhi and vipassana in 
such a person are completely destroyed. His attain- 
ment is not broken or destroyed by useless talks 
or by any other unsuitable act committed through 
negligence. The commentary further narrates that 
the term ' Gotrabhu ' is applied to a person who 
has reached the family, circle, or designation of 
Ariyas by surpassing the family, circle, or designa- 
tion of ordinary persons through the knowledge 
acquired by meditation on Nirvana. According to 
the commentary, by meditation on ' formlessness ' 
a person is freed from rupakaya (form) and by going 
through the sublime Eightfold Path he is freed from 
namakaya, therefore he is called ubhato-bhaga- 

A person at first goes through different stages 
of meditation, then he realises nibbanam. There 
are six classes of kayasakkhi commencing from 
eotapattiphalattha to arahattamaggattha. 

Pali Commentaries 479 

Ditthapatto. He who thoroughly knows that 
this is suffering, this is the cause of suffering, this 
is the cessation of suffering, this is the path leading 
to the cessation of suffering, is one who has won 

Dhammanusari. It applies to one who has 
reached the first stage of sanctification because he 
moves by saddha or faith. 

Sattakkhattumparamo applies to one who 
obtains arahantship at the seventh birth. 

After the realisation of the fruition of sotapatti 
one is not reborn in a low family. He is reborn 
amongst devas and men six times only. 

The term Ekabiji is applicable to a stream- 
attainer who is reborn once only. 

Antara-parmibbayi applies to a person who 
obtains Nirvana before reaching the middle of the 
term of life. Upahacca-parinibbayi applies to a 
person who obtains parinibbana after passing the 
middle of the term of life but does not reach the 
end. Asankharaparinibbayi applies to a person 
who attains complete passing away of mental 
impurities. Sasankhara-parinibbayi applies to a 
person who obtains the foregoing with instigation, 
with trouble, and with exertion. 

Akanitthagami. According to this commentary, 
a person goes to the highest Brahmaloka passing 
through four intermediate Brahma worlds, namely, 
Aviha, Atappa, Sudassa, and Sudassi. 

Kalyanamitta means a good or spiritual friend. 
Hinadhimutto means low inclination. Pamtadhi- 
mutto means " having good inclination ". 

The commentary says that the seven learners 
and average men are restrained from sin through 
fear, but the Khinasavas have completely uprooted 
their fear, therefore they are called Abhayuparato. 

A person who has first obtained knowledge of 
previous births and deva-sight and then arahant- 
ship is called a tevijjo, i.e., possessed of three vijjas, 
namely, pubbenivasananam (knowledge of previous 
births), dibbacakkhunanam (knowledge of deva- 

480 A History of Pali Literature 

sight), and arahantaphalananarh (knowledge of 
arahantship). A person attaining arahantship first 
and then the other two is also called tevijjo. 

Chalabhinrio. A person possessing six super- 
normal faculties or super-knowledges, namely, iddhi- 
vidha (various sorts of magical power), dibbasota 
(deva-ear), paracetofianam (power of knowing 
another's thought), pubbenivasaiianam (power of 
remembering previous births), dibbacakkhu (deva- 
sight), and asavakkhayananam (knowledge of des- 
truction of sinful tendencies) is called chalabhiniio. 

Pubbakari. A person who does good to others 
before getting benefit from them. 

Katannakatavedl. It means that a person who 
after having known that he has got some benefit 
from others does benefit to them afterwards. 
Kasambu means dirty and also bad smelling water. 

The word samkittisu means samkittetva 
katabhattesu. In time of famine an acelaka (naked 
ascetic) collects uncooked rice by begging from house 
to house and declaring the object of his begging ; 
he then cooks rice to be distributed among the 
acelakas. A good acelaka does not accept any kind 
of food. 

Anusotagami puggalo means putthujjano or 
ordinary person. According to this commentary, 
by a fifth person is to be understood the person 
who has exhausted the sinful tendencies. 

The Yamakapakarana-atthakatha is a com- 
mentary on the Yamaka written by Buddhaghosa. 
Strictly speaking, it is a commentary on the Mula 
Yamaka, Khandha Yamaka, Ayatana Yamaka, 
Dhatu Yamaka, Sacca Yamaka, Samkhara Yamaka, 
Anussaya Yamaka, Citta Yamaka, Dhamma 
Yamaka, and Indriya Yamaka. 

The Mula Yamaka deals with the essence of 
the teaching of Gotama. In it is included the 
kusalamula. Mula here means the cause. 

The Khandha Yamaka deals with an account 
of the khandhas (aggregates), e.g., Rupa, Vinnana, 
Vedana, Sanna, and Samkhara. 

Pali Commentaries 481 

The Ayatana Yamaka deals with ayatana or 
space, e.g., cakkhu, sota, kaya, rupa, rasa, phottabba, 

The Dhatu Yamaka contains an account of 
various dhatus or elements. 

The Sacca Yamaka treats of the four Aryan 

The section on Samkhara Yamaka deals with 
kayasamkhara, vacisamkhara, etc. 

The Anussaya Yamaka is a section on attach- 
ment, e.g., kama, raga, etc. 

The Citta Yamaka deals with mind and mental 

The Dhamma and Indriya Yamakas deal with 
kusala, akusala, and avyakata dhammas and senses 
respectively, e.g., manindriya, jlvitindriya, domanas- 

The Patthanapakarana-atthakatha, edited by 
Mrs. Rhys Davids for the P.T.S., London, is a com- 
mentary on the Patthana written by Buddhaghosa 
at the request of a monk named Cullabuddhaghosa 
(J.P.T.S., 1886). 


The Vimanavatthu Commentary is practically 
a collection of stories illustrating 
the Buddhist perspective of Heaven 
and Hell, or more correctly, the 
Buddhist idea of Heaven and Hell ' prevalent 
amongst the people of Northern India at the time 
of the Buddha and incorporated subsequently in 
the Buddhist Scriptures V These stories help us 
to form an idea of the various grades of heaven, the 
pleasures of the Tavatimsa heaven, the joys and 
comforts of the dwellers in the Buddhist vimanas, 
location of the various vimanas, and the form of 
the vimana and its comforts which are but propor- 
tionate to meritorious deeds. 

1 Ronaldshay in his Foreword to the * Heaven and Hell in 
Buddhist Perspective ' by Dr. B. C. Law. 

482 A History of Pali Literature 

Synopses of Stories * 

1. Plfhavimdna (pp. 5-6). A girl, a great 
believer in the Buddha, once made the gift of a 
wooden stool to a thera whom she had offered food. 
In consequence of this meritorious deed, the girl 
was reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven where she 
enjoyed joys and comforts of the heaven. 

As a reward of her offering a seat to a bhikkhu 
a woman of Savatthi obtained in heaven a virnana 
made of Veluriya (lapis lazulis). 

For presenting a pitha or a seat to an arhat 
whom she had offered food, a mistress of a house 
was reborn in the golden mansion of the Tavatimsa 

2. Kunjaravimdna (pp. 31 foil). A daughter 
of a family of Rajagaha once entertained Sariputta 
with a seat and various kinds of food and drink, 
and presented him with new clothes and a conch. 
In consequence of this meritorious deed, she was 
reborn in the golden mansion of the Tavatimsa 

3. Ndvdvimdna (pp. 40 foil.). A woman for 
offering drinking water to some thirsty bhikkhus 
was reborn by virtue of her meritorious deed in the 
Tavatimsa heaven. Another woman, too, for offering 
cold drink and oil to rub his feet with to a thera, 
was reborn after death in the same heaven. 

A slave girl of a brahmin of the village of 
Thuna in Kosala ran the risk of being beaten by 
her master and offered a pot of water to the Buddha 
to drink water from. The Buddha quenched his 
thirst as well as that of his entire Order and yet 
returned the pot full of water to the slave girl. 
The girl after death was reborn in the Tavatimsa 
heaven where she was given other objects of heavenly 

4. Dlpavimdna (pp. 50-51). For offering a 
light in the dusk before a preacher's seat, an 

1 For detailed summaries of these stories see my " Heaven and 
Hell in Buddhist Perspective ", Sec. II, pp. 36-85. 

Pali Commentaries 483 

upasika after death was reborn in the Tavatimsa 
heaven in the Jotirasavimana. 

5. Tiladakkhinavimdna (p. 54). For present- 
ing to the Buddha a certain quantity of sesamum 
seeds in joined palms, a pregnant woman was reborn 
after death in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

6. Patibbatdvimdna (pp. 56-57). A beautiful 
and faithful wife, as a reward of her sweetness and 
sincerity, charity, and faithfulness, was reborn after 
death in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

7. Sunisdvimdna (p. 61). For offering some 
portion of the cakes which she had got for her own 
use to an arahant, the daughter-in-law of a Savat- 
thian family was reborn after death in the Tavatimsa 

8. Uttardvimdna (pp. 62-74). By offering to 
Sariputta the whole of the food prepared and meant 
for her husband, Uttara, the loving wife of Punna, 
the servant of a banker of Rajagaha, performed a 
meritorious deed as a result of which her husband 
became the richest man in the whole city and was 
made the Nagarasetthi ; and both the husband 
and wife attained the first stage of sanctification by 
their deeds of charity in the shape of gifts to the 
Buddha and the congregation. 

Punna's daughter was also named Uttara ; at 
one time she invited the Buddha and his disciples, 
listened to the Buddha's religious discourse, and 
then attained the second stage of sanctification, 
while her husband and other relatives, who had 
thus an opportunity of listening to the discourses 
of the Master, attained the first stage. Uttara on 
her death was reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

9. Sirimdvimdna (pp. 75 foil.). For offering 
alms to eight bhikkhus daily, and spending sixteen 
kahapanas on charity, Sirima the courtesan was 
reborn after death as a celestial nymph. 

10. Kesakdrivimdna (pp. 86-89). A daughter 
of Kesakari, a brahmin of Benares, listened to the 
precepts of the Buddhist faith from a lay disciple, 
and, while meditating on those of impurities, attained 

484 A History of Pali Literature 

the first stage and was, after death, reborn as an 
attendant of Sakka. 

11. Ddstvimdna (pp. 91-92), For serving four 
bhikkhus daily with hearty devotion and observing 
the true dhammas, a maid-servant was reborn 
after death as one of the beloved attendants of 

12. Lakhumdvimdna (pp. 97-98). For pre- 
paring seats and supplying water to the bhikkhus 
in the asanasala daily, a woman called Lakhumft 
was established in the Sotapatti and was, after 
death, reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

13. Awmaddyikdvimdna (pp. 100-101). For 
offering her food and the acama which had been 
given her by the inmates of a house behind which 
she had taken shelter, to Mahakassapa, a woman of 
Bajagaha was reborn among the Nimmanaratidevas. 

14. Canddllvimdna (pp. 105-107). A candali 
once at the exhortation of Mahamoggallana fell 
down at the feet of the Buddha and worshipped 
him. On account of this meritorious deed, she 
was, on her death, reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

15. Bhadditthivimdna (pp. 109-110). Bhadda, 
usually known as Bhadditthl, once offered good food 
and drink to four disciples of the Master with 
their followers, served them in every way, listened 
to their discourses, embraced the faith, and received 
the five silas. She, after death, was reborn in the 
Tavatimsa heaven and worshipped the Buddha when 
the Master went there. 

16. Sanadinndvimdna (p. 115). For serving 
bhikkhus, observing the precepts and the uposotha 
with perfect regularity, Sonadinna, a devoted 
upasika of Nalanda, attained Sotapatti and was 
reborn after death in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

17. Uposathavimdna (p. 115). For similar 
meritorious deeds, Uposatha, another devoted 
upasika of Saketa, was reborn after death in the 
Tavatimsa heaven. 

18. Bhikkhdddyikavimdna (pp. 118-119). On 
account of her inviting the Buddha to have his 

Pali Commentaries 485 

daily meal at her house and serving him in other 
ways, a woman of Uttaramadhura in Savatthi was, 
after death, reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

19. Uldravimdna (pp. 120-121). For offering 
the cake of her mother-in-law's share to Maha- 
moggallana, a girl was reborn, after death, in the 
Tavatimsa heaven. 

20. Ucchuddyikavimdna (p. 124). For similar 
reasons another girl also obtained the same good 

21. Pallankavimdna (p. 128). A daughter of 
an upasika at Savatthi was reborn in the Tavatimsa 
heaven for her having been virtuous, free from 
anger, devoted, and an observer of the Sabbath. 

22. Latdvimdna (pp. 131-132). As a result of 
her gentle behaviour and practising charity and 
observing the Sabbath, Lata, a daughter of an 
upasaka of Savatthi, was reborn as a daughter 
of Vessavana Kuvera, and was appointed along 
with her four other sisters as a dancing girl by Sakka. 

23. Guttilavimdna (pp. 137-148). On account 
of various kinds of charity, 32 nymphs had become 
liberated from earthly life and came to be born 
as heavenly nymphs possessing splendour greater 
than that of other gods. When Guttila, the 
musician, saw them in Indra's court, he, as remunera- 
tion for his songs, prayed that all the bright goddesses 
would recount to him the good deeds that had 
brought them to the heavenly regions. 

24. Daddalhavimdna (pp. 149 foil.). The 
Daddalhavimana illustrates that offering food and 
drink to the Samgha brings forth more merit than 
that to individual bhikkhus. 

25. Pesavativimdna (pp. 156 foil.). In con- 
sequence of the meritorious deed of offering her 
gold ornaments to be utilised for the erection of a 
stupa, a girl was reborn in the devaloka, and from 
that devaloka she was reborn in the family of a 
householder in Magadha. In this birth of her, 
she showed her respect to the dead body of Sariputta 
by worshipping it with scents, flowers, etc. And 

486 A History of Pali Literature 

when she died with her mind full of respect for the 
Buddha, she was reborn in the Tftvatimsa heaven. 

26. Mallikdvimdna (p. 165). For offering 
worship to the relic of the Buddha, Mallika, daughter 
of the king of Kusinara, was reborn, after death, 
in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

27. Visdlakkhivimdna (pp. 169-170). For 
daily sending garlands, perfumes, fruits, flowers, 
etc., to the stupa over the relic of the Buddha, 
Sunanda, a daughter of the garland-maker of 
Rajagaha, was born after death as an attendant 
of Sakka, who, on one occasion, addressed her as 

28. Pdricchattakavimdna (p. 173). For wor- 
shipping the Buddha with Asoka flowers and 
showing respect to him in various ways, a certain 
woman was reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

29. Manjetthakavimdna (pp. 176-177). As a 
result of her worshipping the Buddha with sala 
flowers, a certain maid-servant was, after death, 
reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

30. Pabhassaravimana (pp. 178-179). For 
welcoming Mahamoggallana to her house, offering 
him a seat, and worshipping him, a daughter of a 
certain upasaka of Rajagaha was reborn, after 
death, in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

31. Ndgavimdna (pp. 181-182). For offering a 
pair of clothes to the Buddha and listening to a 
religious discourse of the Master, an upasika of 
Benares was, after death, reborn in the Tavatimsa 

32. Alomavimdna (p. 184). The good deed of 
offering some rotten cooked rice, not finding 
anything better without salt to the Buddha, brought 
a poor woman named Aloma to the Tavatimsa 
heaven after death. 

33. Kanjikaddyikavimdna (pp. 185-186). For 
offering to the Buddha a medicated drink of rice- 
gruel that relieved the Master of his pain in the 
stomach, the wife of the Buddha's physician was 
reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven after death. 

Pali Commentaries 487 

34. Vihdravimana (pp. 187-189). Visakha the 
great upasika of SavatthI once listened to a religious 
discourse of the Buddha and offered her mahalata 
ornament to the Master for the construction of a 
vihara, the merit whereof was given to her maid- 
servant. Visakha was, on that account, reborn 
in the Nimmanarati heaven where he became chief 
queen to the King Sunimmita, and the maid-servant 
was reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

35. Caturitthivimdna (pp. 195-196). For mak- 
ing gifts to bhikkhus, four girls of the time of the 
Kassapa Buddha became celestial nymphs after 
death. At the time of Gautama Buddha they 
were in heaven. 

36. Ambavimdna (p. 198). For building a 
hermitage for bhikkhus and the Master, an upasika 
of SavatthI was, after death, reborn in the Tavatimsa 

37. Pitavimdna (p. 200). While on his way 
to worship a stupa, an upasika was killed by a 
milch-cow. She was reborn in the Tavatimsa 

38. Vandanavimdiia (p. 205). For making 
obeisance to a number of bhikkhus to whom she 
was filled with veneration and respect, a village 
woman was reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

39. Bajjumdlavimdna (pp. 206-209). For 
being instrumental in inviting the Buddha to her 
mistress's house, a servant girl was reborn in the 
Tavatimsa heaven after death. 

40. Mandukadevaputtavimdna (pp. 217-218). 
A frog was trod upon by a cowherd while listening 
to a religious discourse of the Buddha. It was 
reborn, after death, in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

41. Revatlvimdna (pp. 220 foil.). RevatI, wife 
of a householder of SavatthI, practised charity only 
when her husband was at home, and stopped all 
works of charity after the death of her husband. 
In consequence of this she had to experience suffering 
in different hells while enjoying blessings of the 
Tavatimsa heaven. 


488 A History of Pali Literature 

42. Chattamdnavakavimdna (pp. 229-233). 
Knowing the impending death of Chatta, a son of a 
learned brahmana, the Buddha set out for him, and 
meeting him on the way converted him to ' the 
faith. For his devotion to the faith, Chatta, after 
death, was reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

43. Kakkatakara^addyakavimdna (pp. 243- 
244). For offering to a bhikkhu rice and crab 
soup which relieved him of an acute pain in the 
ear, a farmer of Magadha was reborn after death 
in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

44. Dvdrapdlakavimdna (pp. 246-247). For 
daily receiving bhikkhus with care and devotion 
and listening to their exhortations, a gatekeeper 
was converted to the faith, and was, after death, 
reborn in the Tavatiihsa heaven. 

45. Karaniyavimdna (p. 248). For inviting 
the Buddha to his house and offering him food 
and drink, an upasaka was reborn, after death, 
in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

46. Sucivimdna (p. 250). For offering two 
needles to Sariputta, a blacksmith was, after death, 
reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

47. Dutiyasucivimdna (p. 251). For similar 
act of charity, a tailor acquired the same good 

48. Ndgavimdna (pp. 252-254). For obtaining 
with difficulty eight flowers with which he worshipped 
the stupa, an upasaka was reborn as a devaputta 
in various vimanas, and came to the Tavatimsa 
heaven at the time of the Buddha Gautama. 

49. Dutiyandgavimdna (pp. 254-255). An 
upasaka of Rajagaha was reborn in the Tavatimsa 
heaven on account of his charity and faithfulness 
and on account of his offering alms and drinks to 
the bhikkhus. 

50. Tatiyandgavimdna (pp. 255-257). For 
offering rice with sugarcane juice and sugarcane 
pieces to three bhikkhus and then entertaining 
respectfully an offence for which he was beaten to 
death by his master, the keeper of a sugarcane 

Pali Commentaries 489 

field at Rajagaha was reborn in the Mote-hall 
called Sudhamma of the gods. 

51. Cularathavimdna (pp. 259-270). For re- 
ceiving instruction in the faith from Mahakaccayana, 
building a vihara, and inviting a thera to come 
there, and for performing other meritorious deeds, 
Sujata, the banished son of the king of Asoka, was 
reborn after death in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

52. Mahdrathavimdna (pp. 270-271). For hav- 
ing worshipped the Buddha Vipassi with a garland 
of gold, a devapntta named Gopala was reborn at 
the time of Kassapa Buddha as the son of King 
Kiki of Benares. In this birth he made immense gifts 
and received the Dhamma from that Buddha, and was 
accordingly reborn, after death, in the Tavatimsa 
heaven. Later, at the time of Gautama Buddha he 
learnt the principles of the faith from Mahamoggallana 
and became established in the Sotapatti. 

53. Agdriyavimdna (p. 286). In conse- 
quence of their offering charity to bhikkhus, a rich 
couple of Rajagaha were reborn in the Tavatimsa 
heaven, having a very large golden vimana full of 
celestial comforts. 

54. Phaladdyakavimdna (pp. 288-289). For 
offering to Mahamoggallana four mangoes which 
were distributed by the Buddha to his four pro- 
minent disciples, and making over the merit of the 
gift to King Bimbisara, a gardener, after death, was 
reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

55. Upassayaddyakavimdna (p. 291). For 
placing one room at the disposal of a bhikkhu for one 
night and for entertaining him with food and 
drink, an upasaka of Rajagaha with his wife was, 
after death, reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

56. Bhikkhdddyakavimdna (pp. 292-293). As a 
reward of his offering food to a bhikkhu, a house- 
holder was reboni in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

57. Yavapdlakavimdna (p. 294). For offering 
food to a bhikkhu a boy, who was at that time 
himself very hungry, was born, after death, in the 
Tavatimsa heaven. 

490 A History of Pali Literature 

58. Kundallvimdria (p. 295). For making 
arrangements for bhikkhus for their stay at night 
and offering plenty of food and drink an upasaka, 
after death, was reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

59. Uttaravimdna (pp. 297-298). For listening 
to the Payasi Sutta delivered by Kumarakassapa 
Thera and embracing the Buddhist faith, as also 
for practising charity on a poor scale, King Payasi 
was, after death, reborn in the Catummaharajika 
devaloka. But his officer who spent all his wealth 
in charity was reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

60. Cittalatdvimdna (p. 299). For serving 
other people, and for being faithful, obedient, and 
devoted to the three gems, a poor man of Savatthi 
was reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

61. Manithunavimdna (p. 301). For sweeping 
the path which the bhikkhus used when going out 
for alms, and for making all other arrangements for 
making their journey comfortable as well as for 
observing the precepts and offering charity, an 
upasaka was reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

62. Suvanriavimdna (p. 302). For offering to 
the Buddha an excellent gandhakuti provided with 
all necessary comforts, an upasaka, after death, 
was reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

63. Ambavimdna (pp. 305-306). For inviting 
Sariputta to his garden and offering him water 
for bath and drinking, a gardener was reborn in 
the Tavatimsa heaven. 

64. Gopdlavimdna (p. 308). A Imngry cowherd 
of Bajagaha offered Mahamoggallana the sour gruel 
meant for him. He was, as a result, reborn after 
death in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

65. Kanthakavimdna (pp. 312-314). The 
famous horse of Gautama, named Kanthaka, was, 
after death, reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven for its 
past services to Gautama, its master. 

66. Anekavannavimdna (pp. 318-320). A 
bhikkhu who became a householder was in the habit 
of performing meritorious deeds, worshipping Caityas 
and listening to the discourses. He was, after 

Pali Commentaries 491 

death, born in the devaloka and was more powerful 
than Sakka. At the time of Gautama Buddha, he 
was reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

67. Serisakavimana (pp. 331 foil). In con- 
sequence of his failing to offer charities with a 
whole heart, King Payasi could not reach the 
Tavatimsa heaven, but was reborn in the lower 
heaven of Catummaharajikas, in a vacant vimana 
called Serisakavimana. 

68. Sunikkhitavimdna (pp. 352 foil.). An 
upasaka who was very much devoted to the worship 
of the Kassapa-Sammasambuddha and his caitya, 
was reborn, after death, in a golden mansion in the 
Tavatimsa heaven. 

It will be seen from the above account of the 
vimanas or celestial mansions that the form of the 
vimana and the comforts and pleasures provided 
therein are proportionate not only to the meritorious 
deeds done on earth, but also to the particular 
nature of the deeds themselves, as also to the 
desire of the dweller of the vimana. It appears, 
furthermore, that most of the departed spirits go 
to the Tavatimsa heaven. Only in rare cases do 
we read of a spirit passing to the regions of the 
higher gods, the Nimmanaratis. It is only in very 
exceptional cases indeed that spirits go to the 
Brahmaloka. Downward also we read only in 
one case of a king who went to the region of 
Catummaharajikas for stinginess of making gifts. 

Another thing that deserves notice is that the 
vimana may not always be in the heavenly regions. 
This is specially the case with the spirits in the lower 
heavens who are not sufficiently purified or whose 
attachment to things on earth is still rather keen. 
The spirits could at will come down on earth in the 
vimanas, and in several cases they came to the 
Buddha in their vimanas to listen to his discourse. 1 

1 For fuller and more critical observations on these anecdotes 
eee my " Heaven and Hell in Buddhist Perspective ", Chap. Ill, 
pp. 80-91. 

492 A History of Pali Literature 

" The joys of heaven," Lord Ronaldshay rightly 
observes, in his Foreword to my book on ' Heaven 
and Hell in Buddhist Perspective ', " are represented 
as being obtainable by means of what is suspiciously 
like a mercenary bargain, entered into in a spirit 
which far from being selfless is, on the contrary, 
frankly selfish ". This is quite obviously foreign 
to the lofty thought and teaching of Buddha 

Petavatthu Commentary. The Paramatthadi- 
pani 1 is a commentary on the Petavatthu, a work 
devoted entirely to the petas or spirits of the de- 
ceased. It was written by Dhammapala of Kanchi- 
puram 2 in Southern India and it contains details of 
stories compiled from Buddhist tradition handed 
down orally as well as recorded in the ancient 
atthakathas (or commentaries) preserved in Ceylon. 
Dhammapala's atthakatha is a great storehouse of 
information about the individual petas or spirits, 
and these stories enable us to form an idea of the 
Buddhist conception of spirits and the spirit world. 

A short synoptical account of the stories of 
the Petavatthu Commentary may be catalogued 
as follows : 

1. Khettupama Peta (pp. 1-9). A setthiputta 
who deserved to be reborn in the devaloka for a 
deed of charity towards Mahamoggallana was, 
however, born on a much lower plane as a tree 
spirit, owing to his affection towards Sulasa, a 
beautiful maiden of his town. As a tree spirit, he 
stole away Sulasa and kept her with him on the 
tree for some time. 

2. Sukaramukhapeta (pp. 9 foil.). For having 
been unrestrained in speech, a bhikkhu was reborn 

1 Petavatthu Commentary edited by Son Dhammaraina Tiasa 
Nayaka Thera and Mapulagamacandajoti Thera ; finally revised by 
Mahagoda Siri Sanissara Thera Tripi^aka Wagiswaracarya and 
Pradhana Nayaka, Colombo. The Petavatthu with Sinhalese 
commentary by Jinavamsa Pafinasara of Kosgoda, Colombo, 
1893-1898, deserves mention. 

2 The commentary has been edited for the P.T.S. by Prof. 
E. Hardy. 

EdU Commentaries 493 

as a peta with the face like that of a swine or 

3. Putimukhapeta (pp. 12 foil.). A bhikkhu 
very much unrestrained in speech once created 
dissensions between two friends. As a punishment 
he was reborn as a peta under the name of puti- 
mukha, because his mouth used to give out a very 
bad smell on account of his having been wicked 
and unrestrained in speech. 

4. Pitthadhitalikapeta (pp. 16 fall.). In course 
of a discourse the Buddha approved of making 
offering to the departed spirits; but added that 
sorrow, lamentation, and weeping were of no use 
to the petas, they only brought suffering to the 
living relatives. 

5. Tirokuddapeta (pp. 19 foil). Some people 
for their misdeeds were reborn as petas ; but as 
they did not obtain any offering from their relatives, 
they were again born as petas. Bimbisara, who 
was their former relative, however, gave a dinner 
to the whole Sarhgha and made over to the petas 
the merit thereof ; and the Buddha approved of it. 

6. Panchaputtakhddakapeta (pp. 31 foil). For 
causing miscarriage to a pregnant woman, another 
woman was reborn as a peti of evil look and suffered 
untold miseries. She was, however, freed from her 
miserable condition only when her former husband 
transferred the merit of a pious deed of charity 
to the peti. 

7. Sattaputtakhddakapeta (pp. 36-37). The 
story of the misdeed and its retribution is just like 
the previous one. 

8. Gonapeta (pp. 38-42). A son consoled his 
father who had become overpowered with grief at 
the death of his father by saying that he was 
weeping for one whose body was not even before 
him and could not even be seen or heard. 

9. Mahdpesakdrapeta (pp. 42-46). The wife of 
the headman of a village was very malicious to- 
wards the bhikkhus whom her husband used to 
provide with cloth. The husband was reborn as a 

494 A History of Pali Literature 

tree-god while his wife came to Kve close by as 
pet! who suffered boundless miseries, anguish, a 
pain. She was however released from her pool 
lot when her former husband, the tree-god, trans* 
ierred the merit of one of his deeds of charity to her, 
10. Kholotiyapeta (pp. 46-53), As a result o! 
both good and evil deeds, a woman in her nexi 
life found herself seated in a golden vim&na, but on 
Account of her having stolen clothings of invited 
guests, she was naked. But when the merit of a 
pious act of a body of merchants was transferred to 
her, she became draped in finest garments. Sub- 
sequently she sent some presents to the Buddha 
and was as a result reborn in a golden palace in the 
Tavatimsa heaven. 

11. Ndgapeta (pp. 53-61). As a direct result 
of their unbelief and past misdeeds, husband and 
wife were reborn as a peta and peti respectively, 
and used to beat each other with iron clubs. 

12. Uragapeta (pp. 61-66). Dhammapala, a 
brahmin of Benares, taught the members of his 
family not to lament at the death of anybody, 
and all of them acted accordingly. For this wise 
attitude they were rewarded by Sakka who was 
no other than their own son reborn in heaven as 

13. Mattakundalipeta (p. 92). The son of a 
miserly brahmin who was reborn as a god came 
down to console his father in the guise of a peta 
and asked him not to lament for one whose dead 
body was not even visible (cf. Dhammapada Com- 
mentary, Vol. I, p. 28). 

14. Satthikutasahassapeta (pp. 282-286). In 
consequence of various serious misdeeds, four sons 
of setthis of Rajagaha suffered in hell for 60,000 
years, and then became petas suffering in Loha- 
kumbhi hell (cf. Dhammapada Commentary, Vol. II, 
pp. 68-73). 

15. Bhogasamharapeta (pp. 278-279). For 
cheating people, four women came to be reborn 
as petls and became overwhelmed with great pain. 

Pali Commentaries 495 

16. AkkJuwukkhapeta (pp. 277-278). On 
account of his act of help and charity done to an 
upasaka, a man came to be reborn as a god living 
on earth. 

17. Ambapeta (pp. 273 foil.). An avaricious 
trader, after death, came to live as a peta ; and he 
was not relieved of his miserable plight until his 
daughter transferred the merit of her meritorious 
deed to him. 

1 8. PdtalipiMapeta (pp. 27 1 foil. ). An upasaka 
on account of his attachment to a particular woman 
was reborn as a Vimanapeta where he with the 
help of his miraculous power enjoyed for some time 
the company of his lover. 

19. Oanapeta (pp. 269 foil.). A number of 
people of Savatthi, who formed a Gana and who 
were unbelievers, unfaithful, misers, and doers of 
evil deeds, were reborn after their death as petas 
and on one occasion they related in detail the story 
of their suffering to Moggallana. 

20. Guthakhddakapeta (pp. 266-269). A family 
bhikkhu was in the habit of speaking against 
other bhikkhus, and also induced a householder who 
had built for him a house to abuse them. Both of 
them on account of their misdeeds were reborn as 

21. Sdnuvdsipeta (pp. 177-186). The son of 
the king of Benares once insulted a Pacceka Buddha, 
for which sin, he, after death, was reborn in the 
Avici hell. He was, however, reborn in the time of 
Gautama and eventually became a famous monk. 
But his relatives who all misbehaved with him 
came to be born after death as petas. 

22. Kwndrapeta (pp. 261-263). Two princes of 
Kosala were, for committing adultery, reborn as 
petas. To relieve them of suffering, the Buddha 
asked the people to make offerings to the Samgha, 
and transfer the merit of the offerings to the petas. 

23. Dhdtuvivannapeta (pp. 212-215). A 
wealthy householder, who was an unbeliever, and 
used to speak ill of the relics, was reborn as a peta. 

496 A History of Pali Literature 

24. Ucchupeta (pp. 257 foil.). A sugarcane 
farmer for his beating an upasaka with sugarcane- 
sticks was reborn as a peta. He, however, got rid 
of his sufferings, when he made an offering of a 
huge bundle of canes to the Buddha and Samgha ; 
as a result of this offering, he was reborn in the 
Tavatimsa heaven. 

25. Nandakapeta (pp. 244-257). Nandika, the 
commander-in-chief of the king of Surattha, for 
his unbelief, was reborn as a peta and resided on a 
nigrodha tree. But when his daughter transferred 
the merit of one of her meritorious deeds, he became 
a believer. 

26. Ambasakkharapeta (pp. 215 foil.). A 
merchant of Vaisali for joking concealed the garment 
of his associate and had to go naked in his next 
birth though he was reborn as a god living on 
earth. But impressed by his exhortations, King 
Ambasakkhara offered his garments to bhikkhus 
so that the naked might get clothes to wear. 

27. Kutavinicchayikapeta (pp. 209 foil). For 
his past sins of speaking malicious words and cheat- 
ing people, a judicial officer of King Bimbisara had 
to eat the flesh taken out from his own body, 
though he was reborn as a devata for having kept 
upasotha for one night. 

28. Dutiyaluddapeta (pp. 207 foil.). As a result 
of his cruelty by day, a hunter used to be bitten 
by dogs in the daytime though he was reborn as 
a Vimanapeta enjoying happiness at night for his 
having ceased hunting by night. 

29. Migaluddapeta (pp. 204 foil.). Like the 
previous one. 

30. Serinipeta (pp. 201 foil.). Serin!, an un- 
believer, used to speak ill of the Samanas ; she 
was, therefore, reborn as a petl in the petaloka 
suffering miserably. She was, however, at last 
freed from the petaloka by virtue of the merit 
transferred to him by the mother of an upasaka. 

31. Kumdrapeta (pp. 194 foil.). An envious 
and stingy person used to speak ill of the ascetics ; 

Pali Commentaries 497 

but he was eventually prevailed upon to worship 
the Buddha and make an offering. After death, 
the son was reborn in the womb of a prostitute 
who threw him into a cemetery. He was eventually 
picked up by a wealthy householder to whose 
wealth he became later on the sole heir. 

32. Bhusapeta (pp. 191 foil.). A merchant of 
Savatthi used to cheat people in trade, his son was 
a sinner, his wife and daughter-in-law were also 
very greedy. They were all reborn, after death, as 
petas and petis in the Vindhya forest where they 
suffered terribly and miserably. 

33. Rathakdrapeta (pp. 186 foil. ). For the good 
act of building a vihara for a Samgha, a pious woman 
was reborn as a Vimanapeti on account of some 
of her past misdeeds. 

34. Abhijjamdnapeta (pp. 168 foil.). A hunter 
who delighted in the cruel sport of hunting was 
reborn as a peta naked and fierce in appearance 
and never saw any food or drink. He was, however, 
clothed and fed as a result of the charity of the 
minister of King Bimbisara of food and clothes to 
all upasakas. 

35. Ubbaripeta (pp. 160 foil.). At the death of 
her husband Culani Brahmadatta, king of Pancala, 
Ubbarl was overpowered with grief and she wept 
bitterly. The Master who was then Bodhisattva 
came to her, and by a discourse on kamma and 
on the many births and deaths, as also by expound- 
ing the Dhamma, consoled her lacerated soul. 

36. Suttapeta (pp. 144 foil.). A boy who was 
an attendant of a paccekabuddha came to be reborn 
as a Vimanapeta on account of his attachment to 
a girl. By winning over her mother, the peta was, 
however, able to bring the girl to his abode where 
they lived together happily for some time. 

37. Uttaramdtupeta (pp. 140 foil.). Uttara, a 
woman, was stingy and a believer of false doctrines. 
She also used to curse those who were believers ; 
she was accordingly, after death, reborn as a pet!, 
and suffered terribly for 55 years, when she was 

498 A History of Pali Literature 

at last saved by the merit of a charity transferred 
to her by a thera. 

38. Samsdramocakapeta (pp. 67 foil.). A girl 
of the Samsaramocaka caste who was a false believer 
was, however, made indirectly to salute a thera 
who wanted her to be saved from going to hell 
after death. She was reborn, therefore, as a peti, 
with some chance of salvation. The chance even- 
tually came, and she was freed from the petaloka. 

39. Sdripuitattherassa Mdtupeti (pp. 78 foil.). 
A mischievous woman, who did not give food, drink, 
and habitation to the bhikkhus who came to her 
place as guests, was reborn as a peti and had to 
suffer miseries. She was, however, relieved of her 
sufferings and reborn in the devaloka by Sariputta 
whose mother she had been in the fifth birth. 

40. Mattdpetl (pp. 82 foil.). Matta, the barren 
wife of a householder of Savatthi, was very jealous 
of her husband and his second wife who were very 
loving and friendly towards each other, and daily 
made offerings to theras and bhikkhus. On account 
of her jealousy and other misdeeds, she was reborn 
as a peti and suffered terribly. She was, however, 
released from the petaloka by dint of the merit 
of the second wife being transferred to her. 

41. Nanddpeta (pp. 89 foil.). Nanda, the wife 
of a householder, was, as a result of her misdeeds, 
reborn as a peti. One day she appeared before her 
husband who according to her direction made gifts 
of charity to the bhikkhus and the peti was released 
from her miseries. 

42. Dhanapdlapeta (pp. 99 foil.). Dhanapala, 
a miserly and sceptic merchant, was reborn as a 
peta in a desert where he could not get a drop of 
water to drink or grain to eat. After suffering for 
55 years, he was, however, saved from suffering 
by a caravan of merchants who made offerings on 
his account to the Buddha and his disciples. 

43. Culasetthipeta (pp. 105 foil.). A stingy and 
sceptic householder of Benares was reborn after 
death as a peta with a body without flesh and 

Pali Commentaries 499* 

blood. The peta once approached King Ajatasattu, 
who, on his request and on his account, made 
offerings to the Buddha and hie disciples, and the 
peta was relieved of his suffering. 

44. Revatlpeta (pp. 257). An unbelieving and 
uncharitable wife of a believing and charitable 
householder was reborn, as a result of her misdeeds, 
as a peti. But when she was asked by her husband 
to approve, and did so, of the meritorious acts done 
by him, she became a devata and resided with her 
husband in heaven. 

45. Ankurapeta (pp. Ill foil.). Ahkura, the 
youngest son of the king of Uttaramadhura, was a 
charitable man. He learnt a good lesson, first 
from a deity of a nigrodha tree, and later on from 
a peta, that one should make gifts with his own 
hands, because the man charged with work might 
not do it in the right spirit. After death, he was 
reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

These stories were evidently compiled with a 
purpose. Each one of them has a lesson, a moral 
which wants to drive home to the mind of the 
reader the effect of kamma after death. A man 
after death is reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven, or 
in the devaloka, and enjoys the good and healthy 
effects of kamma to the extent he during his life- 
time did good to others, especially to the Buddha 
and the bhikkhus of the Order, he was religiously 
and favourably minded towards Buddhism, he 
was charitable and he followed the right path by 
which of course was meant the Eightfold Path of 
Buddhism. But whosoever is guilty of misdeeds, 
of cruelty, of too much worldly attachment, of 
hatred or even lack of faith and devotion towards 
the Buddha's religion or towards anyone belonging 
to that religious Order, or was an unbeliever or 
believer in false doctrines by which was certainly 
meant any doctrine other than Buddhism, that 
individual comes to be reborn, after death, as a 
peta or peti ; he then suffers as the spirit of his 
deceased existence. And not until he or she does 

500 A History of P&li Literature 

some good works or anybody else does it on their 
account religious or charitable in the Buddhist 
sense that he or she is delivered of his or her 
life of a peta or petl. 

The Theragatha Commentary written by 
Dhammapala l and known as Para- 
matthadipani contains accounts of 
theras mentioned in the Thera- 
gatha. The commentary refers to a number of 
important places of ancient India, e.g., Savatthi, 
Rajagaha, Kapilavatthu, KosambI, Magadha, 
Campa, Vesali, Avanti, Saketa, Takkasila, Bharu- 
kaccha, etc. Kings and tribes are also frequently 
mentioned : Pasenadi, Bimbisara, Candapajjota, 
Mallas, Vajjians, Sakians, etc., are a few of them. 
It is evident from a study of the contents of the 
commentary that the theras belonged to different 
castes, from the highest aristocracy to the lowest 
scavenger, but they looked to one another with 
fraternal affection and equanimity. Most of the 
theras lived contemporaneously with the Buddha. 
A brief summary of the principal theras is given 
below : 

Subhuti was a nephew of Anathapindika. On 
the day when the Jeta grove, purchased by his 
uncle, was presented to the Exalted One, Subhuti 
was present. When he headed the Norm preached 
by the Blessed One, he realised the worthlessness 
of the worldly life. He left the world and developed 
his insight in the basis of love-jhana and won 
arahatship. The Exalted One declared him to 
be the chief of his disciples in universal amity and 
chief among such as were held worthy of gifts. 

Kotthita the Great was born in a very wealthy 
clan of brahmins. He perfected himself in the 
accomplishments of a brahmin. He found faith 

1 It was edited by Suriyagoda Sumangala Thera and Webada 
Samgharatana Thera, and finally revised by Mahagoda Siri Sanis- 
sara Thera ; Simon Hewavitarane Bequest Series, published by the 
Trustees, B.E.C.E., 2461/1918. The Pali Text Society has entrusted 
the editorship of this text to Dr. Przyluski and M. Durr. 

Pali Commentaries 501 

in the Norm preached by the Exalted One and 
entered the Order. He gained insight, attained 
arahatship, and was ranked chief among those 
who were proficient in insight. 

Kanlcha-Revata was born in a wealthy family of 
Savatthi. He found faith in the Norm and entered 
the Order. The Master pronounced him to be 
the chief of the bhikkhus who practised Jhana. 

Punna of the Mantdnis was born in an eminent 
brahmin clan. He was sister's son of the Elder 
Kondarina. He accomplished the highest duties of 
a recluse, and in due course of time, the Master 
proclaimed Punna chief among the bhikkhus in 
preaching the Norm. 

Ddsaka was born as the child of a slave of 
Anathapindika who appointed him as gate-porter of 
the Jetavana vihara. His master freed him as he 
was virtuous. He left the world and was ordained 
accordingly. But he was slothful. He was soon 
inspired by the Buddha. Not long after he realised 

Abhaya was the bastard son of King Bimbisara, 
He was at first the follower of Nataputta, the Jain 
leader. He had a conversation with the Master. 
After the king's death he left the world. He soon 
realised arhatship. 

Uttiya was born as the son of a brahmin. He 
left the world and became a paribbajaka, a wanderer. 
One day in course of his journey he came where the 
Exalted One was preaching, and entered the Order. 
He attained arhatship in time. 

Suppiya was born in a despised class, as one of 
a clan of watchman in a cemetery at Savatthi. 
He was converted by the Thera Sopaka. He 
entered the Order and attained to the highest. 

Gavampati was born as one of the four lay- 
companions of the Thera Yasa. He left the world 
hearing Yasa's renunciation, and eventually won 
arhatship. Once the Lord with a great company 
of bhikkhus went to the An j ana grove. The 
accommodation being insufficient, the bhikkhus 

602 A History of Pali Literature 

slept around the vihara on the sand banks of the 
river Sarabhu. At night the stream rose in flood. 
But the Thera Gavampati, as he was asked by 
the Master, arrested the rising stream by his mystic 
power. 1 

Virnala-kondanna was the bastard son of King 
Bimbisara. His mother was Ambapali. He left 
the world for the Order and attained arhatship. 

Ghanna was a slave of Suddhodana's household. 
He entered the Order when the Master returned 
after obtaining enlightenment to meet his kinsfolk. 
Out of his affection for the Lord, egoistic pride in 
4 our Buddha, our Doctrine ' arose in him. He 
could not conquer this fondness nor perform his 
duty as a novice. He suffered the Brahmadanda 
as prescribed by the Buddha after the Lord's 
Mahaparinibbana. Later on he attained arhatship. 

Tissa was a ruler of the town of Roguva. He 
was an absent ally of King Bimbisara. It was 

1 Mrs. Rhys Davids rightly calls him, " a very Moses in psychic 
power ". She is perfectly right when she says that Gavampati 
has been lost in his last acts by the pifcaka tradition and we have 
to seek him in Chinese translations of possibly Mahasanghika 
originals. (Sakj'a or Buddhist Origins by Mrs. Rhys Davids, 
p. 128.) Mrs. Rhys Davids further points out that the Thera 
Gavampati praised in the Anthology as of mighty iddhi but else- 
where coming into, she thinks but one brief sutta (Samyutta, 
V, 436), declined to come for less worthy motives : this is according 
to the Chinese recensions translated further by Prof. Przyluski 
(Le councile de Rajagriha, pt. I, pp. 8, 30, 66, and 116). She further 
adds, " there seemed to be nothing worth while in trying to help 
the world, now that the light of it had faded out, save in fading 
out also which he proceeded to do. It may well be that the failure 
lay not in Gavampati's will but in his physical inability to travel. 
But that it has been allowed to come in, as a serious reason for 
holding aloof from a Community in w r horn the mission spirit was 
still alive, is a sinister feature in the Compilers " (Sakya, pp. 348- 

It may further be noted here that Gavampati lives still in 
Burmese Buddhist tradition where he has been acclaimed as thw 
" Patron saint of the Mons " as well as the " patron saint of Pagan ". 
He has been mentioned more than once in the Mon inscriptions of 
Pagan as one of those who assisted sage Bisnu in the foundation 
of the city of Sisit or Sriksetra, i.e., Old Prome. He thus becomes 
intimately associated with the Mon or Telaing tradition of Lower 
Burma as well. (E. P. Birminica.) 

Pali Commentaries 503 

through Bimbisara that he renounced the world 
and entered the Order. He won arhatship. 

Vacchagotta was the son of a wealthy brahmin. 
He became a wandering recluse. He had a con- 
versation with the Lord. He entered the Order 
and in due course acquired sixfold abhinna. 

Yasa was the son of a very wealthy councillor 
at Benares. Seeing the worthlessness of the worldly 
life he forsook it and went to the Buddha for or- 
dination. He entered the Order and won arahatship. 

Pindola-Bhdradvdja was the son of the chaplain 
to King Udena of Kosambi. He was versed in the 
brahmanical lore. He entered the Order and 
acquired sixfold abhinna. The Master pronounced 
him to be the chief among his disciples who were 

Cunda the Great was the son of a female brahmin 
named Rupasari, and younger brother of Sariputta. 
He followed the latter into the Order and won 

Dhammapdla was born as a brahmin's son. 
Hearing from a certain thera about the Norm, he 
left the world and acquired sixfold abhinna. 

Dhaniya was born in a potter's family and 
practised the potter's craft. Seeing that the 
Buddha-Sasana helps one to be free from the 
sorrows of rebirth, he entered the Order and in 
due course won arhatship. 

Upali was born in a barber's family. He left 
the world following Anuruddha and the other 
five nobles. In due time he won arahatship. The 
Master himself taught him the whole Vinaya Pitaka. 
He was ranked first among those who knew the 

Rahula was born as the son of Princess 
Yosodhara. The circumstances of his entering the 
Order are recorded in the Khandhaka. He won 

Sona-Kutikanna was born in the country of 
Avanti in the family of a very wealthy councillor* 
He learned the Norm from the venerable Kacc&na 


604 A History of Pali Literature 

the Great and entered the Order through him. He 
recited the sixteen atthakas and won arahatship. 

Kassapa of Uruvela was born in a brahmin 
family. He learnt the three Vedas. Finding no 
vital truth in the scripture he became an ascetic. 
It is mentioned in the Vinaya texts how the Blessed 
One converted him and his two brothers having 
the family name Kassapa. This Kassapa was the 
chief of those bhikkhus who had great following. 

Mdlunkyffs son was born as the son of the 
king of Kosala's valuer. His mother was named 
Maluiikyft. He left the world as a wandering 
ascetic. On hearing the Master's teaching, he 
entered the Order and in due course won arahatship. 

Kaccdyana the Great was born as the son of the 
chaplain to the King Candapajjota of Ujjeni. 
At his father's death he succeeded to the post of 
chaplain. The king coming to know the 
Buddha's advent asked him to bring the Master 
there. He went to the Master who taught him the 
Norm. Afterwards he won arahatship. As bidden 
by the Master he himself went to the king and 
established him in the faith and then returned to 
the Master. 

Kappina the Great was born in a raja's family 
in the border country at a town named Kukkuta. 
At his father's death he succeeded as raja. At 
that time there was a brisk trade between Savatthi 
and Kukkuta. Once some traders, who were 
followers of the Buddha, were brought to the king. 
The king heard the excellence of the Norm from 
the traders and forthwith renounced the world. 
The Master who was then at Savatthi thought it 
a proper time to see Kappina. The Lord then 
came to the banks of the Candabhaga where he 
met Kappina and his men. The Master preached 
the Norm and they all won arahatship. 

It is interesting to note as what Mrs. Rhys 
Davids has rightly pointed out (Sakya, p. 39) that 
an unrest of enquiry (as in the Dlgha, Vol. II, 
151) is noticeable in the commentarial tradition of 

Pali Commentaries 605 

another nobleman of North India, the raja Kappina. 
Mrs. Rhys Davids remarks in this connection thus, 
" For us of European traditions the riding forth of 
the noble on a quest is familiar, but we do not 
find the Indian noble so doing in a similar tradition. 
We have the Jataka quest of King Kusa after his 
lady, but it is as a very exceptional procedure. 
The Christian knight went on a worthy quest : 
the aid of those who needed him. Kappina's 
interest was said to be in the new in knowledge. 
The purpose of the Sakyan prince was the combined 
purpose of the new in knowledge in order to bring 
help to men" (Sakya, pp. 39-40). This remark 
of Mrs. Rhys Davids seems to be just and fair. 

Revata. When the Thera Revata had won 
arahatship he went from time to time with the great 
theras to visit the Master. Going thus one day to 
visit the Buddha he stayed not far from Savatthi 
in a forest. Now the police came round on the 
track of thieves. The thieves, however, dripped 
their booty near the thera and ran. The thera was 
arrested and taken to the king. The thera proved 
his incapability for stealing and taught the king 
the Norm. 

Anuruddha was born in the house of Amitodana, 
the Sakiyan. His elder brother was Mahanama, 
the Sakiyan, the son of the Master's paternal 
uncle. He was summoned with the Sakiyan rajas 
to form a guard for the Master. Under the tuition 
of the Master himself he won arahatship. The 
Master ranked him foremost among those who 
had attained the celestial eye. 

Sdriputta and Moggalldna the Or eat. The 
stories of Sariputta and Moggallana the Great are 
taken together. In the days of Gautama Buddha 
they were playmates named Upatissa (Sariputta) 
and Kolita (Moggallana). They were born as 
brahmins. Disgusted with the worldly life they 
left the world and became followers of the wanderer 
Sanjaya. In Sanjaya's teaching they found nothing 
genuine. Through Assaji, the bhikkhu, they found 

606 A History of Pali Literature 

the Exalted One and were ordained by him. In 
course of time they won arahatship. Sariputta was 
ranked chief among the disciples in wisdom and 
insight and Moggallana was foremost in super- 
natural power of will. 

Ananda was born in the family of Amitodana, 
the Sakiyan. Ananda renounced the world with 
Bhaddiya and others and was ordained by the 
Exalted One. He became the permanent body- 
servant to the Blessed One a favour which was 
denied to Sariputta and Moggallana and others. 
He won arahatship after the death of the Buddha 
and just before the holding of the First Council. 

Kassapa the Great was born in a brahmin family 
at the brahmin village of Maha-tittha in Magadha 
and was named Pippali-manava. He had not the 
intention of marrying. But he was married to one 
Bhadda Kapilam. Both of them lived separately. 
When Pippali-manava's parents died, both of them 
decided to renounce the world. Kassapa was or- 
dained by the Master himself . In no time he won 
arahatship. The Master pronounced him chief 
among those who undertook the extra austerities. 

Phussa was born as the son of the ruler of a 
province. He shunned worldly desires. He heard 
a certain great thera preach the Norm and entered 
the Order. In due course he acquired sixfold 
abhinna (supernatural knowledge). 

Angulimdla was born as the son of the brahmin 
Bhaggava, who was chaplain to the king of Kosala. 
As he was born in the conjunction of the thief's 
constellation, he became a thief. He made a garland 
of the fingerbones and hung it round his shoulder as 
if decked for sacrifice. Both the king and the 
people were tired of him. The king sent a strong 
force to capture the bandit. The Exalted One, 
however, converted the robber-chief. 

Anna-Kondanna was born in the village of 
Donavatthu, not far from Kapilavatthu, in a very 
wealthy brahmin family. Anna-Kondanna and four 
others left the world in quest of Amata or Nirvana. 

Pali Commentaries 507 

Buddha after attaining enlightenment preached his 
wheel sermon at Tripatana to those five ascetics. 

Sona-Kolivisa was born at the city of Campa, 
in the family of a distinguished councillor. When 
the Blessed One had attained omniscience and 
began rolling the wheel of the Norm, and was 
staying at Rajagaha, Sona came to pay a visit to 
the Buddha. He heard the Master teach the Norm 
and obtained his parents' consent to enter the 
Order. In due course he attained arahatship. 

Kappa was born in the kingdom of Magadha, 
as the son of a provincial hereditary raja. He 
was addicted to self-indulgence and sensuality. 
The Master out of compassion for him preached the 
Norm to him. Kappa entered the Order and in 
due course won arahatship. 

Punna (Sundparanta) was born in the Suna- 
paranta country, at the port of Supparaka, in the 
family of a burgess. Once he went to Savatthi 
with a great caravan of merchandise. There he 
heard the discourse of the Buddha. He entered the 
Order and in due course won arahatship. 

Nandaka was born at Campa in a burgess's 
family. He was the younger brother of Bharata. 
When both of them heard that Sona-Kolivisa had 
left the world, they also renounced the worldly 
life. Bharata soon won sixfold abhinfia. But 
Nandaka could not. Seeing an ox pulling a cart 
out of the bog after it had been fed with grass 
and water, Nandaka like the refreshed ox drew 
himself out of the swamp of Samsara. Within a 
short time he won arahatship. 

Lakuntaka-Bhaddiya was born in a wealthy 
family. Hearing the Master preach he entered the 
Order and won arahatship. 

Kassapa of the River was born in a clan of 
Magadha brahmins, as the brother of Uruvela- 
Kassapa. His religious inclination made him dislike 
domestic life, and he became an ascetic. How. 
Exalted One ordained him is recorded 

508 A History of Pali Literature 

Kassapa of Oaya was born in a brahmin family. 
He left the world and with a company of disciples 
dwelt at Gaya. The story of his conversion by 
the Master is recorded in the Khandhaka. 

Therlgdthd Commentary. The Therlgathfi, Com- 
mentary 1 called the Paramatthadipani written by 
the Thera Dhammapala appends explanatory stories 
to the verses of the Therigatha. These stories give 
us accounts of women who gradually became 
theris. A summary of accounts of some of the 
important theris is given below : 

Abhirupanandd Nanda, so called for her great 
beauty and amiability, had to leave the world 
against her will owing to the sudden and untimely 
death of her beloved suitor Carabhuta. But as 
she was still very conscious of her beauty and always 
avoided the presence of the Buddha for fear of 
being rebuked on that account, she was one day 
urged upon to appear before the Buddha. And he, 
the Buddha, by his supernatural power transformed 
her into an old and fading figure. It had the 
desired effect and she became an arhat. 

Jentl. Born in a princely family at Vaisali, 
she won arahatship after hearing the Dhamma 
preached by the Buddha ; and later developed the 
seven sambojjhangas. 

Citta. Born at Rajagaha, she one day, when 
of age, heard the Buddha preaching, and came to 
believe in his doctrine. She was ordained by 
Mahapajapati, the Gotami, and later on won arahat- 

Sukkd. Born in a rich family at Rajagaha, 
Sukka, when of age, came to believe in the Buddha's 
doctrine and became a lay disciple. But one day 
hearing Dhammadinna preach she was much moved, 
became a follower of him, and later on attained 
arahatship with patisambhida (analytical knowledge). 
One day she gave to the bhikkhunis a sermon so 

1 It has been edited by E. Muller for the P.T.S. 

Pali Commentaries 609 

engrossing that even the tree-spirit heard her with 
rapt attention. 

Seld. Otherwise known as Alayika for her 
having been born in the kingdom of Alavi, she one 
day heard the Master and became a lay disciple. 
Not long after she became an arhant, and came 
to live with the Buddha at Savatthi, Mara once 
tried in vain to seduce her to choose the sensuous 

Slhd. Born at Vesali as the daughter of General 
Slha's sister, she one day heard the Master teaching 
the Norm and thereupon entered the Order. For 
seven years she tried in vain to attain arahatship 
and she intended to die. When she was about to 
kill herself, she succeeded in impelling her mind to 
insight which grew within and she won arahat- 

Sundari Nandd. Born in the royal family of 
the Sakyas, beautiful Nanda renounced the world, 
but was still proud of her beauty. Buddha com- 
pelled her to come before his presence and taught 
her in the same way as in the case of Abhirupananda, 
and preached to her about the frail beauty of the 
body. She afterwards became an arhant. 

Khemd. Beautiful Khema was the consort of 
King Bimbisara. Hearing that the Buddha was 
in the habit of speaking ill of beauty, she liked not 
to appear before him. One day, hearing the beauty 
of the Veluvana vihara, she came to see it. It 
happened that the Buddha was then living there, 
and she was led before him. The Buddha then 
illustrated with the example of a beautiful celestial 
nymph passing from youth through middle and old 
age to death the vanity of physical beauty and the 
suffering therefrom. Khema at once became a 
believer and came to attain arahatship. 

Anopamd. Daughter of a banker of Saketa, and 
beautiful as she was, she was sued by many young 
men of influence. But thinking that there was no 
happiness in household life, she went to the Master, 
heard his teachings, and later on attained arahatship. 

510 A History of Pali Literature 

Rohini. Born at VesfiH in a prosperous brahmin 
family, she, when grown up, went to the Master 
and heard him preach. With her parents' per- 
mission she entered the Order and soon attained 

Subhd. Beautiful Subha, the daughter of a 
goldsmith of Rajagaha, saw the Master, who taught 
her the Dhamma. She then entered the Order 
under Mahapajapati Gotami and in course of time 
won arahantship. 

Tissd. Born at Kapilavastu among the Sakyas, 
she renounced the world and afterwards attained 

Sumedhd. Daughter of King Konca of Man- 
tavati, she, on hearing the doctrine of the Buddha 
from the bhikkhunis, renounced the world, and 
soon acquiring insight, attained arahantship. 

Candd. Coming of a brahmin family, she had 
to beg from door to door for food. One day she 
took her food from Then Patacara and other 
bhikkhunis. She then listened to the discourses of 
Theri Patacara, renounced the world, and after- 
wards succeeded in attaining arahantship with 
patisambhida (analytical knowledge). 

Guttd. Coming of a brahmin family of Savatthi, 
she, with her parents' consent, entered the Order 
under Mahapajapati Gotami, and eventually attained 
arahantship together with patisambhida. 

Cdld, Upacdld, and Sisupacdld. Born in 
Magadha, these three were younger sisters of 
Sariputta. On their brother leaving the Order, 
they too followed suit and afterwards attained 
arhantship. In vain Mara tried to stir up sensual 
desires in them. 

Uppalavannd. Coming of a banker's family at 
Savatthi, Uppalavanna was sued by many bankers 5 
sons and princes. But she renounced the world, 
received ordination, and gradually attained arhant- 
ship with patisambhida or analytical knowledge. 

Sumangalamdtd. Coming of a poor family at 
Savatthi, and wife of a basket-maker, she one day 

Pali Commentaries 511 

reflected on all she had suffered as a lay-woman. 
On this her sight quickened and she attained 
arhatship with analytical knowledge. 

Punnd. Born of a domestic slave at Savatthi 
in the household of Anathapindika, and with great 
merits acquired in her previous births, she obtained 
Sotapattiphalam, and afterwards defeated in debate 
a brahmin Udakasiddhika. Punna renounced the 
worldly life, entered the Order, and attained arahant- 

Sundari. Born at Benares, Sundari lost her 
brother, upon which her father renounced the 
world and became an arhant. Sundari then followed 
her father, left the world, entered the Order, and 
after hard striving attained arhantship with pati- 

Vimald. Born of a public-woman at Vesali, 
Vimala one day went to the house of Mahamog- 
gallana to entice him. The venerable thera rebuking 
her, she was ashamed and became a believer and 
lay-sister. Some time after she entered the Order 
and gradually attained arhantship. 

Mittakdlikd. Coming of a brahmin family in 
the Kuru kingdom, she, when of age, entered the 
Order of sisters. For seven years she strove hard 
and afterwards won arhantship with the analytical 

Sakuld (Pakuld). Born of a brahmin family 
at Savatthi, she early became a believer, and one 
day hearing the preaching of an arahat became so 
much convinced that she entered the Order. After- 
wards she attained arhantship and became fore- 
most among the bhikkhums. 

Muttd. Coming of a brahmin family of Savatthi, 
she, when twenty years old, went to Mahapajapati 
Gotam! and got ordination from her. She eventually 
became an arhant. 

Punnd. Daughter of a leading burgess of 
Savatthi, she, when twenty years of age, heard the 
Great Pajapati and renounced the world. In due 
course she attained arhantship. 

512 A History of Pali Literature 

Dantikd. Coming of a purohita family, she, 
when of age, entered the Order under Mahapaj&pat! 
Gotami at Rajagaha, and eventually attained arhant* 
ship with analytical knowledge. 

Vaddhesi. Nurse of MahapajapatI Gotami, she 
renounced the world following her mistress. For 
twenty-five years she was harassed by the lusts of 
the senses. But one day hearing Dhammadinnft 
preach the Norm, she began to practise meditation 
and soon acquired the six supernatural powers. 

Uttamd. Coming of a householder's family at 
Bandhumati, she in her old age heard Patacarft 
preach and entered the Order and very soon became 
an arhant. Afterwards she converted thirty sisters 
who entered the Order, and they in their turn 
became arhants. 

Uttara. Coming of a clansman's family at 
Savatthi, she, when grown up, heard Patacarft 
preach the Norm, became a believer, entered the 
Order, and became an arhant. 

Bhaddd Kundalakesd. Coming of the family of 
a banker at Rajagaha, she, when grown up, fell 
in love with one Satthuka, a purohit's son. But 
Satthuka was avaricious and wanted to have all 
the jewels with which Bhadda had decked herself. 
In vain she pleaded that she herself and all her 
ornaments belonged to him. So when, Satthuka 
one day took Bhadda to the precipice of a cliff to 
give an offering, the latter pushed him over the 
precipice and he died. Bhadda then left the world, 
entered the Order of the Niganthas, and became an 
unequalled debator. One day she challenged Sari- 
putta to a debate but she was defeated, and went 
to the Buddha for refuge. Buddha discerned her 
maturity of knowledge, and she attained arhantship 
with analytical knowledge. 

Sdmd (I). Coming of a rich household at 
Kosambi and moved by the death of one of her 
dear friends, she went to listen to the Elder Ananda 
and acquired insight. On the seventh day after 
this she became an arhat. 

Pali Commentaries 513 

Sdmd (II). Another Sftma coming of a clans- 
man's family heard in her old age a sermon through 
which her insight expanded and she won arhantship 
with patisambhida (analytical knowledge). 

Ubbiri. Coming of the family of a rich house- 
holder at Savatthi, beautiful Ubbiri was made a 
queen of the king of Kosala. But a few years 
after when her only daughter Jiva died, she wept 
bitterly, whereupon she was questioned and in- 
structed by the Buddha. She was then established 
in insight and in due course won arhantship. 

Kisagotaml. Coming of a poor family at 
Savatthi, she, on the death of her only child, went 
to the Buddha with the dead body, and requested 
him to bring the dead to life. The Buddha then 
delivered a sermon upon which she became a 
bhikkhuni, and later on an arhant. 

Patdcdrd. Coming of banker's family at 
Savatthi, she, when of age, eloped with her lover 
who afterwards became her husband. But un- 
fortunately enough the husband died of snake-bite 
and her son was drowned while crossing a river. 
She lost her brother and parents. She then became 
mad and went naked. But upon Buddha's directing 
her to recover her shamelessness, she acquired 
consciousness ; and instructed by the Master she 
was established in Sotapattiphalam. Afterwards 
she became an arhant. 

Vdsitfhi. Coming of a clansman's family at 
Vesali, she became mad with grief at the death of 
her only son. But when she came to Mithila 
and saw the Buddha she got back her normal mind, 
and she listened to the outlines of the Norm preached 
by the Buddha. She then acquired insight and 
became an arhant. 

Dhammadinnd. Coming of a clansman's family 
at Rajagaha, Dhammadinna was married to a setthi 
named Visakha. But on his renouncing the world, 
she too followed and became a bhikkhuni in a 
village. By virtue of her merits acquired in a pre- 
vious birth, she soon became an arhant and was 

514 A History of Pali Literature 

later on ranked by the Buddha as the foremost 
among the sisters who could preach. 

Dhammd. Coming of a respectable family at 
Savatthi, Dhamma entered the Order on her 
husband's death and became an arhant with 
thorough knowledge of the Norm in form and 

Mettikd. Daughter of a rich brahmin of Raja- 
gaha, Mettika lived the life of a recluse and eventually 
attained arhantship. 

Abhayd. Coming of a respectable family at 
Ujjain, Abhaya renounced the world, entered the 
Order, and in course of time attained arhantship at 

Sond. Born at Rajagaha as the daughter of a 
purohita, Sona in her advanced years became a 
lay disciple first and afterwards entered the Order. 
Within a short time she attained arhantship, and 
Mara tried in vain to deviate her from this path. 

Bhaddd Kdpildm. Coming of a brahmana 
family of the Kosiya clan at Sagala, she renounced 
the world along with her husband and dwelt five 
years in a hermitage. She was then ordained by 
Mahapajapati Gotami and soon won arhantship. 
She was later on ranked first among the bhikkkums 
who could remember previous births. 

Dhird. Born at Kapilavatthu in the noble 
clan of the Sakiyas, Dhira renounced the world 
with Mahapajapati Gotami and was troubled in 
heart at the Master's teaching. She strove for 
insight and eventually became an arhant. 

Sanghd. Her story is exactly like that of 

Sumand (I). Born at Kapilavatthu, Sumana (I) 
renounced the world, was ordained by Mahapaja- 
pati Gotami, and became gradually an arhant. 

Sumand (II). Born at Savatthi as the sister 
of the king of Kosala, Sumana (II) after the death 
of her grandmother went to the vihara, and there 
hearing the Buddha preach, asked for ordination 
in her old age. She eventually became an arhant 

Pali Commentaries 515 

with thorough knowledge of the Norm in form and 
in meaning. 

Addhakdsi. Born in the kingdom of Kasi, 
Addhakasi became a prostitute. But later on she 
left the world and became ordained by a messenger 
sent by the Buddha himself. She soon attained 
arhantship with knowledge of the Dhamma in 
form and meaning. 

Sond. Coming of a clansman's family at 
S&vatthi, Sona, following her husband, renounced 
the world in her old age and entered the Order. 
Her knowledge gradually matured as a result of 
her hard strife, and she attained arhantship. She 
was ranked first among the bhikkhunis for capacity 
of effort. 

Sujdtd. Born at Saketa in a treasurer's family, 
Sujata one day visited the Buddha in the Angana 
Grove where the Master expounded the Norm to 
her in an inspiring lesson. Her intelligence being 
ripe, she at once became an arhant and was admitted 
to the Order of bhikkhunis. 

Vaddhamdtd. Born in a clansman's family 
at Bharukaccha, Vaddhamata, hearing a bhikkhu 
preach, became a believer and entered the Order 
and eventually became an arhant. 

Ambapdli. Born spontaneously at Vesali in 
the king's gardens at the foot of a mango tree, 
beautiful Ambapali was sued by many princes and 
afterwards became their courtesan. Later on, out of 
faith in the Master, she built a vihara and handed 
it over to him and the Order. And when she heard 
her own son preach the Norm, she worked for 
insight and soon attained arhantship. 

Cdpa. Born in the Vankahara country as the 
daughter of the chief trapper, Capa, on the attain- 
ment of arhantship by her husband, renounced the 
world at Savatthi and attained arhantship. 

Subhd. Born at Rajagaha in the family of 
an eminent brahmin, beautiful Subha received 
faith and became a lay disciple. Later on, she 
renounced the world, entered the Order under 

516 A History of Pali Literature 

MahapajapatI Gotami, exercised herself in insight, 
and soon attained arhantship with a thorough grasp 
of the Norm in form and meaning. 

Isiddsi. Born at Ujjain as the daughter of a 
wealthy and virtuous merchant, she was married 
several times, but finding each husband undesir- 
able, she grew agitated and took orders under the 
Then Jinadatta. She strove for insight and not 
long after attained arhantship together with thorough 
grasp of the Norm in form and meaning. 

The Paramatthadipam 1 is a commentary on the 
Cariyapitaka. Its author was 
Dhammapala. The British Museum 
has acquired a good manuscript of 
this commentary in Burmese character dated 1764 
(vide J.R.A.S., 1904, 174). The P.T.S. has under- 
taken to edit this text. Dhammapala also wrote 
commentaries on the Udana and Itivuttaka. The 
Itivuttaka Commentary is being edited by the 

1 It includes the commentaries on the Cariyapitaka, Thera- 
Therigatha, Petavatthu, Vimanavatthu, Itivuttaka, and Udana. 


The Dipavamsa 1 or the chronicle of the island 
of Lanka is the earliest known work 


ipavamsa. o f its kind. It puts together certain 
well-known traditions handed down among the 
Buddhists of Ceylon, sometimes in a clumsy manner. 
Its diction is in places unintelligible, and its narrative 
is dull and interrupted by repetitions. Though it 
is composed in verse, curiously enough the verses 
are, here and there, intervened by prose passages 
(cf. Dipavamsa, pp. 33, 64-65). What inference 
should be drawn from the occurrence of the prose 
passages in a metrical composition is still a matter 
of dispute. The point to be settled is whether the 
traditions on which the Dipavamsa narrative is 
based were prevalent all in prose or all in verse or 
in both prose and verse. Its authorship is unknown. 
The canonical model of this work is to be traced 
in a number of verses in the Parivarapatha of the 
Vinaya Pitaka. 2 The Dipavamsa is an authorita- 

1 Dr. Geiger has published a valuable treatise known as 
" Dipavamsa und Mahavamsa und die geschichtliche iiberlie- 
ferung in Ceylon," Leipzig, 1905. Translated into English by 
E. M. Coomaraswamy, Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa, Colombo, 
1908. We invite our readers' attention to Dr. Geiger's interesting 
contribution to the Indian Antiquary, Vol. XXXV, p. 443, on the 
Dipavamsa and the Mahavamsa and the Historical tradition in 

2 Cf. Parivarapatha, Vinaya Pitaka, Vol. V, p. 3. 
" Tissatthero oa medhavi Devatthero ca pandito, | 

punar eva Sumano medhavi vinaye ca visarado, 
bahussuto Culanago gajo va duppadhamsiyo, | 
Dnammapalitanamo ca Rohane sadhupujito, 
tassa sisso mah&pafino Khemanamo tipefcki | 
dlpe t&rakaraja va paftnaya atirocatha. 
Upatisso oa medhavi Phussadevo mahakathi, | 
punar eva Sumano medhavi Pupphan&xno bahussuto 
mahakathi Mahaeivo pifake sabbatthakovido, | 

518 A History of Pali Literature 

tive work well known in Ceylon at the time of 
Buddhaghosa, and, as a matter of fact, the great 
Pali commentator has copiously quoted from it in 
the introductory portion of his commentary on the 
Kathavatthu. Dr. Oldenberg has edited and trans- 
lated the book into English. He says that the 
Dipavamsa and the Mahavamsa are in the main 
nothing but two versions of the same substance, 
both being based on the historical introduction 
to the great commentary of the Mahavihara. The 
Dipavamsa follows step by step and almost word 
for word the traces of the original. According to 
Oldenberg the Dipavamsa cannot have been written 
before 302 A.D. because its narrative extends till 
that year. If we compare the language and the 
style in which the Dipavamsa and the Mahavamsa 
are written, it leaves no doubt as to the priority 
of the former. The Dipavamsa was so popular in 
Ceylon that Bang Dhatusena ordered it to be recited 
in public at an annual festival held in honour of an 
image of Mahinda in the 5th century A.D. (vide 
Dipavamsa, ed. by Oldenberg, Intro., pp. 8-9). An 
idea of its contents can be gathered from the 
summary given below. 

The first chapter gives an account of Buddha's 

punar eva Upali medhavi vinaye ca visarado, 
Mahanago mahapanno saddhamrflavamsakovido, | 
punar eva Abhayo medhavi pi$ake sabbatthakovido, 
Tissatthero ca medhavi vinaye ca visarado, | 
tassa sisso mahapanno Pupphanamo bahussuto 
sasanazh anurakkhanto Jambudlpe patitthito. | 
Culabhayo ca medhavi vinaye ca visarado 
Tissatthero ca medhavi saddhammavamsakovido | 
Culadevo ca medhavi vinaye ca visarado 
SIvatthero ca medhavi vinaye sabbatthakovido, | 
ete naga mahapaftna vinayanriu maggakovida 
vinayam dipe pakasesum pitakam Tambapanniya 'ti. 11 
Cf. also Dipavamsa, p. 32. 

Nibbute lokanathasmim vassani solasam tada, 
Ajatasattu catuvisam, Vijayassa solasam ahu, 
samaeaVthi tada hoti vassam Upalipano!itam, 
Dasako upasampanno Upalitherasantike. 
yavat& buddhasetthassa dhammappatti pakasita 
sabbaxh Upali v&cesi navangam jinabhasitam. 

Pali Chronicles 519 

first visit to the island of Lanka. Gotama obtained 
perfect enlightenment at the foot of the Bodhi- 
tree. He surveyed the whole world and perceived 
the island of Lanka, a dwelling-place fit for saints. 
He foresaw that Mahinda, the son of the Indian 
King Asoka, would go to the island and propagate 
the Buddhist faith there. Accordingly he placed 
a divine guard over the island. He visited Lanka 
and drove the Yakkhas, the inhabitants of the 
place, out of the island. 

Buddha visited the island for the second time 
when the island was on the verge of being destroyed 
by a terrific war which ensued between the mountain- 
serpents and the sea-serpents. The Lord exhorted 
them to live in peace and all the serpents took their 
refuge in him. 

His third visit to the island was in connection 
with an invitation he got from the Naga King 
Maniakkhika of Kalyani. 

The Dipavamsa then traces Buddha's descent 
from the Prince Mahasammata, the first inaugurated 
king of the earth. Gotama Buddha was the son 
of Suddhodana, chief of Kapilavatthu and Rahula- 
bhadda was the son of Gotama. Mention is also 
made of many other kings who reigned before 
Suddhodana and after Mahasammata. 

A brief account of the first two Buddhist 
Councils and the different Buddhist schools that 
arose after the Second Council is also given. The 
First Council was held under the presidency of 
Mahakassapa and under the patronage of Ajata- 
sattu. The first collection of Dhamma and Vinaya 
was made with the assistance of Upali and Ananda. 
The Second Council was held during the reign of 
Kalasoka. The Vajjiputtas proclaimed the ten 
indulgences which had been forbidden by the Tatha- 
gata. The Vajjiputtas seceded from the orthodox 
party and were called the Mahasamghikas. They 
were the first schismatics. In imitation of them 
many heretics arose, e.g., the Gokulikas, the 
Ekavyoharikas, the Bahussutiyas, etc. In all there 


520 A History of Pali Literature 

were eighteen sects l seventeen heretical and one 
orthodox. Besides these there were other minor 

The Dipavamsa further deals with the reign 
of the great Indian King Asoka, the grandson of 
Candagutta and son of Bimbisara, and the notable 
events that took place in his time. It was during 
his reign that Mahinda went to Ceylon and spread 
Buddhism there with the help of the Ceylonese 
King Devanampiyatissa who was a contemporary 
of Asoka the Great. It is said that this great king 
built 84,000 viharas all over the Jambudipa. The 
Third Buddhist Council was held under the pres- 
idency of Thera Moggaliputta Tissa and under the 
patronage of Asoka. After the Council was over 
the thera sent Buddhist missionaries to different 
countries (Gandhara, Mahisa, Aparantaka, Maha- 
rattha, Yona, Himavata, Suvannabhumi, and Lanka) 
for the propagation of Buddha's religion. 

The Dipavamsa gives a brief account of the 
colonisation of Ceylon by Vijaya, son of the king of 
Vanga, and also a systematic account of kings of 
Ceylon who ruled after Vijaya and their activities 
in promoting the cause of Buddhism. Sihabahu, 
king of Vanga, enraged at the bad conduct of Vijaya, 
his eldest son, banished him from his kingdom. 
Vijaya with a number of followers went on board 
a ship and sailed away on the sea. They in course 
of their journey through the waters visited the sea- 
port towns of Suppara and Bharukaccha and later 
on came to Lankadipa. Vijaya and his followers 
set on colonising this country and built many 
cities. Vijaya became the first crowned king of 
the island. After Vijaya we find a long list of 
kings among whom Devanampiyatissa stands out 

1 Vide Mrs. Rhys Davids, ' The sects of the Buddhists/ J.R. A.S., 
1891, pp. 409 foil. ; schools of Buddhist belief, J.R.A.S., 1892, 
pp. 1 foil. Of. Mah&vamsa, chap. 5, Mahabodhivamsa, pp. 96-97, 
Sasanavaxhsa, p. 14, Kathavatthupakarana-atthakatha, pp. 2, 3, 5. 

Pali Chronicles 521 

It was during the reign of Devanampiyatissa 
that Buddhism was first introduced into Lanka 
through Mahinda who at the instance of Thera 
Moggaliputta Tissa, the President of the Third 
Council, went to Ceylon for the propagation of the 
Buddhist faith there. It may be noted here that 
the great Indian King Asoka was a contemporary 
of Devanampiyatissa and that they were in friendly 
terms. Asoka sent a branch of the Bodhi-tree of 
the Tathagata to Lanka which was planted with 
great honour at Anuradhapura. 

After the death of Devanampiyatissa Buddhism 
was not in a flourishing condition. The immediate 
successors of the king were weak. The Damilas 
came over to Lanka from Southern India and 
occupied the country. The people were tired of 
the foreign yoke. They found in Dutthagamani, a 
prince of the royal family, who could liberate the 
country from the foreign domination. Duttha- 
gamani at the head of a huge army drove the 
Damilas out of the country. He was the greatest 
of the Sinhalese kings. Whether as a warrior or 
a ruler, Dutthagamani appears equally great. He 
espoused the cause of Buddhism and built the 
Lohapasada, nine storeys in height, the Mahathupa, 
and many other viharas. Indeed Buddhism was 
in its most flourishing condition during the reign 
of this great king. 

Dutthagamani was followed by a number of 
kings, among them Vattagamani was the greatest. 
His reign is highly important for the history of 
Buddhist literature. It was during his reign that 
the bhikkhus recorded in written books the text 
of the three pitakaS and also the Atthakatha. 
Vattagamani was also succeeded by a number of 
unimportant kings. The account of the kings of 
Ceylon is brought down to the reign of King 
Mahasena who reigned for 27 years from circa 325 
to 352 A.D. 

At the close of the 4th century A.D. there 
existed in Ceylon, an older work, a sort of chronicle 

522 A History of Pali Literature 

of the history of the island from very early times. 
The work was a part of the Attha- 
katha which was composed in 'old 
Sinhalese prose mingled with Pali 
verses. The work existed in the different monasteries 
of Ceylon and on it the Mahavamsa is based. The 
chronicle must have originally come down to the 
arrival of Mahinda in Ceylon ; but it was later 
carried down to the reign of Mahasena (4th century 
A.D.) with whose reign the Mahavamsa comes to 
an end. Of this work, the Dipavamsa presents 
the first clumsy redaction in Pali verses. The 
Mahavamsa is thus a conscious and intentional 
rearrangement of the Dipavamsa as a sort of com- 
mentary on the latter. 

Author Mahavamsa is 

known as Mahanaman. 1 

A well-known passage of the later Culavaifasa 
alludes to the fact that King Dha- 
tusena bestowed a thousand pieces 
of gold and gave orders to write a dipika on the 
Dipavamsa. This dipika has been identified by 
Fleet with the Mahavamsa ; and if this identifica- 
tion be correct, then the date of its origin is more 
precisely fixed. Dhatusena reigned at the beginning 
of the 6th century A.D., and about this time the 
Mahavamsa was composed. 

Historicity of the The historicity of the work is estab- 
work. lished by the following facts : 

(a) As to the list of kings before Asoka, namely, 
the nine Nandas, Candagutta, and Bimbisara, the 
statements concerning Bimbisara and Ajatasattu 
as contemporaries of the Buddha agree with can- 
onical writings, and, in respect of the names, with 
those of the Brahmanic tradition. In the number 
of years of Candagutta's reign, the Ceylonese tradi- 
tion agrees with the Indian. Candagutta's councillor 
Cftnaka (Canakya) is also known. 

1 Bead 'Mahanama in the Pali Literature' by Rev. R. 
Siddhartha, published in I.H.Q., Vol. VIII, No. 3, pp. 462-465. 

Pali Chronicles 523 

(6) The conversion of Ceylon, according to the 
chronicles, was the work of Mahinda, son of Asoka, 
and this is confirmed to a considerable extent by 
the fact that Asoka twice in his inscriptions (Rock 
Edicts XIII and II) mentions Ceylon to be one 
of the countries where he sent his religious mis- 
sionaries and provided for distribution of medicines. 
It receives further support from Hiuen Tsang who 
mentions Mahendra, a brother of Asoka, expressly 
as the man by whom the true doctrine was preached 
in Sinhala. Even before Mahinda, relations existed 
between India and Ceylon, for the chronicles relate 
that Asoka sent to Devanampiyatissa presents 
for his sacred consecration as the king of Ceylon. 

(c) An inscription from a relic-casket from 
Tope No. 2 of the Sanci group gives us the name of 
Sapurisasa Mogaliputasa who, according to the 
tradition, presided over the Third Council under 
Asoka' s rule. There is no doubt that he is iden- 
tical with Moggaliputta Tissa of the Ceylonese 

(d) The narrative of the transplanting of a 
branch of the sacred Bodhi-tree from Uruvela to 
Ceylon finds interesting confirmation in a repre- 
sentation of the story on the reliefs of the lower and 
middle architrave of the East gate of the Safici 

(e) The contemporaneity of Devanampiyatissa 
with Asoka is established on the internal evidence 
of the Dipavamsa and the Mahavamsa, as well as 
by archaeological evidence. Another contemporaneity 
of King Meghavarman reigning from c. 352-379 
A.D. with Samudragupta is established by the 
Chinese account of Wang Hiuentse. 

(/) There is a general historical reminiscence 
underlying the stories of the three Buddhist Councils 
recorded in the chronicles. 

But the historical statements are not always 
infallible ; and the longer the interval between the 
time of the events and the time when they are 
related, the greater the possibility of an error, and 

524 A History of Pali Literature 

the more will be the influence of legend noticeable. 
As regards the period from Vijaya to Devanampiya- 
tissa, there is a considerable distrust of tradition 
and traditional chronology. Also during the period 
from Devanampiyatissa to Dutthagamani there is 
matter for doubt. But in later periods we encounter 
no such difficulties and impossibilities. The chron- 
ology is credible, the numbers appear less artificial, 
and the accounts more trustworthy. 

In the ninth month after Buddhahood, when 
the Lord Buddha was dwelling at 
Uruvela, he one day personally went 
to Lanka and converted a large 
assembly of Yakkhas as well as a large number df 
other living beings. After this, he came back to 
Uruvela but, again in the fifth year of his Buddha- 
hood when he was residing in the Jetavana, he, in 
an early morning out of compassion for the nagas 
went to the Nagadipa (apparently the north- 
western part of Ceylon) where he preached the 
five moral precepts and established the three 
refuges and converted many nagas. The Lord then 
came back to Jetavana, but, again in the eighth 
year of his Buddhahood the Teacher, while dwelling 
in the Jetavana, went to Kalyam and preached 
the Dhamma, and then came back to Jetavana. 
The Chapter II gives a long list of kings be- 
ginning with Mahasammata from 
The ^mmata Mah5 " whose race sprang the Great Sage, 
the Tathagata. Descendants of this 
race of kings ruled in Kusavati, Rajagaha, and 
Mithila, and they reigned in groups in their due 
order. One group whose chief was Okkaka ruled 
at Kapilavatthu and was known as the Sakyas. 
In this line was born Yasodhara, a daughter of 
King Jayasena, and she was married to Sakka 
Aiijana. They had two daughters, Maya and 
Pajapati, who were both married to Suddhodana, 
a grandson of Jayasena and son of Slhahanu. The 
son of Suddhodana and Maya was the Lord Buddha 
whose consort was Bhaddakaccanft, son was Rahula, 

Pali Chronicles 525 

great friend was Bimbisara, and another con- 
temporary was Bimbisara's son, Ajatasattu. 

The First Buddhist Council 1 was convened 
three months after the parinirvftna 
of th Buddha (at Ku&nara) in the 
Sattapanni Cave at Rajagaha where 
his nearest disciples followed by seven hundred 
thousand bhikkhus and a large number of laymen 
assembled to establish the most important rules 
of the Order as, according to their recollection, the 
Master himself had laid down. The work of the 
compilation was entrusted to Thera Ananda and 
Thera Upali. Thera Upali spoke for the Vinaya, 
and Thera Ananda for the rest of the Dhamma ; 
and Thera Mahakassapa seated on the thera's chair 
asked questions touching the Vinaya. Both of them 
expounded them in detail and the theras repeated 
what they had said. The work of the First Council 
took seven months to be completed, and the Council 
rose after it had finished compilation of the Dhamma, 
and the Canon came to be known as thera tradition. 

A century after the parinibbana of the Buddha 
when Kalasoka was the reigning king, there were 
at Vaisali many bhikkhus of the Vajji clan who used 
to preach the Ten points of Buddhism. But the 
theras of Pava and Avanti with their leader, the 
great Thera Revata, declared that these Ten points 
were unlawful, and wanted to bring the dispute to a 
peaceful end. All of them followed by a large 
number of bhikkhus then went to Vaisali and there 
met the bhikkhus of the Vajji clan. Kalasoka too 
went there, and, hearing both sides, decided in 
favour of the true faith, held out by the theras 
of Pava and Avanti. The brotherhood then came 
together finally to decide, and Revata resolved 
to settle the matter by an Ubbdhikd wherein 

1 Prof. Przyluski's Le Concile de R&jagriha, pt. I, pp. 8, 30, 
66, and 116 should be consulted. Read also Buddhist Councils 
by Dr. R. C. Majumdar published in the Buddhistic Studies, edited 
by Dr. B. C. Law. Vide The Buddhist Councils held at Rajagriha 
and Vesali translated from Chinese by S. Beal. 

526 A History of Pali Literature 

four from each of the two parties were represented. 
Thera Revata, in order to hold a Council, chose also 
seven hundred out of all that troop of bhikkhus, 
and all of them met in the Valikarama and compiled 
the Dhamma in eight months. The heretical 
bhikkhus who taught the wrong doctrine founded 
another school which came to bear the name 

The Third Council was held under better 
circumstances during the reign of King Asoka at the 
Asokarama in PataBputta under the guidance and 
presidentship of Thera Moggalliputta Tissa. Within 
a hundred years from the compilation of the 
doctrine in the Second Council, there arose eighteen 
different sects in the Buddhist Order with their 
respective schools and systems, and another schism 
in the Church was threatened. At this time, 218 
years from the parinibbana of the Buddha, Asoka 
came to the throne, and after a reign of four years, 
he consecrated himself as king in Pataliputta. And, 
not long after, Samanera Nigrodha preached the 
doctrine to the king, and confirmed him with many 
of his followers in the refuges and precepts of duty. 
Thereupon the king became bountiful to the 
bhikkhus and eventually entered the doctrines. 
From that time the revenue of the brotherhood was 
on the increase but the heretics became envious, 
and they too, taking the yellow robe and dwelling 
along with the bhikkhus, began to proclaim their 
own doctrine as the doctrine of the Buddha, and 
carry out their own practices even as they wished. 
They became so unruly that King Asoka was obliged 
to arrange an assembly of the community of bhikkhus 
in its full numbers at the splendid Asokarama under 
the presidency of Thera Moggalliputta Tissa. Then 
did the king question one by one on the teachings 
of the Buddha. The heretical bhikkhus expounded 
their wrong doctrine, upon which the king caused 
to be expelled from the Order all such bhikkhus 
and their followers. Only the rightly believing 
bhikkhus answered that the Lord taught the 

Pali Chronicles 527 

Vibhajja-doctrine, and this was supported and 
confirmed by Thera Moggalliputta Tissa. Three 
thousand learned bhikkhus were then selected to 
make a compilation of the true doctrine under the 
guidance of the great thera, and they completed 
their work at the Asokarama in nine months. 

Vijaya of evil conduct was the son and prince 

regent of King Sihabahu, ruler of 

The coming and the kingdom of Lala ; but he 

consecration of was banished from the kingdom by 

Vijaya and others. ^ father for ^ many intolerab l e 

deeds of violence. Boarded on a 
ship with his large number of followers with their 
wives and children, Vijaya first landed at Supparaka, 
but afterwards, embarking again, landed in Lanka 
in the region called Tambapanni, where he eventually 
married and consecrated himself as king and built 
cities. After his death, he was succeeded by his 
brother's son Panduvasudeva who married Subhad- 
dakaccana, and consecrated himself as king. He 
was in his turn succeeded by his son Abhaya who 
was followed by Pandukabhaya. Between Pandu- 
kabhaya and Abhaya there was no king for 17 years. 
Pandukabhaya's son Mutasiva followed his 
^ - .... father and was succeeded by his 

Devanampiyatissa. , T\ - .- i 

second son Devanampiyatissa whose 
friend was Dhammasoka whom he had never 
seen, but to whom he was pleased to send a 
priceless treasure as a gift. Dhammasoka ap- 
preciated the gift, and sent as a return-gift another 
treasure to Devanampiyatissa who was now con- 
secrated as king of Lanka. 

After the termination of the Third Council, 
Moggalliputta Tissa Thera, in order to establish the 
religion in adjacent countries, sent out learned and 
renowned missionaries to Kasmir, Gandhara, 
Mahisamandala, Vanavasa, Aparantaka, Maharattha, 
Suvannabhumi (Burma), and to the Yona country. 
To the lovely island of Lanka, he sent Mahinda, 
the theras Itthiya, Uttiya, Sambala, and Bhaddasala 
to preach the religion. 

528 A History of Pali Literature 

Mahinda came out to Lanka with four theras 
,. , and Sanghamitta's son Sumana, the 

Mahinda. ... , T, ', . 

gifted samanera. Even on their 
landing many devas, nagas, and supannas were 
converted to the doctrine, and he with his followers 
entered the capital city where people thronged 
to see him, and he preached the true faith unto 
them. The wise King Devanampiyatissa heard 
him explain some of the miracles and teachings and 
episodes of the life of the Buddha, and became 
one of his most devoted patrons. The king 
then built for the great thera the Mahavihara, 
henceforth known as the Mahameghavanarama, 
which the thera accepted. Next the king built 
for him and his followers another vihara on the 
Cetiyapabbata, henceforth known as the Cetiya- 
pabbata-vihara, which too the thera accepted. 
The wise king then became eager to enshrine one 
of the relics of the Great Lord the Buddha in a 
stupa, so that he and the followers of the faith 
might behold the Conqueror in his relics and worship 
him. At his request Mahinda sent Sumana to 
King Dhammasoka with the instruction to bring 
from him the relics of the Sage and the alms-bowl 
of the Master, and then to go to Sakka in the fair 
city of the gods to bring the collar-bone of the Master 
from him. Sumana faithfully carried out the 
instruction, and when he landed down on the Missaka 
mountain with the relics, the king and the people 
were all filled with joy, and thirty thousand of them 
received the pabbajja of the Conqueror's doctrine. 
Later on the king sent his nephew and minister 
Arittha again to Dhammasoka to bring the Bodhi- 
tree which at Dhammasoka's approach severed of 
itself and transplanted itself in the vase provided 
for the purpose. Arittha then came back on board 
a ship across the ocean to the capital with the holy 
tree and a gay rejoicing began. With the Bodhi- 
tree came also Theri Sanghamitta with eleven 
followers. The Tree and its Saplings were planted 
with due ceremony at different places, and royal 

Pali Chronicles 529 

consecration was bestowed on them. Under the 
direction of the Thera Mahinda who converted the 
island, Devanariipiyatissa continued to build viharas 
and thupas one after another, and thus ruled for 
40 years, after which he died. He was succeeded 
on the throne by his son, Prince Uttiya ; but in the 
eighth year of his reign, the great Thera Mahinda, 
who had brought light to the island of Lanka, died 
at the age of sixty ; and the whole island was 
struck with sorrow at his death, and the funeral 
rights were observed with great ceremony. 

After a reign of ten years Uttiya died, and was 
n , , , . followed by Mahasiva, Suratissa, two 

DutthagSmani. -rv i i Ai ^ i A i 

Damilas, Sena and Guttaka, Asela 
and Elara, a Damila from the Cola country, in 
succession. Elara was killed by Dutthagamani who 
succeeded the former as king. 

Gamani, for such was his original name, was 
born of Prince Kakavannatissa, overlord of Maha- 
gama, and Viharadevi, daughter of the king of 
Kalyam. Gamani was thus descended through the 
dynasty of Mahanaga, second brother of Devanam- 
piyatissa. Kakavannatissa had another son by 
Viharadevi named Tissa, and both Gamani and Tissa 
grew up together. Now when they were ten and 
twelve years old, Kakavannatissa, who was a 
believing Buddhist, wanted his sons to make three 
promises ; first, they would never turn away from 
the bhikkhus, secondly, the two brothers would 
ever be friendly towards each other, and, thirdly, 
never would they fight the Damilas. The two 
brothers made the first two promises but turned 
back to make the third, upon which their father 
became sorry. Gamani gradually grew up to sixteen 
years, vigorous, renowned, intelligent, majestic, and 
mighty. He gathered round him mighty and great 
warriors from far and near villages, as well as from 
the royal and noble families. Gamani developed a 
strong hatred towards the Damilas who had 
than once usurped the throne of Lanka, 
determined to quell them down. No 

530 A History of Pali Literature 

gathered a strong army of brave and sturdy warriors 
round him, he approached his father for permission 
*to make war on the Damilas. But the king, though 
repeatedly requested, declined to give any such 
permission. As a pious Buddhist devoted to the 
cult of ahimsa, he could not give permission for 
war that would result in bloodshed and cruelty. 
He also dissuaded the warriors to fight for his sons. 
Gamani, thereupon, became disgusted with his 
father, and went to Malaya ; and because of his 
anger and disgust towards his father, he was named 
as Dutthagamani. In the meantime King Kaka- 
vannatissa died, and there arose a deadly scramble - 
for the throne between the two brothers, Duttha- 
gamani and Tissa. Two battles were fought with 
considerable loss of life, and Dutthagamani 
eventually became victorious. Peace was then con- 
cluded and the two brothers began to live together 
again. He took some time to provide for his 
people who had suffered during the last wars, and 
then went out to fight against the Damilas. He 
overpowered Damila Chatta, conquered Damila 
Titthamba and many other mighty Damila princes 
and kings. Deadly were the wars that he fought 
with them, but eventually he came out victorious, 
and united the whole of Lanka into one kingdom. 
Gamani was then consecrated with great pomp, 
and not long after he himself consecrated the 
Maricavatti vihara which he had built up. Next 
took place the consecration of the Lohapasada ; 
but the building up of the Great Thupa was now 
to be taken up. He took some time to the obtaining 
of the wherewithal, i.e., the materials of the thupa 
from different quarters, and then began the work 
in which masons and workmen from far and near 
did take part, and at the beginning of which a 
great assemblage of theras from different countries 
took place. When the work of the building had 
considerably advanced, the king ordered the making 
of the Relic-chamber in which the relics were 
afterwards enshrined with due eclat, pomp, and 

Pali Chronicles 531 

ceremony. But ere yet the making of the chatta 
and the plaster work of the monument was finished, 
the king fell ill which later on proved fatal. Hd" 
sent for his younger brother Tissa, and asked him 
to complete the thupa, which Tissa did. The ill 
king passed round the Cetiya on a palanquin and 
did homage to it, and left with Tissa the charge 
of doing all the work that still remained to be 
done towards it. He then enumerated some of 
the pious works he had done in his life to the 
theras and bhikkhus assembled round his bed, and 
one of the theras spoke to him on the unconquerable 
foe of death. Then the king became silent, and 
he saw that a golden chariot came down from the 
Tusita heaven. Then he breathed his last, and was 
immediately seen reborn and standing in celestial 
form in a car that had come down from the Tusita 

Dutthagamani was succeeded by his brother 

Saddhatissa who ruled for 18 years, 

and built man Y cetiyas and viharas. 

He was followed by Thulathana, 
Lanjatissa, Khallatanaga, and Vattagamani. The 
last named was a famous king during whose reign 
the Damilas became powerful and again usurped 
the throne. Vattagamani was thus followed by 
Damila Pulahattha, Damija Bahiya, Damila Panaya- 
maraka, Damila Pilayamaraka, and Damila 
Dathika. But the Damilas were dispossessed of 
their power not long after by Vattagamani, who 
now ruled for a few more years. 

After his death, his adopted son Mahaculi 

Mahatissa reigned for 14 years with 

Eleven kings. . , i T- TT j? 11 j 

piety and justice. He was followed 
by Coranaga, Tissa, Siva, Damila Vatuka, Brahmin 
Niliya, Queen Anula, Kutakanna Tissa, Bhati- 
kabhaya, and Mahadathika Mahanaga. 1 All of 
them had short reigns and were builders of viharas 

1 In the list of Ancient Kings of Ceylon the name of Daru- 
bhatikatissa appears after Damila Vatuka (vide Geiger, Mahavamsa, 
Introduction, p. xxxvii). 

532 A History of Pali Literature 

and cetiyas. Anula was a notorious queen and to 

^her love intrigues at least four kings, Siva, Tissa, 

^Damila Vatuka, and Brahmin Niliya, lost their 

lives. Except Tissa, they were all upstarts and they 

rightly deserved the fate that had been theirs. 

After Mahadathika's death, Amandagamani 
Abhaya, his son, followed him on 
ngs. t ^ e throne. He was followed by 
Kanirajanutissa, Culabhaya, Queen Sivali, Ilanaga, 
Candamukha Siva, Yasalalakatissa, Subharaja, 
Vankanasikatissaka, Gajabahukagamani, and 
Mahallaka Naga in succession. Most of these kings 
were worthless, and their merit lay only in the 
building or extension of viharas and other religious 
establishments and in court-intrigues. Two of them, 
Ilanaga and Subharaja were, however, comparatively 
more noted for their acts of bravery and valour 
exhibited mostly in local wars. 

After the death of Mahallanaga, his son Bhatika- 
. . , . tissaka reigned for 24 years. He 

Thirteen kings. r n i T_ 

was followed m succession by 
Kanitthatissaka, Khujjanaga, Kuncanaga, Sirinaga, 
Tissa, Abhayanaga, Sirinaga, Vijayakumaraka, 
Samghatissa, Sirisamghabodhi, Gothabhaya, and 
Jetthatissa who are grouped together in a chapter 
entitled " Thirteen Bangs " in the Mahavamsa. 
Scarcely there is anything important enough to be 
recorded about these kings, besides the fact that 
most of them ruled as pious Buddhists, always 
trying to further the cause of the religion by the 
foundation and extension of religious establishments, 
and that they carried out the affairs of the kingdom 
through wars, intrigues, rebellions, and local feuds. 
King Jetthatissa was succeeded by his younger 
. . , brother, Mahasena, who ruled for 

King MahSeena. -._ ' , , / , 

27 years and during whose reign, 
most probably, the Mahavamsa was given its 
present form. Originally it ended with the death of 
King Dutthagamani, but now it was probably 
brought up-to-date. 

On his accession to the throne, he forbade the 

Pali Chronicles 533 

pie to give food to any bhikkhu dwelling in the 
lavihara on penalty of a fine of hundred pieces 
of money. The bhikkhus thus fell in want, and 
they left the vihara which remained empty for 
nine years. It was then destroyed by the ill- 
advisers of the king and its riches were removed 
to enrich the Abhayagirivihara. The king wrought 
many a deed of wrong upon which his minister 
Meghavannabhaya became angry and became a 
rebel. A battle was imminent, but the two former 
friends met, and the king, repentant of his mis- 
deeds, promised to make good all the harm done to 
the religious establishments of Lanka. The king 
rebuilt the Mahavihara, and founded amongst others 
two new viharas, the Jetavanavihara and the 
Manihiravihara. He was also the builder of the 
famous Thuparamavihara, as well as of two other 
nunneries. He also excavated many tanks and 
did many other works of merit. 

Dr. Kern says in his Manual of Indian Buddhism 
that the Mahavamsa deserves a special notice on 
account of its being so highly important for the 
religious history of Ceylon. Dr. Geiger who has 
made a thorough study of the Pali chronicles, has 
edited the text of the Mahavamsa for the P.T.S., 
London, and has ably translated it into English 
for the same society, with the assistance of the 
late Dr. M. H. Bode. G. Tumour's edition and 
translation of this text are now out of date. Prof. 
Geiger has translated it into German. Mrs. Bode 
has retranslated it into English and Dr. Geiger 
himself has revised the English translation. There 
is a commentary on the Mahavamsa known as 
the Mahavamsatika (Wamsatthapakasim revised 
and edited by Batuwantudawe and -Sanissara, 
Colombo, 1895) written by Mahanama of Anuradha- 
pura. This commentary is helpful in reading 
the text. It contains many additional data not 
found in the text. Readers are referred to the 
Mahawanse, ed. by Tumour, Ceylon, 1837, Maha- 
vamsa revised and edited by H. Sumangala Batu- 

534 A History of Pali Literature 

wantudawe, Colombo, 1883, and Cambodjan Maha- 
vamsa by E. Hardy, J.R.A.S., 1902. There is a 
-Sinhalese translation by Wijesinha, Colombo, 1889 
(chapter and verse). 

It has long been ascertained that both Dlpa- 

vamsa and Mahavamsa owe their 

Dipavamsa and origin to a common source the 

Mah&vamsa com- A , fV i j.i_ - n/r i - r ji 

pared. Atthakatha-Mahavamsa of the 

Mahavihara monastery, which, evi- 
dently was a sort of chronicle of the history of the 
island from very early times, and must have formed 
an introductory part of the old theological com- 
mentary (atthakatha) on the canonical writings of 
the Buddhists. Both Oldenberg and Geiger, the 
celebrated editors of the Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa 
respectively, are of opinion that this Atthakatha- 
Mahavamsa was composed in Sinhalese prose, inter- 
spersed, no doubt with verse in the Pali language. 
This book (Mahavamsa-atthakatha) existed in 
various recensions in the different monasteries of 
the island, and the authors of both Dipavamsa and 
Mahavamsa borrowed the materials of their works 
from one or other of the various recensions of that 
Atthakatha. This borrowing presumably was 
independent, and quite in their own way ; but even 
then, in the main, they are nothing but two different 
versions of the same thing. But as the Dipavamsa 
had been composed at least one century and a 
half earlier than the Mahavamsa, it shows perhaps 
more faithfulness to the original, i.e., to the Attha- 
katha, for, as Oldenberg points out, that the 
" author of the Dipavamsa borrowed not only the 
materials of his own work but also the mode of 
expression, and even whole lines, word for word, 
from the Atthakatha. In fact, a great part of the 
Dipavamsa has the appearance not of an 
independent, continual work, but of a composition 
of such single stanzas extracted from a work or 
works like the Atthakatha ". x But the author of 

1 Dipavamsa (Oldenberg), Introduction, p. 6. 

Pali Chronicles 535 

the Mahavamsa is not so fettered in his style or 
execution. Coming as he did at least one century 
and a half later (i.e., the beginning of the 6th 
century A.D.) than the author of the Dipavamsa 
when the islanders had attained much more freedom 
in their learning and writing of the Pali language 
he evidently showed greater ease and skill in his 
use of the language, as well as in his style and 
composition, and finally, a more free and liberal 
use of the material of his original. 

It is well known that Mahanaman was the 
author of the Mahavamsa, whereas we are com- 
pletely in the dark as to the name of the author of 
the Dipavamsa. A further proof of the fact that 
both the authors were indebted to a common 
source is provided by a very striking coincidence 
of the two narratives, namely, that both the chron- 
icles finish their accounts with the death of King 
Mahasena who flourished about the beginning of 
the 4th century A.D. It was not much later that 
the Dipavamsa was composed, but as the Mahavamsa 
was composed still later, we might as well expect 
the bringing down of the narrative to a later date. 
But this was not the case, apparently for the fact 
that their common source, the Atthakatha-Maha- 
variisa of the Mahavihara monastery, as shown by 
Oldenberg, was very intimately connected with 
King Mahasena with whose reign the glorious 
destinies of the monastery came practically to an 
end, and there the Atthakatha could only logically 
stop its account. 1 

But the historical writers of the Mahavihara 
fraternity did not at once bring down their account 
to the reign of Mahasena. The Atthakatha-Maha- 
variisa seems to have originally brought down its 
account only to the arrival of Mahinda in Ceylon ; 
but it was later on continued and brought down to 
the reign of Mahasena, where both the Dipavamsa and 
the Mahavamsa as already noticed, came to an end. 

1 Dipavamsa (Oldenberg), Intro., p. 8. 


536 A History of Pali Literature 

That the Dlpavamsa was well known to the 
author of the Mahavamsa is evident from the very 
arrangement of the chapters and events of the 
narrative, so much so that the Mahavamsa seems 
to be more an explanatory commentary on the 
earlier chronicle. The account in the Dipavamsa 
is condensed, and the sequence of events and 
characters presents the form more of a list and 
catalogue than of any connected account. The 
Mahavamsa, on the other hand, is elaborate, more 
embellished, and seems rather to explain the cata- 
logue of events and characters of the earlier chronicle 
so as to give it the form of a connected narrative. 
Geiger rightly thinks in this connection that " the 
quotation of the Mahavamsa of the ancients in the 
prooemium of our Mahavamsa refers precisely to 
the Dlpavamsa 'V The well-known passage of 
the Culavamsa (38. 59) " datva sahassam dipetum 
Dlpavamsam samadisi" which Fleet translates as 
" he (King Dhatusena) bestowed a thousand (pieces 
of gold) and gave orders to write a dlpikd on the 
Dipavamsa " also lends support to this view, 2 for 
this Dipika, Fleet says, is identical with Mahavamsa. 

It is interesting to compare the more important 
chapters of the two chronicles to see how their 
subject-matters agree or differ. We have already 
indicated that their contents are almost identical ; 
in the Dipavamsa they are condensed, and in the 
Mahavamsa, elaborate. After an identical account 
of the race of Mahasammata, both the earlier and 
later chronicles proceed to give a more or less 
detailed account of the three Buddhist Councils. 
The account of the First Council is almost the 
same. Five hundred chosen bhikkhus assembled 
under the leadership of Mahakassapa in the Satta- 
panna cave at Rajagaha and composed the collec- 
tion of the Dhamma and the Vinaya. The Dipa- 

1 Mah&vaxhsa (Geiger), Intro., p. xi. 

2 Mahavamsa (Geiger), Intro., p. xi, where Geiger quotes 

Pali Chronicles 537 

vamsa mentions the fourth month after the Master's 
death as the time at which the First Council was held. 
This was the second Vassa-month, i.e., Savana. 
This date is substantially confirmed by that pro- 
vided by the Mahavamsa which mentions the 
bright half of Asfida, the fourth month of the year 
as the beginning of the Council. But as the first 
month was spent in preparations, the actual pro- 
ceedings did not begin till the month of Savana. 
The account of the Second Council too is sub- 
stantially the same. It was brought about by the 
dasa-vatthuni of the Vajjians of Vesali, a relaxation 
of monastic discipline ; and 700 bhikkhus took 
part in the discussion of the Council. It was held 
in the llth year of the reign of Kalasoka ; there is, 
however, a slight discrepancy about the locality 
where the Council was held. The Mahavaihsa 
mentions the Valikarama, whereas the Dipavamsa 
mentions the Kutagarasala of the Mahavana 
monastery as the place of the Council. The tradi- 
tion of a schism in the Second Council is also 
identical in the two chronicles. The Dipavamsa 
states that the heretical monks held a separate 
Council called the Mahasamgiti, and prepared a 
different redaction of the Scriptures. The tradition 
is also noticed in the Mahavamsa where it is related 
that they formed a separate sect under the name 
Mahasamghika. The account of the Third Council 
is also identical. It was held at Pataliputta under 
the presidency of Tissa Moggaliputta and lasted 
for nine months. 

The list of Indian kings before Asoka and 
pieces of historical account connected with them, 
the traditional date of the Buddha's parinirvana, 
and the duration of reigns of individual Indian kings 
are always almost identical in both the chronicles. 
The story of the conversion of Ceylon, that of the 
coming of Vijaya and his consecration, the list 
and account of Ceylonese kings up to Devanam- 
piyatissa and that of the latter's contemporaneity 
with Kong Dhammasoka, are for all practical purposes 

538 A History of Pali Literature 

the same. But before the two chronicles take up 
the account of Mahinda's coming to Ceylon, the 
Mahavamsa inserts a somewhat elaborate account 
of the converting of different countries under 
the efficient missionary organisation of Moggaliputta 
Thera. The Mahavamsa thus rightly stresses the 
fact that it was a part of the religious policy of the 
great thera that Mahinda came to Ceylon. Here 
again the accounts of the Dipavamsa and the 
Mahavamsa are identical; then follow the identical 
accounts of Mahinda's entry into the capital, his 
acceptance of the Mahavihara and that of the 
Cetiyapabbata-vihara, the arrival of the relics, the 
receiving and coming of the Bodhi tree, and the 
Nibbana of the Thera Mahinda. From Vijaya to 
Devanampiyatissa the tradition and traditional 
chronology are almost identical ; there is only a 
discrepancy about the date of Devanampiyatissa 
himself. The earlier chronicle states that filing 
Devanampiyatissa was consecrated king in the 
237th year after the Buddha's death, whereas the 
Mahavamsa places it on the first day of the bright 
half of the ninth month, Maggasira (Oct. -Nov.), 
showing a discrepancy involved probably in the 
chronological arrangement itself. 1 

The account of the kings from the death of 
Devanampiyatissa to Dutthagamani is also identical 
in the two chronicles. But the Mahavamsa is 
much more detailed and elaborate in its account of 
Bong Dutthagamani, giving as it does in separate 
chapters the topics of the birth of Prince Gamani, the 
levying of the warriors for the war of the two 
brothers, Gamani and Tissa, the victory of Duttha- 
gamani, the consecrating of the Maricavatti vihara, 
the consecrating of the Lohapasada, the obtaining 
of the wherewithal to build the Mahathupa, the 
beginning of the Mahathupa, the making of the 
relic-chamber for the Mahathupa, the enshrining 
of the relics and finally his death : whereas the 

1 See Mahavamsa (Geiger), Intro., pp. xxxi foil. 

Pali Chronicles 539 

Dipavamsa touches, and that also in brief, the two 
accounts only in their main outline. 

The list and account of the later kings from 
Dutthagamani to Mahasena in the Dipavamsa are 
very brief. In the Mahavamsa, however, though 
the essential points and topics are the same, the 
accounts differ considerably in their detail which 
may be due to the more liberal use by the author 
of the original as well as of other historical and 
traditional sources than the Atthakatha-Mahavamsa. 
He might have also used those indigenous historical 
literature and tradition that might have grown up 
after the author of the Dipavamsa had laid aside 
his pen. This is apparent from a comparison of 
the respective accounts of any individual king, say, 
the last King Mahasena. Thus the Dipavamsa 
relates that while he was in search of really good 
and modest bhikkhus, he met some wicked bhikkhus ; 
and knowing them not he asked them the sense of 
Buddhism and the true doctrine. Those bhikkhus, 
for their own advantage, taught him that the true 
doctrine was a false doctrine. In consequence of 
his intercourse with those wicked persons, he per- 
formed evil as well as good deeds, and then died. 
The Mahavamsa account is otherwise. It gives the 
story of his consecration by Saiighamitta, the 
account of the vicissitudes of the Mahavihara, how 
it was left desolate for nine years, how a hostile 
party succeeded in obtaining the king's sanction for 
destroying the monastery, why for this fault of the 
king the minister became a rebel, how the Maha- 
vihara was reconstructed and came to be again 
inhabited by bhikkhus, how an offence of the gravest 
kind was made against Thera Tissa and how he was 
expelled, how the king built the Mamhlra-vihara, 
destroying the temples of some brahmanical gods, 
and how he built many other aramas and viharas, 
and a number of tanks and canals for the good of 
his subjects. 

One such instance as just noticed is sufficient 
to explain the nature of the difference in the accounts 

540 A History of Pali Literature 

of individual kings as given in the two chronicles. 
The duration of ruling years as given to individual 
kings is in most cases identical ; there are only a 
few discrepancies, e.g., with regard to the reigns of 
Sena and Gutta, Lajjitissa (the Mahavamsa gives 
the name as Lanjatissa), Niliya, Tissa Yasalala, 
Abhaya, and Tissa. In the case of Sena and Gutta, 
the Dipavamsa gives the duration of rule as 12 years, 
whereas the Mahavamsa gives it as 22 years. The 
Dipavamsa gives 9 years 6 months to Lajjitissa, 
whereas the later chronicle gives 9 years 8 months. 
Niliya is given 3 months in the earlier chronicle, 
but in the later chronicle he is given 6 months. 
Tissa Yasalala is given 8 years 7 months, and 7 
years and 8 months respectively ; and the order 
of rule of Abhaya and Tissa of the Dipavamsa is 
transposed in the Mahavamsa as Tissa and Abhaya, 
and Abhaya is given only 8 years in place of 22 as 
given by the Dipavamsa. 

In the early days of the study of the Ceylonese 

chronicles, scholars were sceptical 

The value o^the about their value as sources of 

icies nese C r n authentic historical tradition and 

information. But now after lapse 

of years when the study of Indian and Ceylonese 

history has far advanced, it is now comparatively 

easy for us to estimate their real value. 

Like all chronicles, the Dipavamsa and the 
Mahavamsa contain germs of historical truth buried 
deep under a mesh of absurd fables and marvellous 
tales. But if they do contain mainly myths and 
marvels and read more like fantasies, they are like 
other chronicles of their time. This, however, 
should not be used as any argument for completely 
rejecting the chronicles as positively false and 
untrustworthy. It is, however, important that 
one should read them with a critical eye as all 
records of popular and ecclesiastical tradition deserve 
to be read. Buried in the illumination of myths, 
miracles, and legends, there are indeed germs which 
go to make up facts of history, but they can only 

Pali Chronicles 541 

be gleaned by a very careful elimination of all 
mythical and unessential details which the pious 
sentiment of the believer gathered round the nucleus, 
" If we pause ", Geiger rightly says, " first at internal 
evidence then the Ceylonese chronicles will assuredly 
at once win approval in that they at least wished to 
write the truth. Certainly the writers could not go 
beyond the ideas determined by their age and their 
social position, and beheld the events of a past time 
in the mirror of a one-sided tradition. But they 
certainly did not intend to deceive hearers or 
readers." l 

The very fact that both Dipavamsa and 
Mahavamsa are based on the earlier Atthakatha- 
Mahavamsa, a sort of a chronicle which itself was 
based upon still earlier chronicles, ensures us in 
our belief that they contain real historical facts, 
for, with the Atthakatha, the tradition goes back 
several centuries, and becomes almost contemporary 
with the historical incidents narrated in the chronicle. 

Even in the very introductory chapters, there 
are statements which agree with other canonical 
writings, and find confirmation in our already known 
facts of history, Sucli are the statements that 
Bimbisara was a great friend of Buddha, and 
both Bimbisara and Ajatasattu were contem- 
poraries of the Master. There does not seem to be 
any ground for rejecting the tradition of the 
chronicles that Gotama was five years older than 
Bimbisara, though the duration of rule ascribed 
to each of them disagrees with that ascribed by 
the Puranas. But whatever that might be, there 
can hardly be any doubt as to the authenticity of 
the list of Indian kings from Bimbisara to Asoka 
provided by the chronicles. The Jain tradition 
has, no doubt, other names ; " this ", as pointed 
out by Geiger, " does not affect the actual agree- 
ment. There can be no doubt that the nine Nandas 
as well as the two forerunners of Asoka, Candagutta 

1 Mahavamsa Geiger, Intro., p. xv. 

642 A History of Pali Literature 

and Bindus&ra, were altogether historical person- 
ages." But more than this is the complete agree- 
ment of the Ceylonese and Pauranic tradition in 
the duration of reign, namely 24, ascribed to 
Candagutta. The discrepancy of the two traditions 
in respect of regnal duration of Bindusara and Asoka, 
namely 3 years and 1 year respectively, is almost 
negligible. Still more interesting is the name of 
Canakka (Canakya), the brahmin minister of Canda- 
gutta, who was known to the authors of the Dipa- 
vamsa and the Mahavamsa. 

So much with regard to the historical value 
of the Ceylonese chronicles in respect of Indian 
history. But more valuable are the chronicles with 
regard to the history of Ceylon. As regards the 
oldest period from Vijaya to Devanampiyatissa the 
chronicles are certainly untrustworthy to the extent 
that the duration of years ascribed to each reign 
seems incredible in view of the fact that they appear 
to be calculated according to a set scheme, and 
present certain insuperable difficulties of chronology 
with regard to one or two reigns, e.g., of King 
Pandukabhaya and Mutasiva. Moreover, the day 
of Vijaya's arrival in Ceylon has been made to 
synchronise with the date of Buddha's death, 
which itself is liable to create a distrust in our mind. 
But even in the first and the earliest period of 
Ceylonese history, there are certain elements of 
truth which can hardly be questioned. Thus there 
is no ground for doubting the authenticity of the 
list of kings from Vijaya to Devanampiyatissa ; 
nor is there any reason for rejecting the account of 
Pandukabhaya's campaigns, as weff as the detailed 
account of the reign of Devanampiyatissa, which 
seem decidedly to be historical. We have also 
sufficient reason to believe the contemporaneity and 
friendship of Tissa and Asoka who exchanged 
greetings of gifts between themselves. 

As for the period from Devanampiyatissa to 
Mahasena, the chronicles may safely but intelligently 
be utilised as of value. There are no doubt gaps in 

Pali Chronicles 543 

the traditional chronology which have been care- 
lessly filled in, notably in the period from Deva- 
nampiyatissa to Dutthagftmani, but after Duttha^ 
gftmani there is no such careless and fictitious 
in of gaps, nor any set-up system of chroirfuogy, 
and on the whole the list of kings and their duration 
of reigns are credible. But even where the chrono- 
logy is doubtful, there is no ground whatsoever for 
doubting the kernel of historical truth that lies 
mixed up with mythical tales in respect of the 
account of each individual reign, say, for example, 
of the reign of Dutthagamani. It may, therefore, 
be safely asserted that the Ceylonese chronicles 
can be utilised, if not as an independent historical 
source, at least as a repository of historical tradition 
in which we can find important confirmatory evidence 
of our information with regard to early Indian and 
contemporary Ceylonese history. 

But the chronicles must be considered to be of 
more value for the ecclesiastical history not only of 
Ceylon but of India as well. With regard to this 
there are certain notices in the chronicles that have 
helped us to start with almost definite chronological 
points which are equally important in respect of the 
political history of the continent and its island. 
One such fixed point is provided by the chronicles 
where it has been stated that 218 years after the 
Sambuddha had passed into Nirvana when Asoka 
was consecrated. This corner stone has helped us 
to ascertain one of the most knotty and at the same 
time most useful starting points of Indian history, 
namely, the year of the Buddha's parinirvana and 
his birth, which, according to the calculation based 
on the date just cited are 483 B.C. and 563 B.C. 
respectively. 1 

Next in point of importance with regard to the 
history of Buddhism is the conversion of the island 
by Mahinda, who is represented in the chronicles 
as a son of Asoka. Historians have doubted the 

1 See Mahavamsa (Geiger), Sees. 5 and 6. Introduction. 

544 A History of Pali Literature 

tradition in view of the fact that there is no mention 
of it in the numerous edicts and inscriptions of 
^Asoka. Geiger has very ably shown that this 
aigiunent is at least an argumentum e silentio and 
can Lordly be conclusive. The tradition of the 
chronicles is unanimously supported by the tradition 
of the country itself, and finds further confirmation 
in the account of Yuan Chwang who expressly 
states that the conversion of Ceylon was the 
work of Mahendra or Mahinda, who is, however, 
represented as a brother of Asoka. But it must 
not be understood that Ceylon was converted all 
on a sudden by Mahendra or Mahinda. Similar 
mission must have been sent earlier ; " a hint that 
Mahinda's mission was preceded by similar missions 
to Ceylon is to be found even in Dipavamsa and 
Mahavaihsa when they relate that Asoka, sending 
to Devanampiyatissa with presents for his second 
consecration as king, exhorted him to adhere to the 
doctrine of the Buddha." * 

Geiger has also been able to find very striking 
confirmation of the history of the religious missions 
as related in the chronicles in the relic-inscriptions 
of the Safichi stupa, No. 2. 2 He has thus pointed 
out that Majjhima who is named in the Mahavarhsa 
as the teacher who converted the Himalaya region 
and Kassapagotta who appears as his companion 
in the Dipavamsa are also mentioned in one of the 
inscriptions just referred to as ' pious Majjhima ' 
and * pious Kassapagotta, the teacher of the 
Himalaya '. In another inscription also Kassapa- 
gotta is mentioned as the teacher of the Himalaya. 
Dundubhissara who is also mentioned in the 
chronicles as one of the theras who won the Himalaya 
countries to Buddhism, is mentioned in another 
inscription as Dadabhisara along with Gotiputta 
(i.e., Kotiputta Kassapagotta). The thera, i.e., 
Moggaliputta Tissa, who is described in the chronicles 

1 Mahavarhsa, p. xix. 

2 Ibid., pp. xix-xx. 

Pali Chronicles 545 

as having presided over the Third Buddhist Council, 
is also mentioned in another inscription as Mogali- 
putta. These facts are guarantee enough for care- 
fully utilising the chronicles as an important spwrce 
of information for the early history of BudfJHism. 

This would be far more evident whenwe would 
consider the accounts of the three Buddhist Councils 
as related in the two chronicles. The authenticity 
of the accounts of these Councils had during the 
early days of the study of the two chronicles often 
been doubted. But it is simply impossible to doubt 
that there must lie a kernel of historical truth at 
the bottom of these accounts. As to the First 
Council, both the northern and southern traditions 
agree as to the place and occasion and the President 
of the Council. As to the Second Council, both 
traditions agree as to the occasion and cause of 
the first schism in the Church, namely, the relaxa- 
tion of monastic discipline brought about by the 
Vajjian monks. As to the place of the Council, 
the northern tradition is uncertain, but the southern 
tradition is definite inasmuch as it states that it 
was held in Vesali under King Kalasoka in 383/2 
B.C. and led to the separation of the Mahasamghikas 
from the Theravada. The Ceylonese tradition 
speaks of a Third Council at PataUputra in the year 
247 B.C. under King Dhammasoka which led to the 
expulsion of certain disintegrating elements from 
the community. The northern tradition has, how- 
ever, no record of a Third Council, but that is no 
reason why we should doubt its authenticity. 
Geiger has successfully shown that the " distinction 
between two separate Councils is in fact correct. 
The Northern Buddhists have mistakenly fused the 
two into one as they confounded the kings, Kalasoka 
and Dhammasoka, one with another. But traces 
of the right tradition are still preserved in the 
wavering uncertain statements as to the time and 
place of the Council." * 

1 Mahavamsa ( Geiger' s Tr.)> pp. lix-ix and ff. 

546 A History of Pali Literature 

The succession of teachers from UpAli to 
Mahinda as provided by the chronicles is also 
interesting from the view-point of the history of 
eatrji^Buddhism. The succession list which includes 
Upli,^>&e great authority on Vinaya at the time 
of the Buddha, Dasaka, Sonaka, Siggava, Moggali- 
putta Tissa, and Mahinda, may not represent the 
whole truth, they even might not all be Vinaya- 
pamokkha, i.e., authorities on Vinaya ; but the 
list presents at least an aspect of truth, and is 
interesting, presenting, as it does, " a continuous 
synchronological connexion between the history of 
Ceylon and that of India ". The list can thus be 
utilised for ascertaining the chronological arrange- 
ment of early Indian history as well as of the teachers 
of early Buddhism. 

The chronicles can still more profitably be 
utilised as a very faithful record of the origin and 
growth of the numerous religious establishments of 
Ceylon. They are so very elaborately described and 
the catalogue seems to be so complete that a careful 
study may enable us to frame out a history of the 
various kinds of religious and monastic establish- 
ments, e.g., stupas, viharas, cetiyas, etc., of Ceylon. 
Thus the history of the Mahavihara, the Abhayagiri 
vihara, the Thupar&ma, Mahameghavanarama, and 
of a host of others is recorded in elaborate detail. 
Incidentally they refer to the social and religious 
life led by the monks of the Order as well as by the 
lay people. It is easy to gather from the chronicles 
that the great architectural activity of the island 
began as early as the reign of Devanampiyatissa 
and continued unabated during each succeeding 
reign till the death of Mahasena. The numerous 
edifices, tanks, and canals whose ruins now cover 
the old capitals of the island were built during that 
period, and their history is unmistakably recorded in 
the chronicles. Religious ceremonies and pro- 
cessions are often vividly described, and they give 
us glimpses of the life and conditions of the time. 
Not less interesting is the fact, often times related 

Pali Chronicks 547 

as a part of the account of these religious edifices, 
of very close intercourse with more or less important 
religious centres of India, namely, Rajag&h^, 
Kosambl, Vesali, Ujjenl, Pupphapura, Ir^S&va, 
Alasanda (Alexandria), and other countriejsXlSvery 
important function was attended by brotner monks 
and teachers from the main land to which the 
Ceylonese kings and people turned for inspiration 
whenever any question of bringing and enshrining 
a relic arose. There are also incidental and stray 
references which are no less valuable. The Maha- 
vamsa informs us that King Mahasena built the 
Manihiravihara and founded three other viharas, 
destroying temples of the (brahmanical) gods. It 
shows that brahmanical temples existed side by 
side, and religious toleration was not always the 

As for the internal political history and foreign 
political relations with South India, specially with 
the Damilas, the chronicles seem to preserve very 
faithful records. No less faithful is the geographical 
information of India and Ceylon as supported by 
them. But most of all, as we have hinted above, 
is the information contained in them, in respect of 
the history of Buddhism and Buddhist establish- 
ments of the island. There is hardly any reason 
to doubt the historicity of such information. 

The Culavamsa l is not an uniform and homo- 
-_. . geneous work. It is a series of 

Culavamsa. , ,. . , . . . 

additions to, and continuations ot, 
the Mahavamsa. The Mahavamsa is the work of 
one man Mahanama, who compiled the work during 
the reign of Dhatusena in the 6th century A.D. 
But the single parts of the Culavamsa are of different 
character, written by different authors at different 
times. The first who continued the chronicle was 
according to Sinhalese tradition the Thera Dham- 

1 Edited by Dr. W. Geiger in two volumes for the P.T.S., 
London, translated into English by Geiger and Mrs. R. Rickmers, 

648 A History of Pdli Literature 

makitti. He came from Burma to Ceylon during 
the reign of King Parakkamabahu II in the 13th 
century A.D. 

"***Between the Chapters 37 and 79 no trace is 
found ^)Mhe commencement of a new section. This 
part of ttifc chronicle seems to be the work of the 
same author. So it is clear, if the Sinhalese tradition 
is authentic, then about three quarters of what we 
call the Culavamsa (pages 443 out of 592 pages of 
Geiger's edition of the Culavamsa) were composed 
by Dhammakitti. 

The second section of the Culavamsa begins 
with the reign of Vijayabahu II, the successor of 
Parakkamabahu I, and ends with that of Parak- 
kamabahu IV. Hence it follows, the second part 
of the Culavamsa consists of the Chapters from 80 
to 90, both inclusive. 

The third portion begins with the Chapter 
91 and ends with the Chapter 100. 

The Mahavamsa gives us a list of kings from 
Vijaya, the first crowned king of Ceylon, to Mahasena. 
Mahanama simply followed here his chief source, the 
Dlpavamsa, which also ends with King Mahasena. 
The Culavamsa, however, begins with the reign of 
King Sirimeghavanna, son of King Mahasena, and 
ends with Sirivikkamarajasiha. 

The first section of the Culavamsa begins 
with Sirimeghavanna and ends with Parakkama- 
bahu I. Evidently this portion gives a chronological 
account of 78 kings of Ceylon. Altogether eighteen 
paricchedas are devoted to the glorification of the 
great national hero of the Sinhalese people, Parak- 
kamabahu I. Bevd. R. S. Copleston has called this 
portion of the Culavamsa the " epic of Parakkama". 
This king was noted for his charity. He not only 
made gifts of alms to the needy, but also to the 
bhikkhus. As a warrior this king also stands out 
pre-eminent. The Colas and Damilas came to 
Lanka from Southern India and occupied Anuradha- 
pura. Parakkama fought many battles with 
them and drove them out of the country and became 

Pali Chronidea 549 

king of the united Lanka. He then espoused the 
cause of the Buddhist Sarhgha. He built many 
great viharas and thupas. He also construct^ 
many vapis and uyyanas. ' 

The second portion of the Culavaihsa^egins 
with Vijayabahu II and ends with Parak^mabahu 
IV. Thus it refers to 23 kings of Ceylon. 

The third section begins with Bhuvanekabahu 
III and ends with Kittisirirajasiha. Thus it refers 
to 24 kings. 

The last chapter gives a brief account of the 
last two kings, e.g., Sirirajadhirajasiha and Sirivik- 

There are in both the chronicles, the Dipavamsa 

and the Mahavamsa, interesting 

List of psii texts references to Pali texts affording 

in the Ceyloneee -, . , - jvij_ 

chronicles. very useful materials for the history 

of Pali literature as well as of early 
Buddhism in Ceylon. 

In the Dipavamsa references are not only 
made to Vinaya texts, the five collections of Sutta 
Pitaka, the three Pitakas, the five Nikayas (they 
are not separately mentioned), and the ninefold 
doctrine of the Teacher comprising the Sutta, 
Geyya, Veyyakarana, Gatha, Udana, Itivuttaka, 
Jataka, Abbhuta, and Vedalla, but also to the seven 
sections of the Abhidhamma, the Patisambhida, the 
Niddesa, the Pitaka of the Agamas and the different 
sections, namely, Vaggas, Parifiasakas, Samyuttas, 
and Nipatas into which the Digha, Majjhima, 
Samyutta, and Anguttara Nikayas are respectively 
divided. Mention is also made separately of the 
two Vibhangas of Vinaya, namely, Parivara and 
Khandhaka, the Cariyapitaka, the Vinaya Pitaka, 
the Patimokkha, and the Atthakatha, We find 
further mention of the Kathavatthu of the Abhi- 
dhamma, the Petavatthu, the Saccasamyutta, and 
the Vimanavatthu. Of Suttas and Suttantas 
separate mention is made of the Devaduta Sutta, 
Balapandita Suttanta, Aggikkhanda Suttanta, 
Asivisa Suttanta, Asivisupama Suttanta, Ana- 

550 A History of Pali Literature 

mataggiya Sutta, Gomayapindaovada Suttanta, 
Dhammacakkapavattana Suttanta, and the Maha- 
samaya Suttanta. 

*Vf **dex of Pali texts in the Dipavamsa 

Abhidhamma, 5, 37 ; 7, 56. 

Abbhuta, 4, 15. 

Aggikkhandha Suttanta, 14, 12. 

Anamataggiya Suttanta, 14, 45. 

Atthakatha, 20, 20. 

Agamas, 4, 12 ; 4, 16. 

Asivisa Suttanta, 14, 18. 

Asivisupama Suttanta, 14, 45. 

Itivuttaka, 4, 15. 

Udana, 4, 15. 

Kathavatthu, 7, 41 ; 7, 56. 

Khandhaka, 7, 43. 

Geyya, 4, 15. 

Gatha, 4, 15. 

Gomayapindaovada Suttanta, 14, 46. 

Cariyapitaka, 14, 45. 

Jataka, 4, 15 ; 5, 37. 

Dhutanga (precepts), 4, 3. 

Dhamma, 4, 4 ; 4, 6. 

Dhatuvada precepts, 5. 7. 

Dhammacakkapavattana Suttanta, 14, 46. 

Devaduta Sutta, 13, 7. 

Nipatas, 4, 16. 

Niddesa, 5, 37. 

Nikayas, 7, 43. 

Pitakas, 4, 32 ; 5, 71 ; 7, 30 ; 20, 20. 

Parivara, 5, 37 ; 7, 43. 

Pannasakas, 4, 16. 

Petavatthu, 12, 84. 

Patimokkha, 13, 55. 

Patisambhida, 5, 37. 

Viiiaya, 4, 3 ; 4, 4 and 6 ; 7, 43. 

Veyyakarana, 4, 15. 

VedaUa, 4, 15. 

Vaggas, 4, 16. 

Pali Chronicles 551 

Vimanavatthu, 12, 85. 

Balapandita Suttanta, 13, 13. 

Vinaya Pitaka, 18, 19 ; 18, 33 ; 18, 37. 

Vibhangas, 7, 43. 

Mahasamaya Suttanta, 14, 53. 

Sutta, 4, 15 ; 4, 16. / 

Sutta Pitaka (pancanikaye), 18, 19 : 1&, 33. 

Samyuttas, 4, 16. 

In the Mahavamsa too we find numerous 
mentions of Pali texts. But, curiously enough, refer- 
ences to independent texts are much less compre- 
hensive than that of the earlier chronicle; though 
mentions of Suttas and Suttantas mainly of the three 
Nikayas, the Anguttara, the Majjhima, and the 
Samyutta, as well as of the Sutta Nipata and the 
Vinaya Pitaka are much more numerous. There are 
also several references to Jatakas. The three pitakas 
are often mentioned as important texts, but only 
the Abhidhamma and the Vinaya are mentioned 
by name, and that too only once or twice in each 

Index of Pali Texts in the Mahavamsa 

Abhidhamma Pitaka, 5, 150. 

Asivisupama Sutta (Anguttara Nikaya), 12, 26. 

Anamatagga Samyutta (Samyutta Nikaya), 12, 


Aggikkhandopama Sutta (Anguttara), 12, 34. 
Kapi Jataka, 35, 31. 
Kalakarama Suttanta, 12, 39. 
Khajjaniya Suttanta (Samyutta N.), 15, 195. 
Khaiidhakas (Sections of the Mahavagga and 

Cullavagga of the Vinaya Pitaka), 36, 68. 
Gomayapindisutta (Sam. N.), 15, 197. 
Culahatthipadupama Suttanta (Majjhima N.), 

14, 22. 
Cittayamaka (Ref. Yamakappakarana of the 

Abhidhamma), 5, 146. 
Jataka (tales), 27, 34 ; 30, 88. 
Tipitaka, 4, 62 ; 5, 84 ; 5, 112 ; 5, 118 and 119 ; 

5, 210; 27, 44. 


552 A History of Pali Literature 

Tittira Jataka, 5, 264. 

Devaduta Suttanta (Majjhima N.), 12, 29. 

Dhammacakkapavattana-suttanta (Mahavagga 

of the V.P.), 12, 41; 15, 199. 

pandita Suttanta (Samyutta N.), 15, 4. 
Brsfcomajala Suttanta, 12, 51. 
Vess&tatara Jataka, 30, 88. 
Vinaya, 5, 151. 

Maha-narada-Kassapa Jataka, 12, 37. 
Mahappamada-suttanta (Samyutta N.), 16, 3. 
Mangala Sutta (Sutta Nipata), 32, 43. 
Mahamangala Sutta (Sutta N.), 30, 83. 
Mahasamaya Suttanta (Digha Nikaya), 30, 83. 
Samacitta Sutta (Samacittavagga in the Duka 

Nipata of the Anguttara Nikaya), 14, 39. 
Sutta Pitaka, 5, 150. 

The Ceylonese chronicles incidentally refer to a 

large number of countries and 

Geographical ref- localities, important in the history 

erences in the Cey- / T> i 1 1 TT j/> i 

lonese chronicles. of Buddhism, in India and Ceylon. 
Most of them come in for mention 
as a result of their association with the life and 
religion of the Buddha, or in connection with the 
historical interrelation, or the part played by them 
in the history of India and Ceylon. Most of these 
places and countries are already known from other, 
mainly Buddhist, sources, and few of them require 
any new identification. Even then, they add to our 
geographical knowledge, and not a few of the 
references are of more than passing usual interest. 
Such are, for example, the references to Alasanda 
in the city of the Yonas in the Mahavamsa, or to 
Yonaka in the Dlpavamsa in connection with the 
building of the Great Thupa, and the sending of 
Missions by Moggalliputta respectively. Alasanda, 
as is well known, is Alexandria in the land of the 
Yonas, probably the town founded by Alexander in 
the country of the Paropanisadae near Kabul. 
The chronicles refer in common to the following 
places and countries in India and Ceylon : 

Pali Chronicles 553 

North and North- West India 

Gandhara modern Peshawar and Rawalpindi 

Yona or Yonaka The foreign settlements on 

the North-Western Frontier, perhaps identical 

with the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom.yr 
Anotatta laka One of the seven^reat lakes 

in the Himalayas. 

Western India 

Aparantaka comprises modern Gujrat, Kathia- 

war and the sea-coast districts. 
Suppara (Dip) or Supparaka (Mah) Surparaka 

(Sans), modern Sopara in the Thana district, 

north of Bombay. 
Maharattha modern Maharastra. 

Mid-India and Eastern India 

Kapilavatthu the birth place of Gotama, and 

capital of the Sakya tribe in Nepal. 
Kusavati identical with later Kusinara. 
Kusinara a town of the clan of the Mallas in 

modern Nepal. 
Giribbaja or Rajagriha, modern Rajgir in 

Jetavana a park and monastery near Savatthi 

in the Kosala country. 
Madhura another name for Mathura, modern 

Ujjem now Ujjain in the Gwalior State ; old 

capital of Avantl. 
Uruvela ^in ancient Buddha-Gaya in Gaya 


Kasi modern Benares district. 
Isipatana the famous deer park of Benares 

where Buddha first turned the Wheel of 

Tamalitiya (Dip) or Tamalitti (Mali) Tamra- 

lipti, modern Tamluk in the district of 

Midnapur, Bengal. 

554 A History of Pali Literature 

Pataliputta identical with modern Patna and 

the adjoining region. 

Pupphapura Puspapura, identical with ancient 
^^v Pataliputra. 

Bfeanasi modern Benares. 

MitHla modern Tirhut in Bihar. 

Raja^iha modern Rajgir in Bihar. 

Vanga ^Bip) or Vanga (Mah) identical roughly 

with Eastern Bengal. 
Vesall modern Basar in Muzaffarpur, north 

of Patna. 

The Deccan and South India 

Vifijha (Dip), Vinjhatavi (Mali) The Vindhya 

mountain with its dense forests. 
Damila The Tamil country. 


Suvannabhumi not in Ceylon, generally identi- 
fied with Lower Burma comprising the 

Malaya Central mountain region in the interior 
of Ceylon. 

Abhayagiri outside the north gate of Anu- 

Dighavapi probably the modern Kandiya- 
Kattu tank in the Eastern Province. 

Silakuta northern peak of the Mihintala 

Jetavana & park and monastery near Savatthi 
in the Kosala country. 

Kalyani modern Kaelani, the river that flows 
into the sea near Colombo. 

Cetiyapabbata the later name of the Missaka 

Nandanavana between Mahameghavana where 
the Mahavihara now stands and the southern 
wall of the city of Anuradhapura. 

Lanka is identified with the island of Ceylon. 
Missakagiri (Dip), pabbata (Mah) modern 
Mihintala mountain, east of Anuradhapura. 

Pali Chronicles 556 

The Dlpavamsa, however, exclusively mentions 
several countries and places which are not mentioned 
in the Mah&vamsa. 

North and North- West India 

Kurudipa probably identical with UjAarakuru. 
Takkaslla modern Taxila in the JjXw. frontier 

Sagala (reading doubtful) modern Sialkot in 

the Punjab. 

Western India 

Bharukaccha modern Broach, an ancient sea- 
port in Kathiawar. 

LaJarattha identical either with Lata in modern 
Gujerat or Radha in Bengal. 

Sihapura capital city of Lata or Radha 

Mid-India and Eastern India 

Anga identical with modern Bhagalpur region 
in Bihar. 

Camp& modern Pfitharghata in the district of 

Magadha a tribe dwelling in the territory now 
represented by modern Patna and Gaya 
districts in Bihar. 

Malla a republican tribe of ancient Kusinarft 
and Pava. 

Vardhamanapura Vardhamanabhukti of in- 
scriptions : modern Burdwan. 

Veluvana the famous bamboo-garden monas- 
tery in R&jagriha, modern Rajgir. 

Vedissa Vidisfi/, modern Bhilsa in the Gwalior 

Hatthipura Hastin&pura (Sans) ^generally 
identified with an old town in Mawana 
Tahsil, Meerut. 

Indapatta Indraprastha, near modern Delhi. 

556 A History of Pali Literature 

It may be noticed in this connection that 
in the Dipavamsa, Ariga, Magadha, Variga, and Mallft 
are mentioned in the plural, not as Vanga in the 
singular as in the Mahavamsa. The tribal signi- 
ficance has been maintained in the Dipavamsa, 
wherea^vin the later chronicle it has been over- 
looked. >* 


Anuradhapura ancient capital of Ceylon, now 

in ruins. 
Aritthapura in North Central province, north 

of Habarana. 
Naggadipa probably an island in the Arabian 

Sea. r 

Tambapanni most probably identical with tht? 

island of Ceylon. 

The Mahavamsa likewise refers exclusively to 
several countries and places not mentioned in the 

North and North- West India 

Alasanda Alexandria, the town founded by 
Alexander in the Paropanisadse country. 

Uttarakuru a country north of K&Smlra, 
mentioned in Vedic and Pauranic literature. 

Kasmira modern Kashmir. 

Mid-India and Eastern India 

Avanti the region round modern Ujjain in 

Madda the country lay between the Ravi and 

the Chenab, roughly identical with the 

country round the modern district of Sialkot. 
Mahavana a monastery in the ancient Vajji 

country mentioned also by Fa-Hien. 
Dakkhinagiri vihara a vihara in Uj jenl. 
Payftga modern Allahabad. 
Pftva a republican state inhabited by the 


Pali Chronicles 557 

Kosambi modern Kosam in Allahabad, on 
the Jumna, capital of the Vatsas. 

South India and the Deccan 

Cola the ancient Chola country whose capital 

was Kanchipuram, modern Conjejrveram. 
Mahisamandala identical with Manjjmata island 

on the Narbada, ancient capij-gi^Mahismati, 

a district south of the Vindhya. 
Vanavasin modern Vanavasi in north Kanara, 

preserves the older name. 


Akasa Cetiya situated on the summit of a 

rock not very far from the Cittalapabbata 

Kadamba nadi modern Malwatte-oya by the 

ruins of Anuradhapura (Kadambaka nadi in 

the Dipavamsa). 
Karinda nadi modern Kirindu-oya in the 

Southern province where must be located 

the Panjali-pabbata. 
Kala Vapi built by Dhatusena by banking up 

the river Kalu-oya or Gona nadi. 
Gambhlra nadi 7 or 8 miles north of Anu- 

Gona nadi modern Kalu-oya river. 
Jetavanarama near Abhayagiri dagoba in 

Tissamahavihara in South Ceylon, north-east 

of Hambantota. 

Tissavapi a tank near Mahagama. 
Thuparama a monastery in Anuradhapura. 
Pathama Cetiya outside the eastern gate of 

Manihira now Minneriya, a tank near Pulon- 

Mahaganga ^identical with Mahawseliganga 

Mahatittha identical with modern Mantota 

opposite the island of Manaar. 

568 A History of Pali Literature 

Mahameghavana south of the capital Anu- 

Dvaramandala near Cetiyapabbata (Mihintale), 

east of Anuradhapura. 
Pulinda a barbarous tribe dwelling in the 

country inland between Colombo, Kalutara, 

GaQfc and the mountains (Geiger-Mahavamsa, 

p. GO^Npte 5). 
Ambatthala immediately below the Mihintale 


Besides these, there are many other references 
to countries and places of Ceylon of lesser importance. 
They have all been noticed and identified in Geiger's 
edition of the Mahavamsa to which we are indebted 
for the identification of places in Ceylon noticed 

The Buddhaghosuppatti deals with the life 
Buddhaghosup- and career of Buddhaghosa, the 

patti. famous commentator, less authentic 

than the account contained in the Culavamsa. It 
gives us an account of Buddhaghosa's boyhood, his 
admission to the priesthood, his father's conversion, 
voyage to Ceylon, Buddhaghosa as a witness, per- 
mission to translate scriptures, his object attained, 
return to India, and his passing away. The book 
is written in an easy language. It is more or less 
a historical romance. As to the historical value 
of this work readers are referred to my work, ' The 
Life and Work of Buddhaghosa' (Ch. II, pp. 43-44). 
The Buddhaghosuppatti has been edited by James 
Grey and published by Messrs. Luzac & Co., 
London. Grey has also translated the book into 

The stories in the Milinda Panha, the Mahavamsa 
and the Buddhaghosuppatti are so similar that one 
doubts it very much that the author of this work 
borrowed the incidents from the Milinda Panha and 
the Mahavamsa and grafted them on to his own. 

A critical study of the Buddhaghosuppatti does 
not help us much in elucidating the history of 

Pali Clvrwiidea 559 

Buddhaghosa. The author had little authentic 
knowledge of the great commentator. He only 
collected the legends which centred round the 
remarkable man by the time when his work was 
written. Those legends are mostly valueless from 
the strict historical point of view. Grey truly says 
in his introduction to the Buddhaghosupppatti that 
the work reads like an " Arthuriag^^JKomance ". 
The accounts given by the Budohaghosuppatti 
about the birth, early life, conversion, etc., of 
Buddhaghosa bear a great similarity to those of 
Milinda and Moggaliputta Tissa. In the interview 
which took place between Buddhaghosa and Buddha- 
datta, the latter is said to have told Buddhaghosa 
thus, " I went before you to compile Buddha's 
word. I am old, have not long to live and shall 
not, therefore, be able to accomplish my purpose. 
You carry out the work satisfactorily ". 

In Buddhadatta's Vinayavinicchaya we read 
that Buddhadatta requested Buddhaghosa to send 
him the commentaries when finished that he might 
summarise them. This request was complied with 
by Buddhaghosa. Buddhadatta summarised the 
commentary on the Abhidhamma in the Abhidham- 
mavatara and the commentary on the Vinaya in 
the Vinayavinicchaya. The above statement in 
the Vinayavinicchaya which is more authoritative 
than the Buddhaghosuppatti is in direct contra- 
diction to the statement in the latter book. 
The author has made a mistake in the sixth chapter 
of the Buddhaghosuppatti in which it is stated that 
Buddhaghosa rendered the Buddhist scriptures into 
Magadhi. In the seventh chapter of the same book 
we read that after the lapse of three months when 
he completed his task, the works of Mahinda were 
piled up and burnt. Buddhaghosa translated the 
Sinhalese commentaries into Magadhi and not the 
texts themselves. Had it been so there would not 
have been any occasion for burning the works of 
Mahinda. On the other hand they would have 
been carefully preserved as the only reliable and 

560 A History of Pali Literature 

authentic interpretation of the sacred texts. It 
has been distinctly stated in the Mahavamsa that 
the texts only existed in the Jambudipa and 
Buddhaghosa was sent to Ceylon to translate the 
Sinhalese commentaries into Magadhi. If the 
tradition recorded in the Mahavamsa is to be 
believed,^hen only we can get an explanation for 
the destruksjon of Mahinda's works. 

The SacWhammasamgaha is a collection of 
Saddhammasam- good sayings and teachings of the 

gaha. Master. There are prose and poetry 

portions in it. It consists of nine chapters. It was 
written by Dhammakityabhidhana Thera. It has 
been edited by Nedimale Saddhananda for the 
P.T.S., London. The Digha, Majjhima, Samyutta, 
Anguttara, and Khuddaka Nikayas are mentioned 
in it. The books of the Abhidhamma Pitaka are 
referred to in this work. There are references in 
it to the Vajjiputtakas of Vesali and Yasa's stay in 
the Kutagarasala in the Mahavana. It is mentioned 
in this book that Moggaliputta Tissa recited the 
Kathavatthu in order to refute the doctrines of 
others. This treatise contains an account of the 
missionaries sent to various places to establish the 
Buddha's religion. Thera Majjhantika was sent 
to Kashmir and Gandhara, Mahadeva Thera to 
Mahisamandala, Rakkhita Thera to Vanavasi, 
Yonaka-Dhammarakkhita Thera to Aparantaka, 
Mahadhammarakkhita Thera to Maharattha, Maha- 
rakkhita Thera to the Yonaka region, Majjhima 
Thera to the Himalayan region, Sonaka and Uttara 
to Suvannabhumi, and Mahinda Thera to Lanka 
with four other theras, Itthiya, Uttiya, Sambala, 
and Bhaddasala. Besides, there is a reference to 
the Buddha preaching his Dhamma to the inhabitants 
of the city of Campaka (Campakanagaravasinam). 

The Sandesa-Katha has been edited by Minayeff 
a -i xr *u, in J.P.T.S., 1885. It is written 

Sandesa-KathS. xl . T , , M . 

mostly in prose. It dilates on 
many points, e.g., the composition of Abhidhammat- 
thasamgaha by Thera Anuruddha, the composition 

Pali Chronicles 561 

of a commentary known as the Abhidhammat- 
thavibhaviru by Thera Sumangalasami, etc. It 
refers to many kingdoms, e.g., Suvannabhumi, 
Ramanfia, Jayavaddhana, Ayuddhaya, Kamboja, 
Sivi, Cma, etc. 

The Mahabodhivamsa has been edited by 
vr K S U .. Mr. Strong for the P.T.%, London. 

Mahabodhivamsa. mi . , .- ... , 

This work was ^written by 
Upatissa (Upatissatheravarena viracito). The 
Sinhalese edition by Upatissa and revised by 
Sarandada, Colombo, 1891, deserves mention. There 
is a Sinhalese translation of this work in twelve 
chapters. Prof. Geiger says that the date of the 
composition of the Mahabodhivaihsa is the 10th 
century A.D. (Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa, p. 79). 
According to some it was composed within the last 
quarter of the 4th century A.D. Strong points out 
in the preface to his edition of the Mahabodhivaihsa 
that the author has treated his subject with freedom 
and prolixity. Most of the events in the early 
history of Buddhism pass under the shadow of the 
Bo-tree. The author has borrowed largely from 
the sources as well as from the actual text of the 
Mahavariisa, but there is abundant evidence that he 
employed other materials as well. This work 
contains discourses on the attainment of bodhi 
(enlightenment), the attainment of bodhi by Ananda, 
passing away of the Buddha who was endowed 
with ten potentialities, the first three Buddhist 
convocations (sangiti), landing of Mahinda at Lanka, 
accepting Mahavihara and Cetiyagiri, things wor- 
shipped by the Buddhas, advent of Duminda, etc. 
The following manuscripts of the Mahabodhi- 
vamsa are available : 

(1) A manuscript on paper in the Sinhalese 
character in possession of the P.T.S., England. 

(2) A palm-leaf manuscript in the 
character in possession of the P.T.S., En 

(3) A palm-leaf manuscript in the 
character in the Library of the British Mjj 

662 A History of Pali Literature 

(4) A palm-leaf manuscript in the Burmese 
character in the Library of the India Office. 

The Thupavamsa contains an account of the 
_ . . thiipas or dagobas built over the 

Thupavamsa. ,.^ * ^1 & T> i -n T* i > 

relics of the Buddha. Readers 
attention is invited to a paper on this book by 
Don MaruHo< de Zilva Wickremasinghe (J.R.A.S., 
1898). This work has not yet been edited by the 
P.T.S., London. A Sinhalese edition of this work 
is available (ed. by Dhammaratana, Paeliyagoda, 

In the Thupavamsa we are told that the Thera 

Moggaliputta Tissa sent theras 

. Historical aiiu- (elders) to different parts of India 

sions in the Thupa- ^ ,,' ,. J ,, ^ -, ,, . . 

vamea. for the propagation of the Buddhist 

faith. He sent Majjhantikathera 
to Kasmira and Gandhara, Mahaldevathera to 
Mahimsakamandala, Rakkhitathera to Vanavasi, 
Yonaka-dhammarakkhitathera to Aparantaka, 
Mahadhammarakkhitathera to Maharat/tha, Maha- 
rakkhitathera to Yonakaloka, Majjhimathera to 
Himavanta, Sonathera and Uttarathera to 
Suvannabhuml, and Mahinda and four other theras 
to Tamba-Pannidipa. It may be added here that 
the Thera Mahinda and the Then Sanghamitta, son 
and daughter respectively of Asoka, were instrumen- 
tal in propagating Buddhism in Ceylon. The Maha- 
vamsa also states the same thing, and it further 
says that Moggaliputta Tissathera was a contem- 
porary of Asoka and that he presided over the 
Buddhist Council which was held under the patronage 
of this great monarch. 

It appears from both the Mahavamsa and 
the Thupavamsa that the Thera Moggaliputta 
Tissa sent these theras to different parts of 
India at his own initiative. There is no mention 
of Asoka having taken any part in this acti- 
vity, though such an important event occurred 
during his time and in his own kingdom mainly. 
But in his Rock Edict XIII, Asoka says that he 

Pali Chronicles . 563 

despatched ambassadors to countries in and outside 
India. He further says in his Rock Edict II that 
he provided for the distribution of medicines in 
different countries. In both the Edicts Asoka 
mentions Ceylon (Tambraparni). But how to 
reconcile these two accounts which we find in the 
Mahavamsa and the Thupavamsa on the one hand 
and the lithic records of Asoka op the other ? 
Dr. Geiger in his introduction to his translation of 
the Mahavamsa (pp. xvi-xx) says that before 
Mahinda relations existed between continental India 
and Ceylon and efforts were made to transplant 
the Buddhist doctrine to Ceylon. But with Mahinda 
this process came to a successful end. Besides, 
Mahinda's mission was preceded by similar missions 
to Ceylon. The Dipavamsa and the Mahavamsa 
relate that Asoka, sending to Devanampiyatissa 
with presents for his second consecration as king, 
exhorted him to adhere to the doctrine of the 

The history of the missions as related in 
Dipavariisa, Mahavamsa, and Thupavamsa receives 
most striking confirmation in the inscriptions. The 
names of the theras Majjhima and Kassapagotto 
(who appears as Majjhima's companion in the 
Dipavamsa) occur in the Bhilsa Topes (Sanchi 
group and Sonari group) as teachers of the Himalayas. 
The name of Moggaliputta Tissa also occurs in the 
Sanchi group. Further, according to Griinwedel, 
the transplanting of a branch of the sacred Bodhi- 
tree from Uruvela to Ceylon is represented in the 
East Gate of the Sanchi Topes. 

Dr. Geiger has successfully proved the trust- 
worthiness of the Ceylonese chronicles. He in an 
ingenious and convincing way has shown that the 
two accounts, which we find in the inscriptions of 
Asoka and the Ceylonese chronicles, are not un- 
trustworthy. Asoka strove to propagate Buddhism 
in and outside India. Moggaliputta Tissathera 
also played an important part in spreading Buddhism 
in countries within India. The conversion of 

That the success of Buddhism both in India 
and outside countries was largely due to the support 
it got from kings like Bimbisara, Pasenadi, Asoka, 
Kanishka, and Harshavardhan and also from the 
Pala kings of Bengal, nobody can dispute. If it 
did not receive royal patronage, it would have 
surely met the same fate as Jainism did, Taking 
this important fact into consideration, we shall 
not be unjustified to say that Asoka must have 
lent ungrudging help to Moggaliputta Tissathera, 

From what has been stated above and from the 
grounds which we will state below it will not be 
unreasonable to say that there were no two separate 
attempts, but a single attempt for the propagation 
of the Buddhist Faith, and that in this attempt 
both Asoka and Moggaliputta Tissathera played 
important parts. But why the names of Asoka 
and Moggaliputta Tissathera are absent respectively 
from the Ceylonese chronicles and the inscriptions 
of Asoka ? In a general way Asoka says that he 
sent ambassadors, who were undoubtedly Buddhist 
monks, to different countries, He does not even 
make mention of his own son and daughter who 
did great service to the cause of Buddhism, He 
must have sent ambassadors in collaboration with 
the leading theras of the time, It will be unjust 
to accuse such a great king like Asoka that he 
intentionally out of self-complacency and self- 
conceit did not mention Moggaliputta Tissathera 

Pali Chronicles 565 

and other leading theras. But such is not the 
case with the authors of the Ceylonese chronicles. 
They have intentionally excluded the name of 
Asoka, and thereby have enhanced the position of 
the Buddhist Samgha, and the prestige of its leaders. 
There is no lack of fables and tales in the chronicles. 
There are also statements which are untenable. 
But these are meant for the glorification of the 
Buddha, His Dhamma, and His Samgha only. 

Tdmalitti, a harbour in the region at the mouth 

of the Ganges, now Tamluk. At 

Geographical Tfimalitti the Chinese pilgrim Fa- 

Hien embarked for Ceylon in the 

beginning of the 5th century A.D. 

Gandhdra comprises the districts of Peshawar 
and Rawalpindi in the northern Punjab. 

Kasmlra is the modern Kashmir. 

Mahirhsakamandala is generally taken as the 
modern Mysore. Fleet takes it as the territory of 
Mahisha of which the capital was Mahismati. 
Agreeing with Pargiter he places this capital on 
the island of the Narbada river, now called 
Mandhata. Mahimsakamandala is, therefore, a 
district south of the Vindhya mountains. 

Vanavdsi The Vanavasakas or Vanavasins 
are mentioned in the Mahabharata and Harivamsa, 
as a people dwelling in Southern India. There is 
also a modern town VanavasI in North Kanara 
which seems to have preserved the old name. 

Apardnta,ka, the western ends, comprising the 
territory of Northern Gujarat, Kathiawar, Kachcha, 
and Sind. 

Mahdrattha, the country of the Marathas. 

Yonatoica The Yonas are also mentioned 
together with the Kanibojas, in the Rock Edicts V 
and XIII of Asoka. V. Smith says that they must 
mean the clans of foreign race (not necessarily 
Greek) on the north-western frontier, included in 
the Empire of Asoka. 

Suwnnahhumi The general opinion is that 
Suvannabhumi is lower Burma with adjacent 

666 A History of Pali Literature 

districts. Fleet says that it might be the country 
in Bengal called KAinasuvarna, or else the country 
along the river Son, a river in Central India, and 
tributary of the Ganges on its right bank, which 
is called Hiranyavaha 4 the gold bearer '. 

Vedisa is the modern Bhilsa in Gwalior State, 
situated 26 miles north-east of Bhopal. 

RdmagdmaThe Koliyas of Ramagama were 
a tribe related* to the Saluyas. The river Rohini 
flowed between the territories of the Koliyas and 
Sakyas. In the Sumangalavilasini the capital of 
the Koliyas is called Vyagghapajja. 

Pdvd was the capital of the Mallas. Missaka 
Pabbata, now the mountain Mihintale, 8 miles to 
the east of Anuradhapura, is also called the 

The text of the Thupavamsa may be con- 
veniently divided into three main 
Three chapters chapters. The first chapter com- 

of the Text and xi v' j_i j? j_i 

their resume. prises the previous births of the 

Buddha. The second chapter deals 
with the life of the Buddha from his birth to the 
attainment of his Mahaparinibbana and also the 
distribution of the bodily relics of the Buddha by 
the brahmin Dona and the building of a great 
thupa at the south-eastern part of Rajagaha by 
Ajatasattu of Magadha at the instance of the 
Thera Mahakassapa in which the bodily relics of 
the Buddha from Vesali, Kapilavatthu, Allakappa, 
Vethadipa, Pava, Kusinara, and Rajagaha were 
deposited. The third or the last chapter treats of 
the later history of the relics. 

The author justifies his composition of the 
^ _ Thupavamsa in Pali, when there 

Chapter I. i i ^ ^ * 

are already two other versions of 
the same text, one in the Sinhalese language and 
the other in the Magadhl, by saying that the 
Sinhalese version is not conducive to the good 
of all, and that the Magadhl version is full of con- 
tradictory words and that it is not exhaustive. 
The author goes to explain what is meant by a 

Pali Chronicles 567 

thupa. He says that there are four kinds of persons 
who are worthy of thupas : TathSgato, Pacceka- 
Buddha, Tathftgata-savako, and Raja-cakkavatti. A 
thupa is a cetiya in which the relics of any one of 
the above four have been deposited. As for example, 
the Kaiicanamalika Mahathupo contains the relics 
of Gotama Buddha who has fulfilled the thirty 
paramitas, attained the supreme knowledge, set 
rolling the wheel of law, and fSerformed other 
duties and won the anupadisesa-nibbana. 

The author then gives a detailed account of the 
Buddhas who appeared in this earth for the salvation 
of mankind. He speaks of the Buddhas who pre- 
ceded Gotama Buddha and the thupas that 
were erected in honour of them. He then sums 
up the life of Gotama Buddha in a masterly way 
and gives a detailed account of the thupas, that 
were erected over the relics of Gotama Buddha, 
with their later history. 

We shall now deal with the story of Sumedha 
Tapasa who was born as the Bodhisatta several 
times during the period in which the twenty-four 
Buddhas appeared in this earth for the welfare of 
the worldly beings and who himself appeared in 
this earth as the 25th Buddha, called Gotama 

In the time of the Buddha Dipankara, the 
brahmin Sumedha lived in the city of Amaravati. 
He was versed in the Brahmanical lore. He lost 
his parents in his boyhood. When he came of 
age he inherited a vast fortune. But knowing that 
the world is full of miseries and that money is the 
source of misery, he made up his mind to distribute 
his wealth among the needy. One day he gave 
away his wealth to the poor and left the world and 
dwelt in the Himavanta. 

Meanwhile the Buddha Dipankara came to 
Rammanagara and the inhabitants of the city 
invited the Blessed One and his followers to take 
their meal at a certain place highly decorated for 
the purpose. The people began repairing the road 

568 A History of Pali Literature 

connecting the proposed place and the Vihara in 
which the Lord dwelt. Sumedha heard the news 
and offered his service. He was given a muddy 
place to cleanse. Before the place was cleansed 
the Buddha with his followers reached the place. 
Sumedha at once fell flat on the muddy place with 
the determined desire to become a Buddha in a 
later birth and the Buddha and his followers 
crossed the muddy place treading over his body. 
The Blessed One while crossing the muddy place 
over Sumedha's body predicted that Sumedha 
would surely become Gotama Buddha in future. 
The Buddha Dipankara went to the place where 
he had been invited, took his meal, and exhorted 
all to do good deeds and went away. The Blessed 
One attained anupadisesanibbana in the Nandarama 
and the people raised a great thupa. 

In the time of the Buddha Kondanfia, the 
Bodhisatta was born as a great king named Vijitavi. 
He made immense gifts to the Bhikkhu Samgha with 
the Buddha at its head. The Lord predicted that 
the Bodhisatta was destined to become Gotama 
Buddha in future. When the king heard the 
Buddha preaching he made up his mind to renounce 
the worldly life. He did leave the world. He 
performed many meritorious acts and was born 
in the Brahmaloka. The Buddha attained Parinib- 
bana in the delightful Candarama and a cetiya, 
measuring 7 yojanas in extent, was raised by the 

In the time of the Buddha Mangala, the Bodhi- 
satta was born as a brahmin named Suruci. He 
invited the Buddha to his house for seven days and 
heard the Blessed One preaching. The Lord pre- 
dicted that the Bodhisatta would become Gotama 
Buddha in future. When the Bodhisatta heard 
this prediction, he left the worldly life and adopted 
the life of a monk. In due course he was born 
in the Brahmaloka, The Buddha won Parinibbftna 
in due course and the people raised a great thupa. 

In the time of the Buddha Sumana, the Great 

Pali Chronicles 569 

Being was born as a N&ga king named Atula. He 
invited the Buddha and his followers to his house 
and served them with dainty dishes. The Lord 
predicted that he would be the Buddha Gotama in 
future. The Blessed One attained Parinibbana in 
due course and a thupa was raised. 

In the time of the Buddha Revata, the Bodhi- 
satta was born as a brahmin named Atideva. He 
heard the Buddha preaching and*was established 
in the silas. The Blessed One predicted that he 
would be Gotama Buddha in future. 

In the time of the Buddha Sobhita, the Bodhi- 
satta was born as a brahmana named Ajita. He 
heard the Buddha preaching and was established 
in the silas. The Lord predicted that he would 
be the Buddha Gotama in future. 

In the time of the Buddha Anomadassi, the 
Bodhisatta was born as a Yakkhasenapati. He 
made immense gifts to the Bhikkhu Samgha with the 
Buddha at its head. The Buddha predicted that 
he was destined to be the Buddha Gotama. 

In the time of the Buddha Paduma, the Bodhi- 
satta was born as a lion who for seven days without 
going out in search of food saw the Buddha engaged 
in the Nirodha-samapatti. The Blessed One 
predicted that the lion would be born as the Buddha 
Gotama in future. 

In the time of Buddha Narada, the Bodhisatta 
renounced the worldly life and invited the Buddha 
and his followers to a sumptuous feast. The Buddha 
predicted that he would be the Buddha Gotama 
in future. 

In the time of the Buddha Padumuttaro, the 
Bodhisatta was born as a great king named Jatila. 
He made immense gifts to the Buddha and his 
followers. The Buddha predicted that he would 
be the Buddha Gotama in future. 

In the time of the Buddha Sumedha, the 
Bodhisatta was born as a youth named Manavo 
possessing immense riches. He distributed his 
wealth and made immense gifts to the Buddha 

570 A History of Pali Literature 

and his followers and heard the Buddha preaching 
and was established in the saranas or refuges. The 
Buddha predicted that he would be the Buddha 
Gotama in the near future. 

In the time of the Buddha Sujata, the Bodhisatta 
was born as a great king. He heard the preaching 
of the Buddha and distributed in charity his riches 
to the Buddha^and his Samgha. He renounced the 
world and always made great gifts. The Buddha 
predicted that he would be the Buddha Gotama in 

In the time of the Buddha Piyadassi, the 
Bodhisatta was born as a youth named Kassapa. 
He mastered the three Vedas. Once he heard the 
discourses of the Buddha and distributed his immense 
riches. He was established in the silas and saranas. 
The Buddha predicted that he would be the Buddha 
Gotama in future. 

In the time of the Buddha Atthadassi, the 
Bodhisatta was born as a great ascetic named 
Susima. He heard the religious discourses of the 
Buddha and worshipped the lord with great honour. 
The Blessed One predicted that Susima was destined 
to become a Buddha in future. 

In the time of the Buddha Dhammadassi, the 
Bodhisatta was born as Sakka, the king of gods. 
He worshipped the lord with great honour. The 
Blessed One predicted that he would be a Buddha 
in future. 

In the time of the Buddha Siddhattha, the 
Bodhisatta was born as a great ascetic named 
Mangala. He picked up jambu fruits and offered 
them to the Buddha. The Blessed One predicted 
that he would be the Buddha Gotama in future. 

In the time of the Buddha Tissa, the Bodhisatta 
was born as a Khattiya of great fame and wealth. 
He renounced the worldly life. He worshipped the 
Buddha with great honour. The Blessed One 
predicted that he would be a Buddha in future. 

In the time of the Buddha Phussa, the Bodhi- 
satta was born as a Khattiya king named Vijitavl. 

Pali Chronicles 571 

He gave up the worldly life, learnt the three pitakas, 
and performed the alias and paramitas. The 
Buddha predicted that he was destined to be a 
Buddha in future. 

In the time of the Buddha Vipassl, the Bodhisatta 
was born as a Naga king named Atula. He made a 
gift to the Buddha of the great golden throne adorned 
with seven kinds of gems. The Blessed One 
predicted that he would become a Bttddha in future. 

In the time of the Buddha Sikhi, the Bodhisatta 
was born as a king named Arindamo. He made 
immense gifts to the Bhikkhu Samgha with the 
Buddha at its head. The Blessed One predicted 
that he would be a Buddha in future. 

In the time of the Buddha Vessabhu, the 
Bodhisatta was born as King Sudassana. He made 
immense gifts to the Buddha and his Samgha. The 
Blessed One predicted that Sudassana would be 
born as Buddha in future. 

In the time of the Buddha Kakusandha, the 
Bodhisatta was born as King Khema. He made 
immense gifts to the Buddha and his Bhikkhu 
Samgha, heard the discourses of the Buddha, and 
gave up the worldly life. The great teacher 
predicted that he should be a Buddha in future. 

In the time of the Buddha Konagamana, the 
Bodhisatta was born as a king named Pabbata. 
He accompanied by his ministers went to the teacher 
and heard the Master preaching. He made many 
gifts by way of charity to the Bhikkhu Samgha with 
the Buddha at its head. Afterwards he received 
ordination from the Buddha. The Blessed One 
predicted that the King Pabbata would be a Buddha 
in future. 

In the time of the Buddha Kassapa, the Bodhi- 
satta was born as a youth named Jotipala. He 
was well versed in the three Vedas. He with 
Ghatikara went to the place where the Buddha was. 
He heard the Master preaching. He took pabbajja 
and learnt the three pitakas. The teacher predicted 
that he was destined to be a Buddha, 

572 A History of PaK Literature 

The Buddha Gotama having passed through 
_ . successive births during the period 

Chapter II. . , . , ,, , , i? T S-n 

in which the twenty-four Buddhas 
beginning with Dlpankara appeared in this earth 
was born as King Vessantara having performed the 
Paramitas. He was then born in the Tusita heaven. 
He was entreated by the Devatas to be born among 
men in order 4*> work out their salvation. The 
Buddha consented to their proposal and observing 
the time, the island, the country, the family, and 
the extent of lifetime of her who will bear him, 
he was born in the Sakya family. He was bred 
and brought up in luxury. On four occasions 
while going out to enjoy in the gardens he saw an old 
man, a diseased person, a dead man, and a samana 
respectively. Seeing the miseries of the world he 
was bent upon renouncing the world. He left the 
world leaving behind his wife and only son. On 
the bank of the Anoma he cut off his hairs and wore 
the robes of a monk forsaking his royal garments. 
He first went to Alava and Uddaka and being 
unsatisfied with their discourses went to the river 
Neranjara and sat at the foot of the Bodhi tree 
meditating. He was fully enlightened. He became 
the Buddha. Being entreated by Brahma to preach 
the doctrine he evolved, he went to Benares and 
preached the doctrine there to the Pancavaggiya 
bhikkhus. Thousands of men and women gradually 
became his followers. The Blessed One attained 
Mahaparinibbana at Kusmagara in the Upavattana 
of the Mallas. The body was wrapped up with 
corded cotton and new cloth and was kept in an 
iron trough containing oil and was covered with 
another iron trough. Four Malla chiefs followed 
by others tried to light up the coffin but failed in 
their attempt. It was then told by Anuruddha 
that the coffin could not be lighted before the Thera 
Mahakassapa, who with his followers was on the 
way to Kuslnara from Pava, would arrive at the 
place and pay his obeisance to the Lord. In due 
course the thera arrived. Fire was set to the 

Pali Chronicles 573 

coffin. When the body was burnt and the fire 
extinguished, the bones from the coffin were taken 
out to be distributed. The claimants for the bodily 
relics of the great teacher were the Mallas of 
Kuslnarft, King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the Licchavis 
of Vesalf, the Sakya rulers of Kapilavatthu, the 
Bulis of Allakappa, the Koliyas of Ramagama, a 
brahmana of Vethadipaka, and the Mallas of Pava. 
At first the Mallas of Kusinara Were unwilling to 
part with any portion of the relics. A strife became 
imminent. But the brahmin Dona by an impressive 
speech succeeded in bringing about reconciliation 
among those present. The relics were divided into 
eight equal portions. The Brahmana Dona kept for 
himself the teeth of the Master without telling 
others about it. But Sakka, the king of gods, 
stole the teeth and brought the same to the 
heaven of gods. When Dona, after distributing the 
relics, did not find the teeth, he took the bowl in 
which the relics were originally kept. The Moriyas 
of Pipphalivana who came late had to content them- 
selves with the ashes only. 

Eight great thupas were built over the relics 
of the Buddha at the following places : Rajagaha, 
Vesall, Kapilavatthu, Allakappa, Ramagama, Vetha- 
dlpa, Pava, and Kusinara. But the relics which 
were deposited at Ramagama were taken and kept 
by the Nagas with great care and honour. These 
relics (of Ramagama) were afterwards taken to 

At the suggestion of the Thera Mahakassapa 
King Ajatasattu collected the bodily relics of the 
Buddha from Vesall, Kapilavatthu, Allakappa, 
Vethadipa, Pava, and Kusinara and deposited them 
together with the relics at Rajagaha under a great 
thupa at the south-eastern part of Rajagaha. 

At the time of Asoka, eighty-four thousand 
_ TTT cetiyas were built over the relics 

Chapter III. . , y -> ,,, 

of the Buddha. 

We shall now proceed to give a detailed account 
of the same. King Bindusftra had one hundred 

574 A History of Pali Literature 

sons. At the time when Bindusara was ill, Asoka, 
who was Governor of Ujjeni, hurried to Rajagaha, 
the capital of the Magadha kingdom, to usurp the 
throne. Bindusara died and Asoka having killed 
all his brothers except Tissa Kumara took possession 
of the royal throne. But Asoka' s consecration took 
place four years after. At first Asoka was not a 
patron of the Buddhists. He like his father support- 
ed the brahmin^ and other sects. One day he 
noticed the improper conduct of them while taking 
meals. He became highly dissatisfied with them. 
Thenceforth he began to feed the Buddhist monks 
and became their great patron. 

One day the king saw his nephew Nigrodha 
Samanera, son of Sumana, who was Asoka's elder 
brother, passing through the royal courtyards. The 
king was highly satisfied with Nigrodha's calm 
demeanour. The king sent his minister for the 
Samanera. When Nigrodha came, the king received 
him with great honour. The Samanera admonished 
the king by reciting the Appamadavagga of the 
Dhammapada. The king with his followers was 
established in the three saranas and five Silas. 
Throughout his kingdom he built 84,000 viharas 
in 84,000 cities. He found out the relics that were 
deposited in the south-eastern part of Rajagaha by 
King Ajatasattu and deposited them in the 84,000 
viharas that he built. He further became a ' dayada ' 
of the Dhamma by allowing his son Mahiuda and 
his daughter Sanghamitta to become members of 
the Buddhist Samgha. 

Meanwhile the Thera Moggaliputta Tissa in 
order to propagate the Buddha's Dhamma sent 
Majjhantikathera to Kasmira and Gandhara, 
Mahadevathera to Mahimsakamandala, Rakkhita- 
thera to Vanavasi, Yonakadhammarakkhitathera 
to Aparantaka, Mahadhammarakkhitathera to 
Maharattha, Maharakkhitathera to Yonakalokam, 
Majjhimathera to the Himavantadesa, the theras 
Sona and Uttara to Suvannabhumi, and the theras 
Mahinda, Ittiya, Uttiya, and Bhaddasala to the 

Pali Chronicles 575 

Tambapannidlpa. All the theras succeeded in their 
mission. The Thera Mahinda together with his 
companions went to Ceylon when Devanampiyatissa 
was ruling there. King Devanampiyatissa was a 
great friend of Asoka, though the two had never 
seen each other. The Ceylonese king knowing that 
the theras were disciples of the Buddha received 
them with great honour. The people of Ceylon 
together with their king became 'followers of the 
Buddha. Many were established in the saranas. 

The king with his 500 wives was established 
in the first stage of sanctification when they heard 
the Thera Mahinda preaching the Vimanavatthu, 
Petavatthu, and Saccasamyutta. When the thera 
preached the Devaduta Suttanta to the masses, they 
were also placed in the first stage of sanctification. 

At the request of the Thera Mahinda the King 
Devanampiyatissa sent the Samanera Sumana to 
King Asoka in order to have relics so that he could 
build a thupa. Sumana went to Pataliputta and 
got from King Asoka relics contained in the bowl 
used by the Buddha. He then saw Sakka, the 
king of gods, and got from him the Buddha's right 
eye. Sumana came back to Lanka with the relics. 
The relics were received by Devanampiyatissa with 
great care and honour. A great vihara was built 
and the right eye of the Buddha was placed in it. 

Anuladevi, Devanampiyatissa' s brother's wife, 
became desirous of receiving pabbajja. At the 
suggestion of the Thera Mahinda, Devanampiyatissa 
sent his nephew Arittha to Asoka in order to bring 
a branch of the Bodhi tree to Ceylon and also to 
bring the Then Sanghamitta who would give pabbajja 
to Anula. King Asoka received Arittha with 
great honour when the latter came to Pataliputta. 
The king readily consented to send a branch of the 
Bodhi tree and the Then Sanghamitta to Ceylon. 
In course of time Arittha came back to Ceylon with 
the branch and Sanghamitta. The branch was 
transplanted at Anurftdhapura with great honour. 
Anulftdevi with five hundred young ladies received 

576 A History of Pali Literature 

the pabbajja ordination from the then Sanghamitta. 
They gradually attained arahatship. 

The great King Devanampiyatissa built thftpas 
throughout Tambapannidlpa at the interval of a 

Devanampiyatissa was followed by a succession 
of rulers : Uttiya, Mahasiva, and Suratissa. But 
Suratissa was defeated by the Damilas who usurped 
the throne of Lanka for some time. But the 
Damilas were overpowered by Asela, a son of 
Mutasiva. But a Damila named Elara came over 
to Lanka from the Chola country, defeated and killed 
Asela and became king of Ceylon. Elara, however, 
could not rule for long, for he was killed and defeated 
by King Dutthagamani. 

King Devanampiyatissa's second brother was 
Uparaja Mahanaga. The king's wife desiring that 
her son should be king, tried every means to put an 
end to Mahanaga's life. Mahanaga accompanied by 
his wife and followers fled to Rohana and thence 
to Mahagama and began to rule there. His wife 
bore him two sons, Yatthalatissa and Tissa. After 
Mahanaga's death Yatthalatissa ruled over Maha- 
gama. After Yatthalatissa's death his son Gotha- 
bhaya became king. Gothabhaya was succeeded 
by Kakavannatissa who had two sons, Gamini 
Abhaya and Tissa. 

The country was under the yoke of the Damilas. 
Dutthagamani, when he came of age, expressed his 
desire to fight with the Damilas. But his father 
did not permit him to do so out of affection. But 
Dutthagamani became very turbulent and repeat- 
edly expressed his desire to free the country 
from the yoke of the Damilas. He fled from 
Mahagama as he was angry with his father. He 
was accordingly called Dutthagamani. After the 
death of Kakavannatissa, Tissa, who was then at 
Dlghavapi, came to Mahagama and performed 
his duties to the departed soul. He being afraid 
of his brother came back to Dlghavftpi with his 
mother and the elephant Kandula. Dutthagftmani 

Pali Chronicles 577 

came back to Mahftgftma and became king. On his 
accession to the throne he sent messengers to his 
brother demanding his mother and the elephant. 
Tissa refused to accede to the demand. The two 
brothers met in the battle-field. Dutthagamani 
was defeated in the battle. Dutthagamani again 
marched with a huge army against his brother. 
This time he came out successful. The theras 
of the island brought about reconciliation between 
the two brothers. 

Dutthagamani then decided to drive the 
Damilas out of the island. He marched with a 
mighty army against the Damilas. He first went 
to Mahiyangana and inflicted a crushing defeat 
upon the Damilas and built the Kancuka thupa 
at Mahiyangana. The past history of this thupa 
may be told here. At the time of the Buddha's 
visit to Lanka at the ninth month of His Enlighten- 
ment, Sumana, the Lord of gods, got from the Buddha 
his (the Blessed One's) hairs as relics to worship. 
A thupa was raised 7 cubits in height over the relics 
at Mahiyangana, the place which the Buddha visited. 
After the Buddha's Mahaparinibbana, Sarabhu, 
Sariputta's disciple, came to Lanka with the collar- 
bone of the Buddha and deposited it in the same 
cetiya which was made 12 cubits in height. Deva- 
nampiyatissa's brother Culabhaya made the cetiya 
30 cubits in height and Dutthagamani after defeating 
the Damilas made the cetiya 80 cubits high. 

Dutthagamani succeeded in defeating and killing 
the thirty-two Damila kings, the greatest of them 
being Elara, and thus freed the country from the 
foreign domination. He then became the undisputed 
ruler of the country. He rewarded those who served 
him in his enterprise against the Damilas. He 
then devoted himself to promote the weal and 
happiness of his subjects and the interests of the 
Buddhist Samgha. The king built the Maricavatti- 
vihara over the spear with the relic, with which he 
marched against the Damilas and routed them. 
The vihara was dedicated to the Buddhist Samgha. 

578 A History of Pali Literature 

Dutthagamani then made known his desire 
to build the great thupa, the splendid Sovannamali, 
a hundred and twenty cubits in height, and an 
uposatha house, the Lohapasada, making it nine 
storeys high. The Lohapasada was built after the 
design of the Palace of the gods. There were one 
thousand chambers in the pasada. On the pillars 
were figures of lions, tigers, and shapes of devatas. 
Some Jataka-talek were also fitly placed here and 
there. When the vihara was finished, the king 
dedicated the same to the Buddhist Samgha. 

Dutthagamani then resolved to build the 
Mahathupa without oppressing the people by levying 
taxes from them. He was very anxious how to 
get the materials to build the great thupa. But the 
gods came to his rescue. He was provided with 
all the materials by the gods. The building of the 
Mahathupa was begun on the full-moon day of the 
month Vesakha. The foundation stone of the 
Great Cetiya was laid with great care and magni- 
ficence in presence of the bhikkhus who assembled 
there from different parts of Jambudipa. In the 
relic-chamber the king placed a Bodhi tree, made up 
of jewels. Over it a beautiful canopy was raised. 
The figures of the sun, moon, and stars and different 
lotus-flowers, made up of jewels, were fastened to 
the canopy. In the relic-chamber were depicted 
the setting in motion of the wheel of the doctrine 
by the Buddha, the preaching in the heaven ot gods, 
the Mahasamaya Suttanta, the exhortation to 
Rahula, the Mahamahgalasutta, the distribution of 
the relics by Dona, and many other scenes con- 
nected with the life of the Buddha. 

One of the eight donas of the bodily relics 
of the Buddha, which was adored by the Koliyas 
of Ramagama and which was taken thence to 
the Naga kingdom, was brought to Lanka to be 
deposited in the Mahathupa. The relics were then 
enshrined with great honour. 

But before the making of the chatta and the 
plaster-work on the cetiya was finished, Duttha- 

Pali Chronicles 579 

gamani fell seriously ill. The king sent for his 
younger brother Tissa from Dlghavapi and told 
him to complete the work of the thupa that was 
left unfinished. Lying on a palanquin the king 

red round the cetiya and paid his homage to it. 
bade the scribe read aloud the book of meri- 
torious deeds. It is stated that the king built 99 
viharas of which the Maricavatti-vihara, the Loha- 
pasada, and the Mahathupa were iris greatest works. 
The great king passed into the Tusita heaven. 

The Hatthavanagalla-vihara-vamsa or the 
history of the temple of Attanagalla 
consists of eleven chapters written 
in simple Pali. Eight chapters deal 
with an account of Bang Siri-Samghabodhi and the 
last three chapters deal with the erection of various 
monumental and religious edifices on the spot 
where the king spent his last days. It reads Uke 
an historical novel. J. D'Alwis' English transla- 
tion with notes and annotations deserves mention. 
Dr. G. P. Malalasekera lias undertaken to prepare 
an edition and English translation of this work in 
the Indian Historical Quarterly. There is an edition 
of this work published in Colombo, 1909, under 
the title, " Attanagalu-vihara-variisaya ". 

The Datliavariisa or the Dantadhatuvamsa 
nieaiis an account of the tooth- 
relic of the Buddha Gautama. 
Vamsa means chronicle, history, tradition, etc. 
Literally it means lineage, dynasty, etc. The 
Dathavamsa is a quasi-religious historical record 
written with the intention of edifying and at the 
same time giving an interesting story of the past. 
This work is noteworthy because it shows us Pali 
as a medium of epic poetry. 

The work was written by Mahathera Dham- 
. % , makitti of the city of Pulatti. He 

The Author. ,. . f < o- j. -LU 

was a disciple of Sanputta, the 
author of the Saratthadipanl-tika, Saratthamaiijusa- 
tlka, Ratanapancika-tika on the Candravyakarana 
and the Vinayasaiigraha. He was well versed in 

580 A History of Pali Literature 

Sanskrit, M&gadhibhSea, tarkaSftstra (logic), 
vy&karana (grammar), kavya (poetry), agama (reli- 
gious literature), etc. He was fortunate enough 
to secure the post of a Rajaguru. Two vamsas of 
the Pali Buddhist literature, the Sfisanavamsa and 
the Gandhavamsa, tell us that it was he who com- 
posed the Dathavamsa (P.T.S. Ed., p. 34 and 
J.P.T.S., 1886, p. 62). We know from the Datha- 
vamsa that originally it was written by the poets 
in the Sinhalese language and later on rendered into 
Magadhibhasa by Dhammakitti for the benefit of 
the people of the other countries at the request of 
Parakkamo, the Commander-in-chief of Ceylon, 
who placed Lflavati on the vacant throne of Ceylon. 
This Lilavati, later on, became the queen of Para- 
kramabahu, the king of Ceylon. (Verses 4-10.) 

The Dathavamsa was written in the Buddha 

era 845 during the reign of King 

Date tio^ mp 8i " Kittisirimeghavanna of Ceylon. 

Kern says that it is also known 

as Daladavamsa composed about 310 A.D. It was 

translated into Pali in A.D. 1200 under the title of 

Dathavamsa (Manual of Indian Buddhism, p. 89). 

The Dathavamsa is an important contribution 

Im rtan e * *^ e ^ S * Or y ^ ^^ Buddhist 

mpor ce. literature. It is an historical record 
of the incidents connected with the tooth-relic of 
the Buddha. It is as important as the Mahavamsa 
and the Dipavamsa. The history of Ceylon would be 
incomplete without it. 

The Dathavamsa is a specimen of fine poetry. 

gt te It contains Pali and some debased 

ye ' Sinhalese words. Its vocabulary is 

rich. Kern rightly remarks that it belongs to the 
class of compendiums and contains repetitions of 
passages from more ancient works with more or 
less apocryphal additions (Manual of Indian 
Buddhism, p. 9). In the first chapter, stanzas are 
written in jagatichanda. Sixty stanzas are written 
in vamsastha vritta and the last two in Sragdharft 
vritta ; in the second chapter, stanzas are written 

Pali Chronicles 581 

in anu$tupachanda in pathyavaktra vritta and in 
mandakranta vritta ; in the third chapter, the stanzas 
are written in tristhupachanda in upajata, indra- 
vajrft, upendravajra, and &kharinl vrittas ; in the 
fourth chapter, stanzas are written in atisakvari- 
chanda in malini, eaddulavikridita vrittas ; and in 
the last chapter, stanzas are written in 6akvarichanda 
in vasantatilaka and ragdhara vrittas. 

The Dathavamsa gives an accpunt of the tooth- 

*^ 6 Buddha w Wch is Said 

Subect matter 

u jec -ma r. ^ have been brought to Ceylon by 
Dantakumara, prince of Kalinga, from Dantapura, 
the capital of Kalinga. It consists of five chapters, 
a brief summary of which is given below. 

Chapter I. While the Buddha Dipankara was 
coming to the city of Rammavati at the invitation 
of the people of the city, a hermit named Sumedha 
showed his devotion by laying himself down on 
the muddy road which the Buddha was to cross. 
The Buddha walked over his body with his disciples. 
Sumedha prayed to the Buddha Dipankara that he 
might be a Buddha himself in future. Dipankara 
granted him the boon whereupon he set himself 
in all earnestness, to fulfil the ten paramitas 
(perfections). The hermit was in heaven prior to 
his last birth. At the instance of the gods, he 
was reborn in Kapilavastu in the family of Suddho- 
dana and in the womb of Mahamaya. As soon as 
he was reborn, he stood up and looked round and 
was worshipped by men and gods. He went seven 
steps northwards. He was named Siddhattha- 
kumara. Three palaces, suitable for the three 
seasons of the year, were built for him. While 
going to the garden, he saw an old man, a diseased 
man, a dead man, and a hermit. He then made up 
his mind to renounce the worldly life. With the 
help of the gods he left the palace and reached the 
river Anoma and on the banks of the river, he cut 
off his hair and threw it upwards to the sky. Indra 
got the hair and built a caitya over it which is still 
known as Culamani Caitya. A potter brought a 

582 A History of Pali Literature 

yellow robe, a beggar's bowl, etc., for him. He put 
on the yellow robe and left for Rajagaha. Thence 
he went to Uruvela and made strenuous efforts for 
six years to acquire bodlii (enlightenment). In the 
evening of the full-moon day of Vai^akh, he went to 
the foot of the Bodhi tree and sat on a seat made 
of straw and defeated Mara's army. In the last 
watch of the night he acquired supreme knowledge. 
After the attainment of bodhi, he spent a week, 
seated on the same seat at the foot of the Bo-tree, 
enjoying the bliss of emancipation. He spent 
another week, looking at the Bodhi tree with stead- 
fast eyes. Another week was spent by him at a 
place called Ratanaghara near the Bodhi tree, 
meditating upon paticcasamuppada (dependent 
origination). He then went to the foot of the 
Ajapalanigrodha tree where he spent a week in 
meditation. He went to Mucalinda nagabhavana 
where he was saved by the naga from hailstorm. 
He then visited the Rajayatana. Thence he started 
for Isipatanamigadava to preach his first sermon 
known as Dhammacakkapavattana, but on the way 
two merchants, Tapussa and Bhallika, offered him 
madhupindika (a kind of food prepared with honey 
and molasses). The Buddha placed them in two 
refuges. He then reached Isipatana on the full- 
moon day of the month of Asadha. He preached 
the Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta to the first band 
of five disciples headed by Annakondanna. 

Chapter II. The Buddha was thinking of doing 
good to the world. Nine months after his attain- 
ment of bodhi, the Buddha made an aerial voyage 
to Lanka to fulfil his mission and descended on the 
garden named Mahanagavana. Then he went to 
the meeting of the yakkhas and terrified them by 
creating storm, darkness, and heavy rains. The 
yakkhas having been greatly troubled by these, 
came to the Buddha and asked for protection. 
In the midst of the meeting he sat down on a seat 
of leather but by his miraculous power he made the 
seat very hot and owing to the excessive heat 

Pali Chronicles 583 

radiating from the seat, the yakkhas became very 
much distressed and the leather expanded so as to 
cover the whole of the island of Lanka and the 
yakkhas gathered together on the coast, unable to 
bear the excessive heat. The Giridlpa which was 
full of shady trees, was brought close to the island 
of Lanka by the Buddha and the yakkhas, to save 
themselves from the extreme heat, went into the 
Giridlpa which was again set on/ its former site 
and thus the island of Lanka was rid of the yakkhas. 
As soon as the yakkhas left the island of Lanka, 
he stopped his miracle and many a god came to the 
island and surrounded him. The Buddha preached 
to the devas Dhamma and gave one of his hairs 
to God Sumana who built a caitya over it on the 
top of the Sumanakuta Hill and worshipped it. 
Then the Buddha returned to Jetavana. Again 
he went to Lanka five years after his enlightenment 
and pacified the contest between Culodara and 
Mahodara for a jewelled throne. Again he came 
to the island of Lanka eight years after his enlighten- 
ment being invited by a naga named Maniakkhika. 
The Buddha with five hundred disciples went to 
the house of Maniakkhika in Kalyani. A caitya 
built over the seat offered by Maniakkhika and used 
and left by the Buddha, was worshipped by the 
nagas there. This caitya was named Kalyam Caitya. 
The Buddha then visited the Sumanakuta Hill 
and left his footprints there. Thence he went to 
Dighavapi where he sat in meditation for some time. 
Thence he visited the site of the Bodhi tree at 
Anuradhapura where also he sat in meditation 
for some time. Thence he visited the Thuparama 
and finished his work in Ceylon. He preached 
Dhamma for forty-five years and obtained parinib- 
bana on the full-moon day of the month of Vaisakha 
in the garden named Upavattana of the Malla kings 
near Kusmara. In the first watch of the night of 
his parinibbana, he preached Dhamma to the Mallas, 
in the middle watch he made Subhadda an arahat, 
and in the last watch he instructed the bhikkhus to 


584 A History of Pali Literature 

be ardent and strenuous. Early in the morning 
he rose up from meditation and passed away. Many 
miracles were seen after his parinibb&na, e.g., the 
earth quaked from end to end, celestial music was 
played, all trees became adorned with flowers, 
though it was not the time for flowers to bloom. 
The body of the Buddha was wrapped up in new 
clothes and cotton, five hundred times. It was 
put into a golde^i pot, full of oil. A funeral pyre 
was prepared with scented wood such as sandal, 
twenty cubits in height, and the Malla chiefs put the 
oil-pot in the pyre. As Mahakassapa did not arrive, 
fire could not be kindled because it was desired by 
the gods that the Buddha's body must not be burnt 
before Mahakassapa had worshipped it. As soon 
as Mahakassapa came and worshipped the dead 
body of the Buddha, fire was kindled. The dead 
body was so completely burnt as to leave no ashes 
or charcoal. Only the bones of the Buddha of the 
colour of pearl and gold remained. On account of 
the Buddha's desire the bones became separated 
excepting the four bones of the head, two collar- 
bones, and teeth. Sarabhu, a disciple of Sariputta, 
went to Mahiangana in Ceylon taking with him one 
of the collar-bones of the Buddha and built a caitya. 
An arahat named Khema took a left tooth-relic 
of the Buddha and over the remaining bone-relics, 
kings of eight countries began to quarrel. Dona 
settled the dispute and divided the bones equally 
among the eight countries. The kings after having 
received the relics, took them to their respective 
kingdoms, built caityas over them, and worshipped 
them. One tooth-relic taken by Khema was given 
to Brahmadatta, king of Kalinga, who built a caitya 
over it and worshipped it. Brahmadatta' s son, 
KSsIraja, succeeded his father and worshipped, 
like his dead father, the caitya built over the tooth- 
relic of the Buddha. Kasiraja's son, Sunanda, 
succeeded him and did the same. Sunanda's son, 
Guhaslva, succeeded him to the throne and did the 
same. Guhasiva's minister, who was a false believer, 

Pali Chronicles 585 

asked the king whether there was anything super- 
natural in the tooth-relic of the Buddha which the 
king worshipped and for which valuable offerings 
were given by him. The king then narrated the 
various qualities of the tooth-relic which showed 
miracles when prayed for. The minister gave up 
his false belief and became a follower of the Buddha. 
The heretics seeing this became very much dis- 
satisfied. Guhasiva ordered all the niganthas to 
be driven out of the kingdom. The niganthas went 
to King Pandu of Pataliputta, who was then a very 
powerful king of Jambudlpa. They complained 
to Pandu that King Guhasiva being a king sub- 
ordinate to him (Pandu) worshipped the bone of a 
dead person (that is, Buddha's relic) without 
worshipping Brahma, Siva, and others whom he 
(Pandu) worshipped and they further complained 
that Guhasiva ridiculed the deities worshipped by 
him (Pandu). Hearing this King Pandu grew angry 
and sent one of his subordinate kings called Cittayana 
with a fourfold army to arrest and bring Guhasiva 
with the tooth-relic. Cittayana informed Guhasiva 
of his mission and Guhasiva welcomed him cordially, 
showed him the tooth-relic of the Buddha, and 
narrated to him the virtues possessed by it. Citta- 
yana became very much pleased with him and 
became a follower of the Buddha. 

Chapter III. Cittayana then informed Guhasiva 
of the order of King Pandu. Guhasiva with the 
tooth-relic on his head, followed by a large number 
of followers with valuable presents for King Pandu, 
went to Pataliputta. The niganthas requested 
King Pandu not to offer any seat to Guhasiva, and 
they also requested him to set fire to the tooth- 
relic. A big pit of burning charcoal was dug by 
the king's command and the heretics after taking 
away the tooth-relic, threw it into the fire. As 
soon as it came in contact with fire, fire became as 
cool as the winter breeze and a lotus blossomed 
in the fire and in the midst of the lotus, the tooth- 
relic was placed. Seeing this wonder, many heretics 

586 A History of Pali Literature 

gave up false beliefs, but the king himself being a 
false believer for a long time, could not give up 
false belief and ordered the tooth-relic to be destroyed 
by stone, which found its place in the sky. The 
niganthas asked the king not to attach great 
importance to the miracles as they were not un- 
precedented. The tooth-relic was put in a casket 
and the niganthas were asked to take it out and 
throw it away, but none could do so. The king 
declared that he who would be able to take out 
the tooth-relic, would be rewarded. Anatha- 
pindika's great grandson recollecting the virtues of 
the Buddha and the deeds done by his great grand- 
father for the Buddha, was very much pleased to 
know of the declaration and went to take the 
tooth-relic out of the casket. He praised the 
tooth-relic much and then the tooth-relic rose up 
to the sky and then came down to rest on the head 
of the great grandson of Anathapindika. The 
niganthas told King Pandu that due to the influence 
of Anathapindika's great grandson the tooth-relic 
could rise up to the sky and come down to rest 
on the head of the great grandson. The niganthas 
denied the influence of the tooth-relic which displayed 
various miracles according to the desire of Anatha- 
pindika's great grandson. The tooth-relic was 
thrown into a moat. Cittayana advised the king 
that he should follow Dhamma of the Buddha 
because by worshipping the tooth-relic, Bimbisara 
and other kings attained nirvana. Thus advised 
he gave up false belief and brought the tooth-relic 
with great pomp. King Guhasiva was cordially 
received by King Pandu and both of them did many 
meritorious deeds. 

Chapter IV. A king named Khiradhara came 
to fight with King Pandu who became victorious. 
Pandu after re-establishing peace in his kingdom, 
sent back Guhasiva with Buddha's tooth-relic to 
Kalinga. Dantakumara, son of the king of Ujjain, 
came to Kalinga to worship the tooth-relic. Guhasiva 
cordially welcomed him and became pleased to 

Pali Chronicles 587 

hear the qualities of Dantakumara and afterwards 
gave his daughter in marriage to Dantakumara. 
After the defeat of Dantakumara, his sons and 
nephews came to Malayavana, a town near Danta- 
pura, to take away the tooth-relic by force. Fully 
realising the danger, Guhasiva asked his son-in-law 
and daughter to go to Ceylon with the tooth-relic. 
As the king of Ceylon and his subjects were faithful 
to the Buddha, he thought Ceyttm would be the 
best and safest place for the relic. At this time 
Mahasena, a friend of Guhasiva, was the king of 
Ceylon. The son-in-law and the daughter with 
the relic sailed by a merchant ship from the port 
of Tambralipti. The ship reached Ceylon safely 
with the relic. 

Chapter V. Dantakumara and his wife with 
the relic went to a village near the eastern gate of 
Anuradhapura in the ninth year of the reign of 
Kittisirimegha, son of Mahadisena. Dantakumara 
met an arahat and informed him of the tooth-relic 
which he brought to Ceylon for its safety. The 
arahat after hearing this, went to the king and 
informed him of the matter. Mahadisena, the pre- 
ceding king of Ceylon, was a friend of Guhasiva, 
king of Kalinga, who did not know that Mahadisena 
had died and his son, Kittisirimegha, was on the 
throne of Ceylon. Dantakumara and his wife 
became very much grieved to know that Mahadisena 
was no more and his son Kittisirimegha had succeeded 
him on the throne. The king of Ceylon after learning 
from the arahat that the tooth-relic was brought 
to Ceylon for its safety by Dantakumara and his 
wife, became very much pleased. The king and 
the queen of Ceylon went barefooted to Meghagiri- 
vih&ra, residence of the arahat, to receive the relic. 
They brought the relic to the palace and placed 
it on the throne with great devotion. The citizens 
of Ceylon, the bhikkhus well- versed in the Tripitakas, 
and the arahats came to worship it. The king 
knew that the colour of the relic was as white 
as the morning star. But finding it not to be so 

588 A History of Pali Literature 

when it was taken out of the casket, suspicion 
arose in the mind of the king, but his suspicion was 
soon removed when the relic displayed several 
miracles. The king built a special temple and 
kept it there. All the Sinhalese monks and house- 
holders assembled at Anuradhapura to worship the 
tooth-relic. At this time a question arose as to the 
section of the monks to whom the tooth-relic would 
be entrusted for' its safety and management. The 
king decided that the tooth-relic would select its 
own abode. The tooth -relic placed on a fully 
decorated elephant was taken round the city and 
was brought to the place where the Thera Mahinda 
preached his first sermon after reaching Ceylon. 
The king of Ceylon ruled that the relic would be 
taken round the city once in a year in spring. The 
temple where it was kept, was extended at the 
cost of nine lacs. After the death of Kittisirimegha, 
his successors such as Buddhadasa worshipped it 
with devotion and protected it. 1 

The Cha-kesa-dhatu-varhsa has been edited 
by Minayeff of St. Petersburg in 
J-P.T.S., 1885. It is a work by a 
modern Burmese author of unknown 
date. It is a mixture of prose and poetry. The 
language is simple and the diction noteworthy. It 
contains an account of the thupas raised by Sakka, 
Pajjunna, Manimekhala, Addhikanavika, Varuna- 

1 The Dathavamsa has been edited in Devanagari character 
and translated into English by Dr. B. C. Law and published by 
Messrs. Motilal Banarsidas, proprietors of the Punjab Sanskrit 
Book Depot, Lahore. Besides, there are two Sinhalese editions 
(by Terunnanse and Silalankara), and a P.T.8. (London) edition 
published in 1884 in J.P.T.S. There is another English translation 
of this work by Mutu Coomaraswami, published by Messrs. Triibner 
and Co., London. A French version of this work appeared in Paris 
in 1884 under the name " Le D&fh&vanca ; ou t Histoire de la dent 
relique du Buddha Gotama: poeme epiquo pali de Dhammakitti '. 
There is a commentary on the Dathavamsa known as the D&tha- 
dhatuvamsatfka mentioned in an inscription of the 15th century 
A.D. Vide also G. Tumour Account of the Tooth-Relic of Ceylon 
(J.A.S.B. vi.). 

Pali Chronicles 589 

nagaraja, and Sattanftvika over the hair relics of the 

The Gandhavamsa has been edited by Minayeff. 
JU . His edition is based on Burmese 

Gandhavamsa. . . T . n j 

manuscripts. It is a small and 
interesting outline of the history of Pali books. It 
is written mostly in prose. Besides the books of 
the canon, there is contained in it a sketch of the 
history of more modern Pali works far more detailed 
than that in the Sasanavamsa. A list of authors 
and their works as stated in the Gandhavamsa is 
given below : 

Mahakaccayana : Kaccayanagandho, Maha- 
niruttigandho, Cullaniruttigandho, Nettigandho, 
Petakopadesagandho, Vannanftigandho. 

Buddhaghosa : Visuddhimaggo, Sumangala- 
vilasim, Papancasiidanl, Saratthapakasini, Mano- 
rathapurani, Samantapasadika, Paramatthakatha, 
Kankhavitaram, Dhammapadatthakatha, Jata- 
katthakatha, Khuddakapathatthakatha, Apada- 

Buddhadatta : Vinayavinicchayo, Uttaravi- 
nicchayo, Abhidhammavataro, Madhuratthavilasini. 

Ananda : Mulatikaih. 

Dhammapala : Nettipakaranatthakatha, Iti- 
vuttaka-atthakatha, Udanatthakatha, Cariya- 
pitaka-atthakatha, Theragathatthakatha, Vimana- 
vatthussa Vimalavilasim nama atthakatha, 
Petavatthussa Vimalavilftsini nama atthakatha, 
Paramatthamanjusa, Dlghanikayatthakathadinarii 
catunnarii atthakathanam Llnatthapakasini nama 
tika, Jatakatthakathaya Llnatthapakasini nama 
t Ika, Paramatt hadipam, Linattha va nnana. 

Mahavajirabuddlii : Vinayagandhi. 

Vimalabuddhi : Mukhamattadlpani. 

Cullavajiro : Atthabyakkhyanam. 

Dipamkaro : Rupasiddhipakaranam, Rupa- 
siddhitikarh Summapancasuttam. 

Culladhammapalo : Saccasamkhepai 

Kassapo : Mohavicchedam, VimaJ 
Buddha vamaa. Anajaratavfimsa. A 

590 A History of Pali Literature 

Mah&n&ma : Saddhammapak&sanl, Maha- 
vamsa, Cullavamsam. 

Upasena : Saddhammatthitikam, 

Moggallana : Moggallanabyakaranam. 

Samgharakkhita : Subodhalamkaram. 

Vuttodayakara : Vuttodaya, Sambandhacinta, 

Dhammasiri : Khuddasikkham. 

Anuruddha : Khuddasikkham. 

Anuruddha : Paramatthavinicchayarii, Nama- 
rupaparicchedam, Abhidhammatthasamgahapa- 

Khema : Khemaih. 

Sariputta : Saratthadipani, Vinayasamgaha- 
pakaranam, Saratthamanjusarii, Pancakam. 

Buddhanaga : Vinayatthamanjusam. 

Navo Moggallana : Abhidhanappadipikam. 

Vacissaro : Sambandhacintatika, Moggallana- 
byakaranassatika, Namarupaparicchedatika, 

Padarupavibhavanam, Khemapakaranassatika, 

Mulasikkhayatlka, Vuttodaya vivaranam, Sumari- 
galapasadanl, Balavataro, Yogavinicchayo, Sima- 
lankara, Ruparupavibhaga, Paccayasarhgaho. 

Sumangala : Abhidhammatthavika^am, Abhi- 

Dhammakitti : Dantadhatupakaranam. 

Medhamkaro : Jinacaritaih. 

Saddhammasiri : Saddat thabhedacinta. 

Devo : Sumanakutavannana. 

Cullabuddhaghoso : Jatattagmidanam, Sotat- 

Ratthapala : Madhurasavahinl. 

Aggavamsa : Saddanltipakaranarh. 

Vimalabuddhi : Mahatlkam. 

Uttama : Balavataratikam, Lingatthaviva- 

Kyacvarafino : Saddabindu, Paramatthabindu- 

Saddhammaguru : Saddavuttipakaaanarh. 

Aggapandita : Lokuppatti. 

Saddh am m a j o tipala : S!malamk&ra8sat!k& 9 

Pali Chronicles 591 

Matikatthadlpam, Vinayasamutthanadlpam, Gan- 
dhasaro, Patthanaganananayo, Samkhepa- 
vannana, Suttaniddeso, Patimokkhavisodhanl. 

Nava Vimalabuddhi : Abhidhammapannara- 

Vepullabuddhi : Saddasaratt ha jaliniyatika, 
Vuttodayatlka, Paramatthamanjusft, Dasagandhi- 
vannana, Magadhabhutavidaggam, Vidadhimukkha- 
mandanatika. * 

Ariyavamsa : Manlsaramanjusam, Manidipam, 
Gandabharanam, Mahanissaram, Jatakavisodhanarh. 

Civaro : Janghadasassa tlkarh. 

Nava medhamkaro : Lokadipakasaram. 

Sariputto : Saddavuttipakasakassatikarii. 

Saddhammaguru : Sadda vuttipakasanam. 

Dhammasenapati : Karikam, Etimasamidl- 
pakarh, and Manohararia. 

Sfanasagaro : Lihgattha^varanapakasanam. 

Abhaya : Saddatthabhedacintaya mahatikam. 

Gunasagaro : Mukhamattasaram tat-tlkarh. 

Subhutacandana : Langatthavivaranapakara - 

Udumbaranamacariyo : Pet a kopadesassa 

Upatissacariya : Anagatavamsassa atthakatha. 

Buddhapiya : Saratthasamgahanamagandho. 

Dhammanandacariya : Kaccay anasaro , 
Kaccayanabhedam, and Kaccayanasarassatika. 

Gandhacariyo : Kurundigandha. 

Nagitacariya : Saddasaxatthajalim. 

Works of unknown authors mentioned in the 
Gandhavamsa are stated below : 

Mahapaceariyam, Puranatika, Mulasikkhatika, 
Unatthapakasinl, Nisandeho, Dhammanusaram, 
Jfeyyasandati, Neyyasandatiya tika, Sumahavataro, 
Nalatadhatuvannana, Sihalavatthu, Dhammadi- 
pako, Patipattisarhgaho, Visuddhimaggagandhi, 
Abhidhammagandhi, Nettipakaranagandhi, Visud- 

592 A History of Pali Literature 

dhimaggacullanavatlka, Sotappamalim, Pasada- 
janani, Subodhalankarassa Navatika, Gulhatthatl- 
kam, Balappabodhanam, Saddatthabhedacintaya 
majjhimatlkam, Karikayatikam, Etimasamidipi- 
kayatlkam, Dipavamsa, Thupavamsa, and 

The author of the Sasanavamsa gives an outline 
Sasanavamsa ^ Buddha's life and briefly deals 
with the three Buddhist Councils 
held during the reigns of the three Indian kings, 
Ajatasattu, Kalasoka, and Asoka. After the Third 
Council was over, Moggaliputta Tissathera sent 
Buddhist missionaries to different countries for 
the propagation of the Buddhist faith. Pannasaml, 
the author of the Sasanavamsa, speaks of the 
nine regions visited by the missionaries. But of 
these nine, five are placed in Indo-China. Dr. Mabel 
Bode is of opinion that the author's horizon seems 
to be limited, first by an orthodox desire to claim 
most of the early teachers for the countries of the 
South (and hence to prove the purest possible 
sources for the Southern doctrines), and secondly 
by a certain feeling of national pride. According 
to this account, Maha-Moggaliputta Tissa (as if 
with a special care for the religious future of 
Maramma) sent two separate missionaries to neigh- 
bouring regions in the valley of the Irawaddy 
besides three others, who visited Laos and Pegu. 

The Thera Mahinda went to Ceylon for the 
propagation of the faith during the reign of the 
Sinhalese King Devanampiyatissa who was a 
contemporary of the Indian King Asoka. 

Sona and Uttara visited Suvannabhumi 
(Sudhammapura that is, Thaton at the mouth of 
the Sittaung River). The author holds that even 
before the sending out of the missionaries to 
Suvannabhumi by Moggaliputta Tissathera, the 
President of the Third Buddhist Council, Buddha 
came here personally with a number of bhikkhus 
to preach his doctrines. 

Maharakkhita Thera spread Buddhism in the 

Pali Chrwiiclea 593 

Yona country (the country of the Shan tribes about 

Yonakarakkhita Thera visited the country of 
Vanavasi (the region round Prome) and propagated 
Buddhism there. 

Majjhantika visited Kasmlra and Gandhara 
(the Gandhara country) lay on the right bank of 
the Indus, south of Kabul, and the whole country 
became a strong Buddhist hold. * 

It was through Maha-Revata Thera that 
Buddhism found its way into Mahimsakamandala 
(Andhra country). 

Maha-Dhammarakkhita Thera went to Maha- 
rattha (Mahanagara-rattha or Siam) and spread 
Buddhism there. 

Majjhima Thera spread the Buddhist faith in 
Cinarattha (tiie Himavantapadesa of the Ceylon 

Now we shall deal with the history of the 
spread of Buddhism in Aparantarattha which (placed 
by European scholars west of the Punjab) is no 
other than the Sunaparanta of the Burmese, i.e., 
the region lying west of the upper Irawaddy. 

The Sasanavamsa brings before us a picture of 
the relations of State and Samgha in Burma from 
the time of Anuruddha, with his constant adviser, 
Arahanta, to the time of Meng-Dun-Meng, with his 
Council of Mahatheras. Those relations were one 
of mutual dependence. The Order, though 
enriched by the gifts of pious laymen, yet depends, 
in the last resort, upon the king. The peaceful, 
easy life dear to the Burmese bhikkhu, the necessary 
calm for study or the writing of books, the land or 
water to be set apart for ecclesiastical ceremonies, 
all these are only secured by the king's favour and 
protection. This accounts for the general loyalty 
of the Samgha to the head of the State. The 
king's despotism is also held in check. 

" At the lowest, the royal gifts of vihftras and 
the building of cetiyas are either the price paid 

594 A History of Pali Literature 

down for desired prosperity and victory, or the 
atonement for bloodshed and plunder ; and the 
despot dares not risk the terrors, the degradation, 
that later births, in coming time, may hold in 
store for him, if he injures or neglects the Samgha." 
As a rule, the king was the recognised authority 
in ecclesiastical affairs. Tliis is evident from 
Anuruddha's vigorous reforms. The Samgharaja 
is not the elected Head of the Order. He is appointed 
by the king, whose favourite and tutor he usually 
is. It appears from the Parupana Ekamsika con- 
troversy that the king's power to settle a religious, 
question by royal decree is fully recognised by the 
Samgha. But we also see the king himself under his 
acariya's influence, so far as to ensure his favouring 
the orthodox or unorthodox school, according to 
the views of the Samgharaja. 

The history of religion in Mramma is nothing 
more than the history of the Buddhist Order in 
Sunaparanta and Tambadlpa. The history of the 
Burmese as a nation centres in a group of cities 
Pugan, Sagain, Ava, Panya, Amarapura, Mandalay 
each, in its turn, the seat of kings. 

The early Buddhist stronghold in Burma was 
at Sudhammapura, the capital of Manohari, king 
of Pegu. Anuruddha, king of Pugan, at the 
instance of Arahanta, a great thera who came from 
Sudhammapura to Pugan, made war with Manohari 
and brought the sacred relics and books to Pugan. 
All the members of the Samgha in Thaton (Sudham- 
mapura) were also transferred to Pugan. Anuruddha 
further sent for copies from Ceylon, which Arahanta 
compared with those of Pegu, to settle the readings. 

During the reign of Narapatisisu, the celebrated 
teacher, Uttarajlva, came from Sudhammapura to 
Arimaddana and established religion there. His 
pupil Chapada who spent ten years studying in 
Ceylon returned with four colleagues to the capital. 
After the death of Chapada separate schools came 
into existence, having their origin in certain dif- 
ferences that arose between the three surviving 

Pali Chronicles 595 

teachers Slvali, Tamalinda, and Ananda. The 
schools are together known as Pacehagana to 
distinguish them from the earlier school in Arimad- 
dana (Purimagana) founded by Arahanta. 

The reign of Kyocva is highly important for the 
history of Buddhism. He was himself the author 
of two manuals Paramatthabindu and Saddabindu, 
for the use of his wives, and one of his daughters 
wrote the Vibhatyattha. We pxe told of the 
science and zeal of the women of Arimaddana, and 
anecdotes are told of their skill in grammar and the 
keenness of their wit. 

In the reign of Bureng Naung religion thrived 
most. It is recorded of Mm that he even forced 
Buddhism on the Shaiis and Muslims in the north 
of his kingdom. 

In the reign of Siri-Mahasihasurasudhammaraja 
begins a new chapter in the history of Burmese 
Buddhism the Parupana-Ekaihsika controversy. 
The rise and many phases of the dispute are set 
forth at length by the author of the Sasanavaihsa. 
Two sects arose the Ekamsika sect (it was named 
so for going about in the village with one shoulder 
uncovered by the upper garment) and the Parupana 
sect (this school strictly observed the wearing 
of the upper garment on both shoulders, during 
the village rounds). During the reign of Bodoah 
Pra the question was settled for good. A royal 
decree established the Parupana practices for the 
whole of the kingdom. 

During the reign of Meiig-dun-Meng we come 
to the last controversy, perhaps recorded because it 
points to the influence of the Burmese Samgha in 
Ceylon. An ancient Sima in the island (Ceylon) 
was the subject of dispute. The matter was brought 
for judgment to the Samgharaja at Mandalay, by 
deputations from both sides. The Samgharaja gave 
judgment after consulting various sacred texts. 
The members of both sides received presents from 
the king. Thus the history of religion in Aparanta 

596 A History of Pali Literature 

The edition of the Sasanavamsa l is based on 
two palm-leaf MSS. in the British Museum. It is a 
non-canonical book and is a text of Burmese author- 
ship. It is a very interesting historical work. The 
author Pafinaswami, who dates his book 1223 of 
the Burmese Common Era 1861 A.D., was the 
tutor of the then reigning king of Burma and 
himself a pupil of the head of the Order at Mandalay. 
The table of contents promises a general history of 
Buddhism drawn from a few well-known Pali works, 
e.g., Atthakatha, Vinaya Pitaka, Mahavariisa, and 
Dipavamsa. Events are brought up to the time 
of the Third Council in the time of Asoka and the 
sending forth of missionaries by the Thera Maha- 
MoggaUputta Tissa. The later history of religion 
consists of nine chapters, which falls into two 
parts. The first part consists of a few legends 
strung together with quotations from Biiddhaghosa 
and Dipavamsa. The accounts of Ceylon and 
Burma seem to be more careful and complete than 
those of other matters of this group. The second 
part covers three-fifths of the book and treats 
solely of the history of Buddhism in Burma proper. 
In part one, the section dealing with the missions 
strikes the key-note of the Sasanavamsa. A few 
geographical notes explained the nine regions 
visited by the first missionaries. A careful study of 
this work shows the author's intimate acquaintance 
with the commentaries. The style imitates that of 
Buddhaghosa and his successors. There are no 
points of philological interest. The book gives us 
an interesting record of the part played by the 
Buddha's religion in the social and intellectual life. 
Pannaswami's history is a purely ecclesiastical piece 
of work. This work has been edited by Mabel 
Bode, Ph.D., for the P.T.S., London. 

1 Read Sasanavamsadipa edited by Jnanatilaka Nayaka 
Punnanse and Sasanavamsadlpaya by Vimalasara Unnanse. Read 
also "The author of the Sasanavaihsa " by M. Bode, J.R.A.S., 
1899, pp. 674-676. 



Sangaha is an earlier Pali nomenclature for both 
a compilation and a manual. The later term 
Atthasdra is precisely an equivalent of the English 
handbook or manual. The Buddhist teachers had 
indeed developed the art of manual writing much 
earlier, the Khuddakapatha, the Patimokkha, and 
the Abhidhamma treatises, all partaking of the 
character of manuals. The manuals were written 
in both prose and verse and in some cases in the form 
of Karikas. As a matter of fact most of the works 
of Thera Buddhadatta represent so many manuals 
in the shape of Karikas. Buddhaghosa's writings 
are conspicuous by the absence of such manuals 
with the solitary exception of the Visuddhimagga. 
The same holds true in the case of Dhammapala's 
writings. The art continued nevertheless and coming 
to somewhat later times we have a number of works 
that deserve to be classed under manuals. Although 
the subject-matters of these manuals vary, one 
predominant feature of each of them is this that 
it presents its theme systematically in a somewhat 
terse and concise form, purporting to be used as a 
handbook of constant reference. 

The Saccasamkhepa is a religious work on truth 
G ... written by Dhammapala Thera. 

Saccasamkhepa. -n/rii i j "T^ij^i 

Malalasekera points out that there 
seems to be some uncertainty as to the authorship 
and date of the Saccasamkhepa. The Saddhamina- 
samgaha assigns it to Ananda, 1 The Saccasamkhepa 
has been edited by Dhanimarama Bhikklm. There 
are five chapters in it dealing with rupa (form), 

1 The Pali Literature of Ceylon, p. 202. 

598 A History of Pali Literature 

vedana (feeling), cittapavatti (thought), pakinna- 
kasamgaha, and nibbana. It is known as the 
summary of the truth, published by the P.T.S. 
in J.P.T.S., 1917-1919. It consists of 387 stanzas. 
Bupa or form is one of the five khandhas. The 
destruction of the four elements means the destruc- 
tion of rupa. There are three kinds of vedana or 
feelings, feeling that is pleasant, feeling that is 
unpleasant, and feeling that is neither pleasant nor 
unpleasant, i.e., indifferent. All the three vedanas 
are to be done away with, for they are painful. 
Citta or thought when attached to raga or passion 
leads to repeated births which are full of misery. 
When citta is detached from passion there is no 
rebirth for a being. The Pakinnakasariigaha- 
vibhaga treats of miscellaneous subjects, e.g., pride, 
sloth, niggardliness, and their evil effects. The last 
chapter deals with nirvana which means destruction 
of all passions and desires and avoidance of all 
worldly miseries. 

The Abhidhammattha-Sangaha l has served for 
probably eight centuries as a primer 
of Psychology and philosophy in 
Burma and Ceylon, and a whole 
literature of exegesis has grown up around it, the 
latest additions to which are but of yesterday. The 
manual is ascribed to a teacher named Anuruddha ; 
but nothing is known about him except the fact 
that he had compiled two other treatises on philo- 
sophy, and one of them was written while the 
author was at Kancipura or Conjeeveram. Burmese 
tradition asserts that he was a thera of Ceylon and 
wrote the compendium at the Sinhalese vihara 
founded by Somadevi, queen of King Vattagamanl 
who flourished between 88-76 B.C., a date fictitiously 
early for the book. In fact, Anuruddha is believed 
to have lived earlier than 12th but later than the 

1 Abhidhammattha-Sangaha-im Compendium Buddhistischer 
Philosophic und Psychologic, Vol. I, by Brahmacari Govinda 
deserves mention. 

Pali Manuals 599 

8th century A.D. S&riputta compiled a paraphrase 
to this book. The Abhidhammattha-Sangaha has 
been edited and published in J.P.T.S., 1883, and 
translated with notes by Shwe Zan Aung and 
revised by Mrs. Rhys Davids under the name of 
the Compendium of Philosophy included in the 
P.T.S. translation series. 

The Abhidhammattha-Sangaha is classed in 
other contempo- Burmese bibliography under a clas- 
rary philosophical sified list of Philosophical manuals, 
manuals. ^^ in num b er- They are : 

1. Abhidhammattha-Sangaha, by Anuruddha, 

2. Paramattha Vinicchaya, by Anuruddha, 3. Abhi- 
dhammavatara, by Buddhadatta, 4. Ruparupa- 
vibhaga, by Buddhadatta, 5. Saccasamkhepa, by 
Dhammapala, 6. MohavicchedanI, by Kassapa, 
7. Khemapakarana, by Khema, 8. Namacara- 
dipaka, by Saddhamma Jotipala, and 9. Namarupa- 
pariccheda, by Anuruddha. 

The Abhidhammattha-Sangaha, because of its 
exclusively condensed treatment, 
stimulated a large growth of ancillary 
works, of which the following have 
uptill now been known. 

A. Four tikas or commentaries : 1. Porana- 
tika, by Navavimala Buddhi of Ceylon, 2. Abhi- 
dlianimattha-vibhavanl, by Sumangala of Ceylon, 

3. Sankhepa-vannana, by Saddhamma Jotipala 
of Burma, and 4. Paramattha-dipani-tika, by Ledi 
Sadaw of Burma. 

B. A 'Key' to the Tika-gyaw, entitled 
Manisaramaiiju, by Ariyavamsa of Sagaing, Burma. 

C. A commentary entitled Madhu-Sarattha- 
dipani, by Mahananda of Hanthawaddy, Burma. 

D. A number of works, not in Pali, but in 
Burmese : 

1. Abhidhammattha-sangaha-madhu, a modern 
work by Mogaung Sadaw, 2. Abhidhammattha- 
sangaha-gandhi, a modern work by Payagyi Sadaw, 
3. Paramattha-Sarupa-bhedaru, by Visuddharama 
Sadaw, 4. Abhidhammattha-Sarupa-dipaka, by 

600 A History of Pali Literature 

Sadaw, 4. Abhidhammattha-Sarupa-dlpaka, by the 
late Myobyingyi, and 5. a number of analytical 
works entitled Akauk. 

The Abhidhammattha-Sangaha covers very 
m. AUV, -M> largely the same range of subject- 

The Abhidham- ^ ^ , e ^ TT j 11 

mattha-Sangaha matter as that of the Visuddhimagga, 
and the visuddhi- though the amplitude of treatment 
magga. ^^ ^ order and emphasis of 

treatment in each are different. But they are to 
some extent complimentary, and as such still 
hold the field as modern text-books for students of 
Buddhism in Buddhist countries. 

The Abhidhammattha-Sangaha is so highly 
condensed that it consists, for the most part, of 
terse, jejune sentences, which are not easily intelli- 
gible to lay readers. It is, therefore, profitable 
to have a resume of the main topics and problems 
of the whole work as a Manual of Buddhist Psycho- 
logy and Philosophy. 

Mind is ordinarily defined as that which is 

Min conscious of an object ; and the 

Buddhists have tried to frame their 
definition with the help of fifty-two mental attributes 
or properties enumerated in Part II of the Abhi- 
dhammattha-Sangaha. But the definition of mind 
is also a division of mind, and our author's division 
into vedana, nana, and sankhara corresponds to 
Bain's division of the mind into feeling, thought 
or intellect, and will or volition. 

Consciousness (vifinana) has, therefore, been 
defined as the relation between arammanika (subject) 
and arammana (object). In this relation the object 
presented is termed paccaya (the relating thing) 
and the subject, paccayuppanna (the thing related). 
The two terms are thus relative. 

The object of Consciousness is either object of 
Sense or object of Thought. Object of sense 
subdivides itself into five classes sight, sound, 
smell, taste, and touch, which are collectively 
termed panc&rammana (fivefold object). The object 
of thought also consists of five sub-clauses : citta 

Pali Manuals 601 

(mind), cetasika (mental properties), pasada, rupa 
and sukhumarupa (sensitive and subtle qualities of 
body), pannati (name, idea, notion, concept), and 
nibbana. These are collectively termed dhammft- 

The Pannatti object consists of several sub- 
clauses. Pannatti is either (1) that 
which makes known (pannapetlti) ; or 
(2) that which is made known (pafmgpiyatiti), corres- 
ponding to our author's terminology Saddapafinatti 
and Atthapannatti which are undoubtedly relative 
terms. Saddapafinatti is a name (of a thing) 
which, when expressed in words, or represented by 
a sign is called a * term '. It is synonymous with 
nama-pannatti. Atthapannatti is the idea or notion 
of the attributes of a thing made known or 
represented by a name. In other words, it is equi- 
valent to 6 concept ' and is subdivided into various 
classes. Pannatti has been distinguished from Para- 
mattha in the sense that the former is nominal and 
conceptual whereas the latter is real. 

The object comprehending, as it does, the 
subject, is wider, more extensive than the latter. 
This is probably one reason why greater prominence 
is given to the object patthana. In Buddhism 
there is no actor apart from the action, no percipient 
apart from perception. In other words, there is no 
conscious subject behind consciousness. 

' Like the current of the river ' (nadi soto 
viya) is the Buddhist idea of exis- 

Lifea ^ew. n ient tence - F . or no two consecutive 
moments is the fabric of the body 
the same, and this theory of the ceaseless change or 
flux is called anicca-dhamma which is applied alike 
to the body and the mind, or the Being and thought 
respectively. The dividing line between these two 
is termed mano-dvara, the Threshold of Conscious- 
ness. Life, then, in the Buddhist view of things, 
is like an ever-changing river, having its source in 
birth, its goal in death, receiving from the tributary 
streams of sense constant accretions to its flood, 

602 A History of Pali Literature 

and ever-dispensing to the world around it the 
thought-stuff it has gathered by the way. 

Subliminal consciousness is either kama, rupa 
or arupa. Supraliminal conscious- 
Primary ciassifi- ness i s normal, supernormal, and 

cation of Con- , j j. i *vr i 

eciousness. transcendental. Normal conscious- 

ness is termed kamacitta, so called 
because desire or kama prevails on the plane of 
existence. Supernormal consciousness is termed 
Mahaggatacitta because it has reached the sublime 
state, and is further distinguished as rupa, or 

Consciousness in this fourfold classification is 
primarily composed of seven mental 
Universal mental properties (cetasikas) namely, con- 
SEST^of c d tact (phassa), feeling (vedana), per- 
sciousness. ceptioii (saiiiia), will or volition 

(cetana), oneness of object (ekaggata), 
psychic life (jlvitindriya), and attention (manasikara). 
These seven mental properties are termed sabba- 
citta-sadharana or universals, because they are 
common to every class and state of consciousness, 
or every separate act of mind or thought. There 
are forty-five different properties distinguishing one 
class from another. And those, in varying combina- 
tions, give rise to the eighty-nine classes of conscious- 
ness enumerated in Part I of the Abhidhammattha- 
Sangaha, or according to a broader classification, 
one hundred and twenty-one. The seven mental 
properties have been enumerated above ; there are, 
besides these, six particular specific or accidental 
properties. These are vitakka, vicara, adhimokkha, 
viriya, piti, and chanda. The four universal bad 
cetasikas or properties are moha, ahirika, anottappa, 
and uddhacca. Besides these, there are also two 
specific cetasikas or properties, lobha and ditthi. 
All these properties are discussed and explained 
in the body of the book. 

Of these and other classes of consciousness 
making up a total of eighty-nine, some function 
as causes or karma, some as resultants or vip&ka, 

Pali Manuals 603 

and some are non-causal or kriya. Besides these 

three classes, there are two ele- 
d Clafi f e ?k an< ? or " ments in every consciousness, the 
ness grouped 010 " Constant and the Variable. The 

form of consciousness is the cons- 
tant element, and is opposed to the matter of 
consciousness which constitutes the variable ele- 
ment. But in Buddhism, both subject and object 
are variable at every moment ; t and there are 
several forms of consciousness each of which may 
be designated a 4 process of thought ' whenever 
it takes place as a fact. To every separate state 
of consciousness which takes part in a process 
of thought as a functional state, either in the sub- 
jective form of the stream of being, or in the objective 
form of a conscious act of mind or thought, there 
are three phases genesis (uppada), development 
(thiti), and dissolution (bhanga) each of which is 
explained and discussed by the author in his Manual 
in all its processes and stages. 

The possibility of the ' internal ' presentation 

of all the six classes of objects men- 
internal intui- tioned above is that a sensation can be 
pro n p " d Xd n experienced, the Buddhists believe, 
manodvravithi). without the corresponding objective 

stimulus. The possibility of Reflec- 
tion proper is attributed to the relation termed * proxi- 
mate sufficient cause ' by virtue of which (a) a 
sense impression once experienced in a sense cognition 
by way of the five doors, or (6) a previous experience 
of all internal intuition or cognition by way of the 
mind-door, or (c) the idea once formed in the sequels 
of either, can never be lost. There are different 
processes of reflection in connection with Things 
Seen (dittha). But when an object that has not 
been actually sensed is constructed out of, and 
connected with these seen objects, it is termed 
6 object associated with things seen ' (ditthi-sam- 
bandha). And the process of thought connected 
therewith is classed in the category of objects 
associated with things seen. The object constructed 

604 A History of Mi Literature 

out of and connected with Things Heard (suta object) 
is termed 4 object associated with things heard 9 
(suta-sambandha). Any object constructed out of 
Things Cogitated (vinftftta) and connected therewith 
is termed ' associated with things cogitated 5 
(vinnfita-saihbandha). Any object in the category 
of Things Seen, Heard or Cogitated may either be 
past, present or future. When it is present, it is 
intuited as a viadd reality. The same forms hold 
good for all kinds of thought or reflection. 

How is memory possible, if the object be not 

the same for any two consecutive 

Memory and moments in life? The answer is 

Changing Personal- . -1^.11^1 ,1. -n i. 

ity. given in detail by the author. Each 

mental state is related to the next 
in at least four different modes of relation (paccaya) : 
Proximity (anantara), Contiguity (samanantara), 
Absence (natthi), and Abeyance (avigata). This 
fourfold relation is understood to mean that each 
expired state renders service to the next. In other 
words, each, on passing away, gives up the whole of 
its energy to its successor : and this is how the 
memory is helped and retained. 

The stage of apperception pertains to that 

active side of an existence (kamma- 

The ethical bhava), which determines the passive 

aspect of appercep- ., , ... , , _ v - .,* , 

tion of Javana. side (upapatti-bhava) of the next 
existence. The apperceptional act 
is thus a free, determining, causal act of thought, 
as distinguished from the mental states, which 
are fixed, determined and resultant acts (vipaka) of 
kamma. Volition, under favourable circumstances, 
is transformed into kamma. But volition (cetanft) 
in apperception on occasion of sense (panca-dvSrika- 
javana) cannot possibly become kamma. Hence 
we must look to the volition involved in reflective 
or representative apperception (manodvarika-javana) 
for kamma, which according to the different 
characters of volition is classed in different types or 
varieties with distinct characteristics. 

Interesting though is the phenomenon of dream, 

Pali Manuals 606 

it is conspicuous in the Abhidhaimnattha-Sangaha 
by its absence. Scattered refer* 

Dream^nscioue- enceg ftnd Mnjtt ^ sou systematic 6X- 

planations have here and there been 
made in Buddhist works regarding forms of dream- 
thought, dreams-classified, theories of dreams, rela- 
tion of dream to sleep, etc. 

The first essential qualification of the process 
of thought transition from the 
normal to the supernormal is 4 purity 
of virtue or morals '. The next is 
meditation and concentration of thought. There 
are four moments of apperception during the 
transitional stage from normal to super-normal 
consciousness. The first is termed ' preparation ', 
the second ' success ', which is followed by the 
third called * adaptation '. After the last moment 
of 4 adoption ' normal consciousness is cut off by 
the super-normal, and the transitional stage is 
superseded by the latter, known as the first 
Jhana, and for one thought-moment, the person 
attaining it experiences eestacy. Attainment in 
Jhana is thus a very important psychological 
moment, marking an epoch in his mental experience 
for the person who succeeds in commanding it. 
Jhana is usually classified in five stages, and in the 
fifth stage ecstatic concentration reaches its full 
development with the help of the continued voluntary 
exercise of the mind on an after-image to which it 
has been directed. 

To attain super-intellectual powers (abhinna) 
for an adept in the Fifth Jhana, 
^ will be necessary for him to go 
through a course of mental training 
in fourteen processes. Super-normal powers of will 
or Iddhi-vidha may then be developed by means of 
the so-called four bases of Iddhi which involve 
respectively the development of Four dominant 
or predominant principles of purpose, effort, know- 
ledge, and wisdom. There are ten classes of Iddlii 
known to Buddhism, the last three of which 

606 A History of Pali Literature 

constitute the Iddhi-vidhft, and are used as a basis 
for the willing process. 

With a slight difference in procedure in mental 
ATU ajhsnas attitudes and mood of thought, 
upa nas. ^ e same forms of the transitional, 
inductive, or sustained and retrospective processes 
of Fifth Rupa-Jhana obtain in the case of the Four 
Arupa-Jhanas. When an adept in the Fifth Rupa- 
Jhana, who has repeatedly induced the same through 
any one of the ten circles, with the exception of 
space, erroneously believes that all physical pain 
and misery are due to the existence of the body, 
and reflects on the relative grossness of this Jhana, 
he wishes to attain the First Arupa-Jhana, which he 
considers to be very calm and serene. 

A person who wishes to transcend the experience 
of this conditioned world must first 
of all cultivate 'purity of views' 
or ditthi-visuddi. Next, he must 
cultivate in succession, 4 purity of transcending 
doubt ' or Kankha-vitarana-visuddhi, ' Ten modes 
of Insight ' or Vipassana-nanas or in other words 
the contemplative insight, enumerated and explained 
in the Text. All these ten kinds of insight are 
collectively termed ' purity of intellectual culture '. 
The matured insight of equanimity receives the 
special designation of 'insight of discernment 
leading to uprising \ because it invariably leads to 
the Path, conceived as a 4 Rising out of. It 
is also styled as the * mouth or gate of Emancipation ' 

Emancipation has a triple designation, namely, 
. A . the c Signless ' or animitta, the ' Un- 

Emancipation. , . ,*? iu_ JJ.T. 

desired or appamhita, and the 
* void ' or sunnata. Emancipation itself, whether 
of the Path, the Fruit, or Nibbana, also receives 
the same triad of names, according as it is preceded 
by the contemplation of things by 'uprising dis- 
cernment ' as either impermanent, or evil, or 

The purity of insight which is the gateway of 

Pali Manuals 607 

Emancipation is also called Path-insight. One who 
r, ., ~ . has attained perfect purity of 

Path Consciousness. . . *, . .1 i , J * 

insight cuts oflf the hentage of 
the average man and evolves the lineage of the 
Transcendental. It is followed by a single moment 
of Path-consciousness by which the first of the 
Four Noble Truths is clearly discerned. Error 
and doubt are got rid of, Nibbana is intuited, 
and the eightfold Path-constituents are cultivated. 
These four simultaneous functions'correspond to the 
Four Noble Truths. Just like the Four Noble 
Truths, there are four stages of the Path, which 
are called Four Paths. The attainer of the first is 
termed Sotapanna who will have as yet to undergo 
seven more rebirths in the Kamaloka ; the attainer 
of the second is termed Sakadagami who will have 
one more such rebirth. But the complete destruc- 
tion of these two does not permit of another rebirth 
in the case of the Anagami or Never returner of the 
Third Path. The wisdom of the Highest or Supreme 
Path is the same mental order of intelligence deve- 
loped into the Perfected view of the highest order 
and is the last stage of ' purity of insight '. 

Death is assigned to one of four causes : (1) 

the exhaustion of the force of the 

^ ' reproductive (janaka) kanima that 

has given rise to the existence in question, (2) the 

expiry of the maximum life-term possible for this 

particular generation, (3) the combination of both 

these causes, (4) the action of a stronger arresting 

kamma that suddenly cuts off the reproductive 

kamma before the latter's force is spent or before 

the expiry of the life-term. 

The decease of the Arhant is according to 
i r. *u Buddhist philosophy, the Final 

Final Death. ^^ j f the 4^^ be Q f the 

class known as ' dry-visioned ' (sukkha-vipassaka) 
who does not practise Jhana, his final death, which 
takes place on the kama plane, occurs after appercep- 
tion or retention of impressions. If he be proficient 
in Jhana, final death may occur (a) after sustained 

608 A History of PaU Literature 

Jhftna; or (6) after apperception in subsequent 
retrospect; or (c) after the moment of 'super- 
intellectual ' knowledge (abhinnft) ; or finally, (d) 
after retrospection following the attainment of the 
Topmost Fruit. 

The Namarupapariccheda is another Abhi- 
dhamma manual written by Anu- 
ruddha Mahathera. It consists of 
1,885 stanzas dealing with name 
and form. r 

The Namarupasamasa was written by Thera 
XTX . . Khemacariya mostly in prose. It 

Namarupasamasa. , , . , J . S j. i i XL - 

deals with citta and cetasikakatha. 

The Sutta Samgaha is a later manual or com- 

. . . , pendium of select suttas and is 

Sutta Samgaha. r . ., . , , , . , , , 

pnmanly intended for those begin- 
ners who desire to have a knowledge of the Pali 
scriptural texts in a nut-shell. 

The Paritta or Mahaparitta, a small collection 
. of texts gathered from the Sutta 

Paritta. -p.., , . & .111 t_ 

Pitaka, is more widely known by 
the Burmese laity of all classes than any other 
Pali book. The Paritta, learned by heart and 
recited on appropriate occasions, is to conjure 
various evils, physical and moral. Some of the 
miscellaneous extracts that make up the collection 
are of purely religious and ethical character. The 
use of the Paritta is said to have had the Buddha's 
sanction. The victory of the holy men was accom- 
plished by the Paritta (Mabel Bode, The PaU 
Literature of Burma, pp. 3-4). 

The Kammavaca 1 is a convenient title for the 
collection of certain set forms of speech followed 
or to be followed in conducting the business of the 
Samgha either at the time of conferring ordination 
or at the time of holding a synod or a council 

1 Cf. "A new Kammavaca " by T. W. Rhys Davids and Clauson, 
F. Speigel's Kammavakya, Palice et Latine ed. Vgl Ferner Dickson, 
J.R.A.S., Vol. VII, New Series ; Upasampada-kammavSca, a Pftli 
text with a translation and notes by J. F. Dickson, J.R.A.S., 1875. 

Pali Manuals 609 

These set forms are but excerpts from the Vinaya 
Mahavagga and Cullavagga, the utility of the 
Kammavaca text being no other than this, namely, 
that we have in it all put together in a handy and 
systematic form. There are various manuscripts 
of this text available in Burma, Ceylon, and Siam ; 
some of the Mandalay manuscripts being very 
handsome written as they are in Burmese ritual 
or tamarind seed letters printed, with a thick black 
resinous gum. There is a collection of Kammavacas 
made by Herbert Baynes (vide J.R.A.S., 1892, Art. 
III). In Burmese Pali collections we find no less 
frequently than the Paritta of the laity, the Kamma- 
vaca of the mendicant order. It goes without 
saying that the text of Kammavaca is a text of a 
purely Buddhist ecclesiastical use. 

In the Kalyam stone inscriptions of Dhamma 
Bedi of Pegu, we find mention of 
th e Slmalankarapakarana amongst 
the earlier authoritative texts bearing 
upon the subject of sima or sanctified boundary of 
the Buddhist ecclesiastical order. It is not quite 
clear from the reference if the Slmalankarapakarana 
was not the same work as the Simalankarasamgaha 
mentioned in the same lithic record of the 15th 
century A.D. It is evident from these records as 
well as from a later work, the Simavivadavinicchaya- 
katha that the proper erection and the determination 
of the sanctified boundary came to be considered 
as an effective means of the purification of the 
Buddhist holy order. 

The Khuddakasikkha and the Mulasikkha are the 
two short Vinaya manuals, written 
mostly in verse, a few passages oc- 
curring in prose. The Thera Dham- 
masiri, evidently a Sinhalese priest, is the author 
of the Khuddakasikkha. But in the Burmese history 
of the pitakas the Mulasikkha is ascribed to Dham- 
masiri and the Khuddakasikkha, to another Sinhalese 
priest, Mahasftmi by name. The authorship of 
the Khuddakasikkhft cannot be reasonably ascribed 

610 A History of Pali Literature 

to any other person than Dhammasiri in view of 
the author's own statement in the following stanza : 

" Tena Dhammasirikena Tambapanniyaketuna 
therena racita Dhammavinayannupasam- 

If we are to give credence to the Burmese 
tradition, there is no other alternative than regarding 
the Mulasikkha as a work not of Dhammasiri but 
of Mahasami. It is also difficult to accept the 
Burmese tradition according to which the two 
manuals were written about 920 years after the 
demise of the Buddha. 1 Judged by the language 
and general style of the two manuals, these would 
seem to be literary productions of a much later age. 
We have already given an idea of their contents 
(ante p. 79). Only one important point which 
remains to be noticed is the significance of the 
Mulasikkha used as a title of one of the two manuals. 
It is suggested in the opening stanza of the Mula- 
sikkha that the title has no other significance than 
this, that the manual presents the necessary lessons 
on the Vinaya rules and discipline in the language 
of the original texts, that is to say, in Pali which is 
the language of the pitakas : 

" Bhikkhuna navakenado mulabhasaya sikkhi- 
tum yannimittam pavesanto bhikkhu mag- 
gattaye cuto." 

1 J.P.T.S., 1882, p. 87. 




In the present chapter we have to deal with 
seven metrical compositions, tlie Anagatavamsa, 
the Jinacarita, the Telakatahagatha, the Pajja- 
madhu, the Rasavahini, the Saddhammopayana, 
and the Pancagatidipana, which were evidently the 
literary productions of Ceylon 1 and which belonged 
mostly to the closing period of Pali literary activities 
of Ceylon ranging from the tenth or eleventh to the 
fourteenth or fifteenth century A.D. Amongst them 
the Anagatavamsa stands as a supplement to the 
canonical work, Buddha vamsa ; the Jinacarita occu- 
pies the same place in Pali as the Buddhacarita in 
the Sanskrit Buddhist literature, the Telakataha- 
gatha and the Pajjamadhu represent two interesting 
examples of the Sataka type of poetry, the Panca- 
gatidipana and the Saddhamopayana are written 
for the edification of certain select topics of Buddhism 
and the Rasavahini is a most charming book of 
folk-tales narrated in elegant and simple style, in 
prose and in verse. Most of these works show a 
tendency towards the sanskritisation of Pali and 
display that amount of literary excellence and 
poetic imagination as may be expected from the 
people of Ceylon in general and the Buddhist monks 
in particular. 

The Anagatavamsa edited by Minayeff for the 
P.T.S., is based upon four Burmese 

Anffgatavaiusa. . , u- i j j. 

manuscripts which do not agree in 
their contents. One manuscript embodies recension 
of this work in prose and in verse, and in anothfiji 

1 It is only in the case of the Anagatavamsa 
may differ. 

612 A History of Pali Literature 

we have it entirely in verse while in a third we 
have quite a different work in prose dealing with 
ten future Buddhas including Metteyya and devoting 
a chapter to each of them. The possibility of the 
last mentioned work is suggested in the closing 
verses of that mixed recension of the Anagatavamsa 
which is found in prose and in verse : 

" Metteyyo, Uttamo, Ramo, Pasenadi Kosalo'- 

Dighason! ca Samkacco Subho Todeyya 


Nalagiripalaleyyo Bodhisatta ime dasa 
Anukkamena sambodhim papunissanti'na- 

gate'ti ". 

(Anagatavamsa, J.P.T.S., 1886, p. 37.) 

So far as the mixed recension goes, this text 
is written in prose style of the suttas in the nikayas. 
The prose passages are intervened or followed by 
certain verses, the general tenor of which is some- 
what different from those generally met with in the 
nikayas. The text is composed of a dialogue 
between Sariputta and Buddha and deals with the 
subject of gradual decline and disappearance of 
Buddhism, its literature, glory, and influence in 
time to come rather than with the life and career 
of the future Buddha, Metteyya. Viewed in this 
light, this text of the Anagatavamsa may justly 
be regarded as a supplement or sequel to the suttas 
dealing with Anagatabhayani, " future dangers of 
the faith ", the discourses recommended by King 
Asoka in his Bhabru Edict for a constant study by 
the Buddhists, both monks and laity. Whether 
such a prose dialogue as this was at any time 
incorporated in the nikayas is a question to which 
no decisive answer may yet be given. It may 
suffice here to treat as a sequel to the Anagata- 
bhayasuttas and the texts dealing with the ten 
future Buddhas. 

The text with which we are concerned is a 
work in verse. It is completed in 142 stanzas 

Pfifo* Literary Pieces 613 

and which deals with the life and career of the 
future Buddha Metteyya. According to the Gandha- 
vamsa the original An&gatavamsa was the work of 
an elder named Kassapa (presumably the Citrakathi 
Kumara Kassapa). The ascription of authorship to 
Kassapa is not however justified by the text itself, 
which is set forth as a dialogue between Sariputta 
and the Buddha. It is composed apparently in 
the manner and style of the Budcjha vamsa to which 
it was meant to serve, no doubt, as a supplement. 
A comparison between the following verses quoted 
from the two works may make their interconnection 
clear : 

1. Buddha vamsa With regard to Buddha 
Vipassi : 

" Nagaram Bandhumati nama Bandhumo nama 
khattiyo mata Bandhumati nama Vipas- 
sissa mahesino." (xx. v. 23.) 

2. Anagatavarhsa : 

" Sarhgho nama upasako Samgha nama upasika 
paccupessanti sambuddham caturasitisa- 
hassato." (v. 61, J.P.T.S., 1886.) 

Seeing that the account of future Buddha 
Metteyya is precluded from the extant Buddha- 
vamsa scheme of the lives of 26 Buddhas including 
Metteyya, it will be reasonable to enquire if the 
AnSgata vamsa in its present form was not a later 
elaboration of a shorter account of Metteyya forming 
the closing section of the Buddhavamsa in its 
original form. 

At the request of Sariputta who desired to 
know about the future Buddha, the Buddha Gautama 
spoke in brief about Metteyya Buddha. The future 
Buddha would be born in India at Ketumati in a 
brahmin family. He would be named Ajita and 
would possess immense wealth. He would enjoy 
worldly life for eight thousand years and then 
would forsake the world after having seen the four 
nimittas (Omens). Thousands of men and women 

614 A History of Pali Literature 

would renounce the world with him. On the day 
of his retirement he would proceed to the great 
Bodhi tree. He would attain supreme enlighten- 
ment and then would set rolling the Wheel of Law. 
Many would escape worldly miseries by following 
the Dhamma which would be preached by the 
Buddha Metteyya. 

Jinacarita is a Pali Kavya consisting of more 
T . .^ than 470 stanzas composed in differ- 

Jinacarita. ^ , . , 

ent metres, some stanzas being of the 
atijagati class, consisting of 13 syllables. It re- 
presents a poetic development in Pali similar to that 
represented by the Buddhacarita in the Sanskrit 
Buddhist literature. Its theme, like that of the 
Buddhacarita, is the life of the Buddha and the 
narrative is chiefly based upon the Jataka-nidana- 
katha. The slavish dependence on the prose narra- 
tive of the Nidanakatha has proved a handicap to a 
free expression of the poetic sentiment. 

Mon. Duroiselle, to whom we owe the English 
edition and translation of the text, has aptly 
remarked that the poet has risen to heights placing 
him in the foremost rank among poets only in those 
places where he has broken through the slavish 
imitation and written from the depths of his own 
inspiration. In the opinion of Mon. Duroiselle, 
" the charm of the Jinacarita lies in its lighter 
style ; in the author's choice of graceful, and some- 
times forcible, images ; in the art of his descriptions, 
the richness and, in some passages, the delicacy 
of his expressions ; qualities which go to make its 
reading refreshing and welcome after the laborious 
reading of heavy didactic poetry ". (Jinacarita, 
Introduction, p. ii.) 

The influence of the Sanskrit Kavya poetry of 
India, particularly of the works of Kalidasa, cannot 
be denied. We meet indeed in the Pali Kavya 
with some images and comparisons " which are 
seldom found in Pali, but are of frequent occurrence 
in Sanskrit works (e.g., the Kumarasambhava and 
Meghaduta). In a few instances Mon. Duroiselle 

Pali Literary Pieces 615 

has found also an echo of some of verses of the 
Mahabharata : 

Jinacarita " Ko yam Sakko nu kho Brahma 

Maro nago ti adina." 
Mahabharata " Ko 'yan devo 'thava yakso 

gandharvo va bhavisyati ? " 

(III. 6, 52,'Vanaparva.) 

Without denying the intimate acquaintance of 
the author of the Jinacarita with classical Sanskrit 
poetry, we may point out that the type of stanzas 
quoted from the Mahabharata is not such as not 
to be frequently met with in the Jataka literature. 
And as far as the indebtedness of our author to 
Kalidasa or to ASvaghosa who paved the way for 
the former is concerned, we may equally maintain 
that the style of poetry developed either in the 
Buddhacarita of Asvaghosa or in the Kumara- 
sambhava of Kalidasa, leads us back to the gathas 
forming the prologue of the Nalakasutta in the Sutta 
Nipata for its model. 

In the Gandhavamsa and Saddhamma-sangaha 
the work has been ascribed to one Medhankara. 
He was called Vanaratana Medhankara, and was 
also the author of another Pah book c Payogasiddhi ' 
and flourished under Bhuvaneka Bahu 1st (1277- 
1288 A.D. 1 ). 

The Jinacarita, however, throws no new light 
T ^ . on the life of the Master ; and we 

Its importance. in A i .* < 

can hardly expect such a thing from 
a purely devotional work such as this. But what 
is strikingly surprising is that the Jinacarita is 
unknown both in Burma and Siam. 

1 Jour. P.T.S., 1904-5, p. iv, Note on Medhankara by 
T. W. Rhys Davids. But Mon. Charles Duroiselle thinks that 
" the poem was written in the monastery built by Vijayabahu II, 
who ascended the throne in A.D. 1186 and was the immediate 
successor of the famous King Parakramabahu ". Jinacarita, p. iii 
(edited and translated by C. Duroiselle, Rangoon, 1906). Read 
also " Jinacarita ", edited and translated by Dr. W. H. D. Rouse 
in the J.P.T.S., 1904-1905. 


616 A History of Pali Literature 

In the beautiful city of Amara, there was a 
_. Brahman youth, wise and com- 

The Poem. , S ,' , , , 

passionate, handsome and pleasant, 
by name Sumedha. Hankering after wealth and 
treasures he had none, for this bodily frame he had 
no attachment. He, therefore, left his pleasant 
house, went to the Himalayas, and there discovered 
the eight implements necessary for an ascetic. He 
put on the ascetic garb and within a week obtained 
the five High Powers and the eight Attainments, 
enjoying the bliss of mystic meditation. One day 
he came down from the sky, and lay himself down 
in a muddy portion of a road through which the 
Dlpankara Buddha with his disciples was to pass. 
He, the Dlpankara Buddha, was delighted at it, 
and foretold that the ascetic Sumedha, in times to 
come, should become a fully enlightened Buddha, 
by name Gotama. Sumedha did him homage, 
and then seated in meditation, he investigated 
those conditions that go to make a Buddha. 
Sumedha, searching for Nirvana, endured many 
hardships while going through the continued suc- 
cession of existences, fulfilling the virtue of charity. 
He fulfilled, moreover, the Perfections of Morality, 
of Self-abnegation, of wisdom, and all others, and 
came to the existence of Vessantara. Passing away 
thence, he was reborn in the city of Tusita, and 
afterwards had another rebirth in the city of Kapila 
through the noble King Suddhodana, and his Queen 
Maya. He approached the bosom of Maya, and 
at the time of his conception, various wonders 
took place all over the world. In her tenth month, 
while she was proceeding to the house of her relative, 
she brought forth the Sage in the Lumbini garden 
while she kept standing under a Sala tree catching 
hold of a branch. The god Brahma approached 
and received the child in a golden net, the child 
that was born unsullied as a priceless gem. From 
the hands of Brahma and the angels, he stepped on 
to the ground, and gods and men approached and 
made offerings to him. Accompanied by a con- 

Pali Literary Pieces 617 

course of gods and men, he went to Kapilavastu 
and there a rejoicing of nature and men ensued 
for days and nights. In the Tavatimsa heaven 
the hosts of angels rejoiced and sported and pre- 
dicted that he, the child, would sit upon the Throne 
of Wisdom and become a Buddha. The ascetic 
Kaladeva, the spiritual adviser of King Suddhodana, 
went to the Tavatimsa heaven, heard the cause 
of their rejoicings, came down to Suddhodana's 
palace, and wanted to see the child. The child 
was brought and instantly, the lotus-feet of the 
prince were fixed on the ascetic's head. Upon this, 
both Kaladeva and Suddhodana reverenced the 
soft lotus-feet. A second act of reverence was done 
by Suddhodana and other men and women of the 
royal house during the sowing festival when the 
child, the Wise One, had performed a miracle. The 
prince then began to grow day by day living as 
he did in three magnificent mansions provided for 
him. One day as he came out on chariot on the 
royal road, he saw in succession the representation 
of an old man, of a diseased man, and of a dead man. 
He then became free from attachment to the three 
forms of existence and on the fourth occasion, 
delighted in seeing pleasant representation of a 
monk. He then came back home and laid himself 
down on a costly couch, and nymph-like women 
surrounded him and performed various kinds of 
dances and songs. The Sage, however, did not 
relish them ; and while the dancers fell asleep he 
bent upon retirement into solitude and free from 
attachment to the five worldly pleasures, called 
his minister and friend Channa to harness his horse. 
He then went to his wife's apartment and saw the 
sleeping son and mother and silently took leave 
of them. Descending from the palace he mounted 
his horse and silently came out of the gate which 
was opened up by the gods inhabiting it. Mara 
then came to thwart him from going by saying that 
on the seventh day hence, the divine wheel of a 
universal monarch should appear unto him. But, 

618 A History of Pali Literature 

he, the Wise of the World, did not desire any 
sovereignty, but wanted to become a Buddha. 
Upon this Mara disappeared, and he proceeded 
towards the bank of the river Anoma where he 
dismounted himself and asked Channa to go back 
home with the horse and his ornaments. He then 
cut off his knot of hair with a sword ; the hair rose 
up into the air and Sakra received it with bent head 
and placed it in a gold casket to worship it. Next 
he put up the ei^ht requisites of a monk and having 
spent seven days in the Anupiya mango grove in 
the joy of having left the world, went to RSjagaha 
and made his round for alms just enough for his 
sustenance. Leaving the town he went to the 
Pandava mountain and took the food. He was 
repeatedly approached by King Bimbisara and 
offered the kingdom, but he declined it ; and retiring 
to a cloister practised unmatched hardships. All 
this was of no avail ; he, therefore, partook of 
material food and regaining bodily perfection, went 
to the foot of the Ajapala banyan tree where he 
sat facing the east. Sujata, a beautiful woman, 
mistook him for a sylvan deity and offered him a 
gold vessel of milk rice. The Sage took it, and 
having gone to the bank of the Neranjara river he 
ate the food, took his rest, and then in the evening 
went to the Bo-tree which he circumambulated 
keeping the tree to his right. To his astonishment, 
a throne appeared, on which he took his seat facing 
the east, and promised that he would give up his 
efforts to attain Supreme Enlightenment even if 
his flesh, blood, bones, sinews, and skin dried up. 
On his head the Maha-Brahma held an umbrella. 
Suyama, the king of gods, fanned a splendid yak's 
tail, and god Pancasikha, the snake-king Kala and 
thirty-two nymphs all kept standing and serving 
the Sage. Mara, then, creating unto himself a 
thousand dreadful arms, and surrounding himself 
by a manifold faced army, approached the Bo-tree. 
Aiid at his approach the gods made good their 
escape. Mara created a terrific wind with a fierce 

Pali Literary Pieces 619 

roar, then the terrible torrent of large rocks, and 
brought on a most dreadful darkness, but each in 
succession was of little avail. All these turned to 
good account and the Blessed One did not even 
show any sign of consternation. The Evil One 
then threw his disc, hurled rocky peaks, yet the 
Unconquerable sat motionless as before. Baffled 
in his attempts he approached the All-Merciful 
and asked him to rise from his sat. The Blessed 
One enquired of the witness about his seat and Mara, 
showing his army, told that they were his witnesses 
and asked in his turn who had been the witness of 
Siddhartha. Siddhartha then stretched his hands 
towards the earth and called the earth goddess to 
witness. She gave forth thousands of roars and 
Mara caught by the fear fled with his army. Having 
dispersed Mara's hosts, he remained seated still 
on the immoveable seat, and in the first watch of 
the night he obtained the excellent knowledge of the 
past, and in the middle watch the Eye Divine. 
In the last watch, he gained thorough knowledge 
of the concatenation of causes and effects, and at 
dawn he became perfectly Enlightened Buddha. 
Yet he did not rise up from his seat, but to remove 
the doubts of the gods remained seated there for seven 
days and performed a double miracle. Then after 
the investigation of the Pure Law, he at the foot 
of the goat-herd's banyan tree, caused to wither 
the face of Mara's daughter, and, at the foot of 
the Mucalinda tree, caused to blossom the mind of 
the snake-king. And, at last, at the foot of the 
Rajayatana tree, he enjoyed the bliss of meditation. 
Then the king of the Law, entreated by Brahma 
Sahampati, wanted to fill the world with the free 
gift of the nectar of the Good Law. With this 
object, he travelled to the splendid Deer Park 
where the sages and mendicants made him a saint, 
and came to acknowledge him as the Sanctified, 
the Perfectly Enlightened, the Tathagata. To the 
Elders of the Park, he delivered a discourse on the 
establishment of the kingdom of Truth, and dispelled 

620 A History of Pali Literature 

their ignorance. He thus set the Wheel of the Law 
in motion for the good of the world by delivering 
the people from the mighty bond of transmigration. 
On his way next to Uruvela, he gave to some thirty 
Bhaddavaggiya princes the immortal draught of 
the Three Paths ; and conferred on them the gift 
of ordination. He then went to Latthivana Park 
and there presented King Bimbisara with the 
immortal draught of true doctrine. Thence he 
proceeded to the Veluvana Park and dwelt there 
in a hermitage. Then King Suddhodana, having 
heard that his own son had attained to Supreme 
Knowledge, sent his minister Udayi to bring his 
son back to him. Udayi came with a thousand 
followers and hearing the Master preach renounced 
the world and entered upon the path to saint- 
hood. He then made known to the Master the 
desire of Suddhodana to see him, and requested 
to preach the Law to his kith and kin. The Buddha 
agreed to it and went to Kapilavastu where he 
was worshipped by Suddhodana and his relatives. 
But seeing that the young ones did not greet him, 
he performed a miracle at the sight of which 
Suddhodana was filled with joy. Then he went 
to the royal palace and preached the sweet doctrines 
to the king and hundreds of fair royal women. 
Next he extinguished the great grief in the heart 
of Bimba or Yasodhara, his wife ; and ordained 
prince Nanda even before the three festivals, 
marriage, ceremonial sprinkling and entering on 
the house, had taken place. When his own son 
Rahula followed next for the sake of an inheritance, 
the Wise One ordained him too. 

After this he went to Sitavana at Rajagaha 
where he preached to a merchant of Savatthi, 
named Sudatta, who attained the fruit of the First 
Path. Sudatta then went back to Savatthi, and 
there selected a park of Prince Jeta for the residence 
of the Blessed One. He (better known as Anatha- 
pindika) bought this for a crore of gold pieces for 
the Teacher's sake alone, and built there a chamber 

Pali Literary Pieces 621 

and a noble monastery for the abode of the 
Master and his followers. He also beautified it 
with tanks and gardens, etc., and then inviting the 
Teacher to the spot dedicated to him the park 
and the monastery. The Buddha accepted the 
gift and thanked Sudatta for it, preaching to him 
the great benefit which lies in the giving of 

Residing there, he spent his days going here 
and there and beating the great drum of the Law. 
In the first season, he dwelt in the Deer Park in 
the Benares city. In the second, third, and fourth 
seasons he dwelt in the lovely Veluvana at Rajagaha. 
In the fifth season, he made his abode in the great 
wood near Vesali. In the sixth, he dwelt on the 
great mountain Makula, and in the seventh in 
the cool and spacious rocky seat of Indra. In the 
eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth seasons, 
he dwelt respectively in the delightful wood of 
Bhesakala, in the Kosambi silk cotton wood, in 
goodly Paraleyya, and in the Brahman villages 
of Nala and Veraiija. In the thirteenth season, 
he lived on the beautiful Caliya mountain, and in 
the fourteenth, in fair and lovely Jetavana. In 
the fifteenth, sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, 
and nineteenth seasons, the Wise One made his 
abode respectively in the great Nigrodha monastery 
on a large hill at Kapilavatthu in the city of Alavaka, 
in Rajagaha, and twice on the great mount Caliya. 
In the twentieth season, he took up his abode in 
Rajagaha ; and for the rest twenty-five years of 
his life, he made his abode in Savatthi and Jetavana. 
Thus for forty-five years, the Blessed One preached 
his sweet doctrine, bringing happiness to men, and 
freeing all the world and the gods from the great 
bond of transmigration. 

The book ends with a prayer of the author in 
which he gives out his pious wishes to be born in 
the Tusita heaven, to be born contemporaneously 
with the great being, the future Buddha, to be 
able to give food, drink, alms, and monasteries 

622 A History of Pali Literature 

to the Wise One and so forth, and to become at 
least a Buddha himself. 

The Telakatahagatha is a small poem in 98 
Teiakatshagsths stanzas on the vanity of human life. 
It contains some of the fundamental 
doctrines of Buddhism. The verses are written 
in chaste language. They represent the religious 
meditations and exhortations of a great thera named 
Kalyaniya who was condemned to be cast into a 
cauldron of boiling oil on suspicion of his having 
been accessory to an intrigue with the Queen- 
consort of King Kalani Tissa who reigned at Kelaniya 
in 306-207 B.C. 1 A reference to this story caii be 
traced in the Mahavamsa, the Rasavahini and 
the Sinhalese work, the Saddhammalahkara, which 
is a compilation from the Rasavahim. 2 The inci- 
dent on which the poem is based is somewhat 
differently narrated also in the Kakavannatis- 
sarannavatthu. The author of this work is unknown. 
A careful study of the poem shows that the author 
was well acquainted with the texts and commentaries 
of the Buddhist scriptures. This work mentions 
the three refuges, death, impermanence, sorrows, 
soullessness of beings, evils of committing bad deeds, 
fourfold protection, and exhorts all to practise 
dhamma strenuously and attain salvation. It then 
discusses paticcasamuppada (dependent origination) 
and points out that nothing happens in this world 
without any cause. Avijja or ignorance is the cause 
of bad deed which leads to birth and which in turn 
is the cause of manifold miseries such as old age 
and death. So every one should practise dhamma 
by doing good deeds and thus escape from worldly 

The charm of the style of composition lies in 
the balanced rhythm of the lines and alliterations, 
a literary art that may be seen developing itself 
through the stanzas of such earlier poems as Ratana 

1 G. P. Malalasekera, The Pali Literature of Ceylon, p. 162. 

2 J.P.T.S., 1884, p. 49. 

Pali Literary Pieces 623 

Sutta in the Khuddakapatha and Sutta Nipata and 
the Naraslhagatha presupposed by the Jataka 

(1) Telakatahagatha, stanza No. 3: 

Sopanamalam amalam tidasalayassa 
Samsarasagarasamuttaranaya setum 
Dhammam namassatha sada munina 

(2) Ratana Sutta, v. 222 : 

Yanldha bhutani samagatani 
bhummani va yani va antalikkhe, 
sabbe va bhuta sumana bhavantu, 
atho pi sakkacca sunantu bhasitarii. 

Though in Goonaratne's edition pubhshed in 
J.P.T.S., 1884, the poem contains 98 stanzas, it 
may be presumed from its general style and purpose 
that it was meant to represent a Pali sataka con- 
sisting of a hundred stanzas. The poem, as we 
now have it, is divided into nine sections, each 
section dealing with a particular topic of Buddhism, 
Ratanattaya, Marananussati, Aniccalakkhana, Duk- 
khalakkhana, Anattalakkhana, Asubhalakkhana, 
Duccarita-idinava, Caturarakkha, and Paticca^am- 
uppada. The sataka type of poetry came into 
vogue with the popularity of the three famous 
satakas, the Sringara, the Vairagya, and Nirvana, 
composed by so great a poet as Bhartrihari. 
Among the Buddhist satakas, the one which may 
rank as a high class of poetry is no doubt the 
Bodhicaryavatara of Santideva. Although the aim 
of the satakas, whether found in Sanskrit or in 
Pali is didactic like that of the Pali Dhammapada 
or the Santiparva of the Mahabharata, the charac- 
teristic difference of the Centuries lies in their 
conscious attempt to give expression to individual 
moral or religious experiences. This differential 
feature of the satakas has been well brought out 

624 A History of Pali Literature 

in the following apology of 6antideva in the opening 
verses of his Bodhicaryavatara, 

"Na me parartha cinta, samano vasayitum 

kritam mamedam 
Mama tavadanena yati vriddhim, kusalam 

bhavayitum prasadavegah 
Atha matsamadhatureva paiSyed aparo' 

pyenamato'pi sarthako'yam." 

By this one must understand that the object 
of a sataka is not so much to instruct others as 
to manifest one's own self in the hope that those 
" who are like-natured, like-minded, and like- visioned 
will care to look at the (matter as the author has) 
viewed it and may, perhaps, derive some benefit 
from it " (Barua's Gaya and Buddhagaya, p. xi). 
We mean to say that in the satakas, the didactic 
aim has been subservient to the purpose of self- 
expression, a feature which is noticeable in certain 
Psalms of early Buddhist Brethren and Sisters. 

The Pajjamadhu is a poem composed of 104 
D .. stanzas in praise of the Buddha. 

Pajjamadhu. T>IH -i * T j 

Buddhappiya, a pupil of Ananda, is 
the author of this work. He is also the author of 
the Pali grammar known as the Rupasiddhi. " We 
may safely premise ", says Goonaratne, " that it 
was composed at the same time as the Rupasiddhi 
to which scholars give 1100 A.D. as the probable 
date". 1 The author has given his name and pupilage 
in verse 103 of this poem : 

" Ananda ranna ratanadi maha yatinda 
Niccappa buddha padumappiya sevi nangi 
Buddhappiyena ghana buddha gunappiyena 
Theralina racita Pajjamadhum pi bantu." 

The language is sanskritised Pali and some of 
the verses are puzzling. There is a gloss in Sinhalese 
on the entire poem but it is verbose and rather 
diffuse in its explanations. This poem may be 

1 J.P.T.S., 1887, p. 1. 

Pali Literary Pieces 625 

regarded as another example of sataka in Pali with 
four stanzas in excess. The first 69 verses describe 
the beauty of the Buddha and the remaining verses 
are written in praise of his wisdom concluded with 
a panegyric on the order and nirvana. It is lacking 
in the vigour of poetical imagination and its style 
is laboured and artificial and is far from fulfilling 
the promise of sweetness of poetry suggested in 
its title Pajjamadhu. . 

The Rasavahini is a collection of 103 tales 
_ u . _ written in easy Pali, the first forty 

Rasavahmi. , ,. , /, . . , , , . 

relating to the incidents which 
happened in Jambudipa and the rest in Ceylon. A 
Sinhalese edition of this work has been brought 
out by M. S. Unnanse. The text with Sinhalese 
interpretation by B. Devarakkhita has been pub- 
lished in Colombo, 1917. The P.T.S., London, 
has undertaken to bring out an edition of this work 
in Roman character. Its date is unknown, but 
at the conclusion the author gives us a clue which 
helps us in determining it to be in all probability 
in the first half of the 14th century A.D. It is 
considered to be a revision of an old Pali translation 
made from an original compilation by Ratthapala 
Thera of the Mahavihara in Ceylon. Vedeha, the 
author of the Rasavahini, gives us an account 
of the Vanavasi School to which he belonged. 1 
The late H. Nevill suggests that the Sahassavatthu- 
ppakarana still extant in Burma, formed the basis 
for the Pali Rasavahini. 2 This work throws much 
light on the manners, customs, and social conditions 
of ancient India and Ceylon. It contains materials 
of historical importance and as such is widely 
read in Ceylon. This work has been edited and 
translated by P. E. Pavolini. 8 There is a glossary 
on the Rasavahini called the Rasavahimganthi. 
The verses of this text with a word-for-word Sinhalese 

1 Malalasekera, The Pali Literature of Ceylon, p. 210. 

* Ibid., p. 129. 

8 Societe Asiatica Italiana, 1896. 

626 A History of Pali Literature 

translation by Dharmaratna have been published 
in 1913. 

Buddhist legends of Asoka and his time 
translated from the Pali of the 
' R^savfthinl by Laksmana Sftstrl 
with a prefatory note by H. C. 
Norman (J.R.A.S., 1910) and Zwei Erzahlungen aus 
der Rasavahini, Von. Sten Kono (Deutsche morgen- 
landische Gesellschaft, Zeitschrift, Leipzig) II 
settimo capitolo della Rasavahini by P. E. Pavolini 
(Societe Asiatica Italiana, Giornale, Firanze, 1895), 
should be consulted. Die Zvveite dekade der 
Rasavahini (M. and W. Geiger), Munchen, 1918, 
with translation deserves mention. 

The Saddhammopayana edited for the P.T.S. 
Saddhammo- by Richard Morris and published 

payana. J n t h e J.p.T.S., 1887, is a lllOSt 

notable work on Buddhism. It is written entirely 
in verse and completed in 629 stanzas. It begins 
with a prologue and is closed with an epilogue, 
the author introducing himself in the prologue 
under the name and designation of Brahmacarf 
Buddhasomapiya. l He was undoubtedly a Buddhist 
teacher of Ceylon. The work, as its title implies, 
deals with the Way of the Good Faith. We can 
broadly divide it into two parts, the first of which 
contains an edification of the dangers or dis- 
advantages of things moral and the second, that the 
rewards or advantages (anisamsa) of things moral. 
The author dwells on such topics of the saddhamma 
as akkhana, dasa akusala, petadukkha, papadinava, 
punnaphala, dananisamsa, and the rest. Though 
the views of the author are not in any way new, the 
manner of treatment of each topic is masterly, 
and his style is at once easy, dignified, and res- 
trained. Such a treatment of the subject cannot 
be expected from one who had not long pondered 
over it and thoroughly assimilated the fundamental 

1 Namato Buddhasomassa piyasabrahmacarino Saddham- 
mopayana, verse 3. 

Pali Literary Pieces 627 

principles of Buddhism. He has nowhere slavishly 
followed any earlier authority a fact which may 
be clearly brought home to the reader by a com- 
parison between the Praises of sila (sllanisamsa) in 
Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga and those in the 
Saddhammopayana : 

(1) Visuddhimagga 

" Na Ganga, Yamuna capi, Sarabhu va 

Sarasvati, . 

ninnaga va' ciravati Mah! va pi mahanadl 
Sakkunanti visodhetum tarn malam idha 


Visodhayati sattanam yam ve sflajalam 

(Vol. I, p. 10.) 

(2) Saddhammopayana 

Idarii hi sllaratanarh idhaloke parattha ca 
anisaihsavare datva paccha papeti nibbutim 
Paccakkham limajaccam hi accantolara- 

narinda silasampannarii namassantiha 


(Verses 415-416.) 

The Paiicagatidipana has been edited by M. Leon 
p . t ... Feer (J.P.T.S., 1884, pp. 152-161). 

Pancagatidipana. T . . v ... . tt A "i mi. 

It is written in 114 stanzas. This 
work tells us of the five destinies which are in store 
of beings according as they commit good or bad 
deeds in this world by body, mind, etc. This text 
furnishes us with an interesting piece of information 
regarding different hells, namely, Safijiva, Kalasutta, 
Samghata, Roruva, Maharoruva, Tapa, Mahatapa, 
and Avici. Those who kill and cause living beings 
to be killed out of avarice, delusion, fear, and anger 
must go to the Safijiva hell. For one thousand 
years they suffer in this hell being subjected to 
continual torments without losing life and con- 
sciousness. Those who cause injury or do harmful 
deeds to friends and parents, speak falsehood and 
backbite others must go to the K&lasutta hell. 

628 A History of Pali Literature 

In this hell they are cut to pieces with burning 
saws. Those who kill goats, sheep, jackals, hares, 
deer, pigs, etc., are consigned to the Sanghata 
hell, where they are huddled up in one place and 
then beaten to death. Those who cause mental 
and bodily pain to others or cheat others or 
are misers have to go to the Roruva hell, where 
they make terrible noise while being burnt in the 
terrific fire of hell. Those who steal things belonging 
to gods, brahmahs, and preceptors, those who 
misappropriate the property of others kept in trust 
with them, and those who destroy things entrusted 
to their care are cast into the Maharoruva hell, 
where they make a more terrible noise while being 
consumed by a fire fiercer than that in the Roruva 
hell. Those who cause the death of living beings 
by throwing them into the Davadaha fire, etc., 
have to go to the Tapa hell, where they have to 
suffer being burnt in a dreadful fire. Those who 
cause the death of beings by throwing them into 
greater Davadaha fire must go to the Mahatapa 
hell, where they have to suffer still more by being 
burnt in a greater fire. Those who injure men 
of great virtue and those who kill parents, arahats, 
or preceptors must sink into the Avici hell, where 
they suffer being burnt in such a terrible fire that 
would consume even the hardest things. In this 
hell there is not a least wave of happiness, it is 
therefore called the Avici or waveless. Besides 
these hells, mention is made of a hell called the 
Patapana, where people suffer by being burnt in 
fires that are much more terrific than those of the 
Tapa and Mahatapa hells. Each hell has four 
Ussadanirayas, viz., Milhakupa, Kukkula, Asipatta- 
vana, and Nadi. Those who are in the Mahaniraya 
have to proceed to Milhakupa when released. In 
this terrible hell they are bitten by a host of worms. 
Thence they go to Kukkula where they are fried 
like mustard seeds on a burning pan. Coming out 
of Kukkula they find before them a beautiful tree of 
fruits and flowers where they take shelter for relief 

Pali Literary Pieces 629 

from torments. As soon as they reach the tree 
they are attacked by birds of prey such as vultures, 
owls, etc. They are killed by these animals which 
they make a repast on their flesh. Those who 
are traitors must go to the Asipattavana where 
they are torn and eaten up by bitches, vultures, 
owls, etc. Those who steal money will also suffer 
in this hell by being compelled to swallow iron 
balls and molten brass. Those who kill cows and 
oxen, suffer in this hell by being* eaten up by dogs 
having large teeth. Those who kill aquatic animals 
will have to go to the fearful Vaitaram river where 
the water is as hot as a molten brass. Those who 
prostitute justice by accepting bribes will be cut 
to pieces in an iron wheel. Those who destroy 
paddy have to suffer in the Kukkula hell. Those 
who cherish anger in their heart are reborn as 
swans and pigeons. Those who are haughty and 
angry are reborn as snakes. Those who are jealous 
and miserly are reborn as monkeys. Those who 
are miserly, irritable, and fond of backbiting are 
reborn as tigers, bears, cats, etc. Those who are 
charitable but angry at the same time are reborn 
as big Garudas. Those who are deceitful and 
charitable are reborn as great Asuras. Those who 
neglect their friends on account of their pride are 
reborn as dogs and asses. Those who are envious, 
cherish anger, or become happy at sight of sufferings 
of others are reborn in Yamaloka and the demon 
world. (Cf. the description of hell in the Markandeya 
Purana. ) 

There is nothing new to be learnt from this 
poem, new in the sense of that which is different 
from what we read in some of the Jatakas and suttas 
and particularly in the canonical text, Petavatthu. 
The real literary value of this poem consists in the 
simplicity of its diction and the handy form which 
is peculiar to a later digest of doctrines that are 



Vyakarana is the accepted Indian term to 
denote a book of grammar. This very term was 
used to denote on'e of the six Vedangas, or sciences 
or treatises auxiliary to the four Vedas. We have 
in the ancient vocabulary another term to denote 
another amongst the six Vedangas, namely, the 
Chandas or treatise or treatises on metre or prosody. 
The treatises on Alankara or Poetics were later 
offshoots of the treatises on grammar. The begin- 
nings of lexicography (abhidhana) can similarly be 
traced in the Nigrantha sections of the treatises 
on exegetical etymology the Nirukta denoting 
another amongst the six Vedangas. Corresponding 
to the Sanskrit Vyakarana we have the Pali Veyya- 
karana, counted among the nine types of literary 
texts or compositions (navangam satthu-sasanam). 
But the Pali term, as explained by Buddhaghosa 
and other Buddhist commentators, was far from 
signifying any treatise on grammar. They have 
taken it to represent that distinct literary type 
which is characterised by prose exegeses, the 
Abhidhamma books being mentioned as chief 
examples of such a type. 1 There is indeed another 
Pali word, Vyakarana, which is phonetically the 
exact equivalent of the Sanskrit Vyakarana, but in 
Buddhist terminology it means ' announcement or 
prediction '. The term ' Veyyakarana ' means 
'exposition or explanation, the function of which 
is to make things explicit or clear '. If this term 
be applied to a treatise on grammar, we can under- 
stand that the main function of grammar is to 

1 SumangalavilasinI, part I, p. 24. " Sakalam Abhidhamma 
Pifakam niggathaka-suttam . . . .tarn veyyakaranan ti veditabbam." 

Pali Grammars 631 

help expositions of texts by clearing up the connec- 
tions of letters, words, sentences, their sequence, 
and the rest. The importance of grammar has 
been sufficiently emphasized in early Buddhism in a 
verse of the Dhammapada which reads : 

" Vltatanho anadano niruttipadakovido 
akkharanam sannipatam jafifia pubbaparanica 
sa ve antimasariro mahapanno (mahapuriso) 

ti l vuccati." 

In this important dictum a great man or a 
man of knowledge is expected to be conversant 
with the rules of construction of sentences, com- 
bination of letters or syllables in words, and deter- 
mination of sequence or syntax. Here the most 
important term is iiirutti which may be taken to 
mean ' verbal analysis ', ' glossology ', * use or ex- 
pression of a language ', or c grammatical and 
logical explanation of the words or text of the 
Buddhist scriptures' (Childers, Pali Dictionary, 
Subvoce Nirutti). Thus we may understand that 
the need of grammatical analysis and grammatical 
treatises came to be felt by the exigency of exposi- 
tion, and this point has been well brought out in 
the Nettipakarana (pp. 8-9). Pada, akkara, vyafijana, 
akara, iiirutti are the terms that are of use in a 
treatise on grammar. Sankagana, pakasanft, 
vivarana, and the rest are the terms that are of use 
in an exegetical treatise. The Netti says " Bhagava 
akkhareki sankaseti, padehi pakaseti, byafijanehi 
vivarati, ak&rehi vibhajati, niruttihi uttanikaroti, 
niddesehi panfiapeti : akkharehi ca padehica uggha- 
teti, byafijanehi ca ftkaxehi ca vipaficayati, niruttihi 
niddesehi ca vitthareti." 

So far as Buddhism is concerned, the develop- 
ment of grammar, lexicography, and works on 
prosody took place long after the development of 
literature itself and it appears that no need of a 
separate book of grammar for the teaching or learn- 

1 Dhammapada, v. 352. 


632 A History of Pali Literature 

ing of Pali was felt so long as India remained the 
home of the language. There were certainly some 
codified rules of grammar to which the language 
of the PSli pitakas conformed. It cannot surely 
be doubted that a wonderful linguistic genius has 
been displayed in the coinage and manipulation of 
many new technical terms and expressions which 
could not have been possible but for a close and 
intimate acquaintance with the fundamental prin- 
ciples of grammar and phonology. We may venture 
to suggest that there was no book of Pali grammar 
in existence till the time of the three great Pali 
commentators, Buddhadatta, Buddhaghosa, and 
Dhammapala. All of them appear to have ex- 
plained the grammatical construction of Pali words 
by the rules of Panini quoted verbatim in Pali, e.g., 
Sutta Nipata commentary, Vol. I, p. 23, vattamana- 
samipe vattamana vacanalakkhana, Panini, III. 3. 
131. It appears that Buddhaghosa studied the 
great grammar of Panini. In the Visuddhimagga 
(P.T.S. Edition, pp. 491-492, ' Indriyasaccaniddeso ') 
we read : 

" Ko pana nesarfa indriyattho namati ? Inda- 
lingattho indriyattho ; indadesitattho indriyattho ; 
indaditthattho indriyattho ; indasitthattho indriyat- 
tho ; indajutthattho indriyattho : so sabbo pi 
idha yathayogam yujjati. Bhagava hi samma- 
sambuddho paramissariyabhavato indo, kusala- 
kusalam ca kammam, kammesu kassaci issariya- 
bhavato. Ten' ev'ettha kammasafijanitani tava 
indriyani kusalakusalakammam ullingenti. Tena ca 
sitthaniti indalingatthena indasitthatthena ca indri- 
yftni. Sabban eva pan 5 etani Bhagavata yatha- 
bhutato pakasitani abhisambuddhani ca ti inda- 
desitatthena indaditthatthena ca indriyani. Ten'eva 
Bhagavata munindena kanici gocarasevanaya, 
kanici bhavanasevanaya sevitamti indajutthat- 
thenapi etani indriyani." 

Buddhaghosa goes on to add : 

" Api ca adhipaccasankhatena issariyatthena 
pi etani indriyftni. Cakkhuvinnanadippavattiyam 

Pali Grammars 633 

hi cakkhadmam siddham adhipaccam, tasmim 
tikkhe tikkhatta, mande mandattati. Ayam tftv' 
ettha atthato vinicchayo." 

These explanations of * Indriya ' are evidently 
a reminiscence of Panini, V. 2, 93. " Indriyam 
indralingam indradrstam indrajustam indradattam 
iti va." 

In the grammar of Panini, there is a mention of 
dpatti in the sense of prdpti and in this sense too, 
apatti occurs several times in the* Samantapasadika. 
This seems also to show that Buddhaghosa knew 
of and utilised the work of Panini. 

If Panini had remained the standard gram- 
matical authority with the Buddhist scholiasts who 
flourished in the 5th or 6th century A.D., the ascrip- 
tion of the first Pali grammar to the authorship 
of Kaccayana or Mahakaccayana, an immediate 
disciple of the Buddha, becomes unjustifiable on 
account of the anachronism that it involves. If any 
authoritative book of Pali grammar were in existence 
when Buddhaghosa and Dhammapala wrote their 
commentaries, there is no reason why they should 
seek guidance from the rules of Panini rather than 
from those of Kaccayana. We may indeed maintain 
that the first Pali grammar, attributed to Kaccayana, 
was a compilation made by some Buddhist teachers 
of Ceylon and that the ascription of its authorship 
to Kaccayana cannot be justified except on the 
ground that the necessity for grammatical study 
of the Pali texts was particularly felt in the tradition 
of Kaccayana who even according to Buddha's 
own estimate was a past master in the art and 
method of exegesis or analytical exposition. Even 
as regards Kaccayana' s grammar, the unknown Pali 
compiler of Ceylon can hardly claim any originality 
in view of the fact that barring certain special rules 
introduced to meet certain exceptional cases, the 
bulk of the treatise is based verbatim on the Sanskrit 
grammar of Katantra. The indebtedness of the 
Pali grammar to some such Sanskrit authority is 
frankly admitted in the aphorism, 1. 1. 8. (Para- 

634 A History of Pali Literature 

samannapayoge), and clearly brought out in the 
vutti or gloss of the same : 

" Ya ca pana sakkatagandhesu samanna 
. . ..pajunnate." 

The next standard book of Pali grammar to 
be noted is the Rupasiddhi or Maharupasiddhi based 
on Kaccayana's work. The Balavatara is the second 
important work that was produced in Ceylon on 
the lines of Kaccayana's work and its only importance 
lies in the re-arrangement of the aphorisms of 
Kaccayana. Passing over the tlkas and glosses 
on Kaccayana's grammar, the Rupasiddhi and 
Balavatara, we have to mention the Saddamti 
and the Mukhamatthadipani as the two later 
grammatical works of outstanding merit. 

The earliest known Pali lexicography is the 
Abhidha/nappadipika which too must stand to the 
credit of the Pali scholars of Ceylon. The plan 
of this lexicography seems to have been conceived 
on the model of the Sanskrit kosa of Amarasingha 
who is taken, for some good reasons, to be a Buddhist 
by faith. The Abhidhanappadipika just like its 
Sanskrit prototype is a dictionary of synonyms. 
It is far from having any alphabetical arrangement 
of words, which was adopted in some later works, 
such as Ekakkharakosa and the Abhidhanappadipika 
suci. The beginnings of Pali lexicography may, 
however, be clearly traced in the Vevacanahara 
chapter of the Nettipakarana and the Petakopadesa. 
The dictionary method of making the meaning of a 
term or word clear is indeed extensively used in the 
Pftli Abhidhamma books and in some portions of 
the nikayas. 

Pali literature is conspicuous by the absence 
of any noteworthy work on Poetics. If there be 
any such work, we may safely take it to be based 
on some Sanskrit authority. There are a few P&li 
works on metre notably the Vuttodaya and the 
Subodhalankara. With regard to all these works on 
prosody, it may suffice to say that they are far 
from being original productions. 

Pali Grammars 635 

The three principal grammarians are Kaccayana, 
_ , m Moggallana, and the author of the 

Books of grammar. Fjp ... 

b Saddamti. 

KaccSyana's Pali grammar 1 Kaccayana is 
reported to be the author of the first Pali grammar 
called Susandhikappa. There are many suttas in 
Kaccayana's grammar which are identical with 
those of the Katantravyakarana. This grammar is 
said to have been carried into Burma early in the 
fifth century A.D. 

As helps to the grammar of Kaccayana, there 
are Rupasiddhi 2 , Balavatara 8 , which consists of 7 
chapters, Mahanirutti, Culanirutti, Niruttipitaka, 
and Manjusatikavyakhya. 

As helps to the grammar of Moggallana, there 
are Payogasiddhi, Moggallayanavutti, Susaddasiddhi 
and Padasadhana 4 or Moggallana Saddattharatna- 

1 The oldest and best commentary on Kaccayana's Pali grammar 
is Mukhattadlpam written by Acarya Vimalabuddhi. This work 
is commonly known as Nyasa. There is a paper entitled " Note 
on the Pali Grammarian, Kaccayana" (Proceedings of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1882). The late Dr. Satish Chandra 
Vidyabhusana edited Kaccayana's grammar. Mason's edition of 
this grammar is noteworthy. 

* Rupasiddhi-t'Tka ascribed to Diparhkara should be read along 
with the text to get a clear idea of the Pali grammar. Grunwedel's 
Rupasiddhi, Berlin, 1883, is noteworthy. There are editions con- 
taining Burmese interpretations of the Rupasiddhi (vide supple- 
mentary catalogue of Sanskrit, Pali, and Prakrit Books in the British 
Museum, p. 442, compiled by L. D. Baraett, 1928). 

8 Balavatara by Dharmakitti ; Balavatara, ed. Sri Dharmarama ; 
Balavatara with tfka, ed. Sumahgala, Colombo, 1893. It is a work 
on Pali grammar and is the most exhaustively used handbook in 
Ceylon on the subject. It is the smallest grammar extant and 
based on Kaccayana's work. 

There is an abridgement of the Balavatara with Pali sutras 
and Sinhalese commentary composed by Revd. Sitinamaluwa 
Dhammajoti and edited by Jinaratana Thera and D. A. DeSilva, 
Batuwantudava, second edition, Colombo, 1913. There is a word- 
for-word Burmese interpretation of the Balavatara, Rangoon, 1916. 
The Balavatara has been translated into English by Mr. H. T. 
DeSilva with the co-operation of the Rev. Katane Oopatissa Thera 
and revised by Woodward, Pegu, 1915. 

4 There is a commentary on Padasadhana, a Pali grammatical 
work on the system of Moggallana, written by Sri Rahula 
Thera and discovered by Louis De Zoysa. 

636 A History of Pali Literature 

kara which consists of six sections dealing with 
sadda, sandhi, samftsa, verbs, prefixes, and suffixes. 

As helps to the grammar called Saddanlti 1 , 
there is only one work called Culasaddanlti. The 
Saddaniti is still regarded as a classic in Burma. 

Among other treatises on Pftli grammar may 
be counted the following : 

Sambandhacinta, Saddasaratthajalin! (a good 
book on Pali Philology), Kaccayanabheda, Sad- 
datthabhedacinta, Karika, Karikavutti, Vibhat- 
tyattha, Gandhatthi, Vacakopadesa, Nayalakkhana- 
vibhavani, Niruttisangha, Kaccayanasara, Vibhat- 
tyatthadlpam, Sanvannanayadipam, Vaccavacaka, 
Sadda vutti, Balappabodhana 2 , Karakapupphaman- 
jari, Kaccayanadipam, Gulhatthadipam, Mukha- 
mattasara, Sadda vindu 3 , Saddakalika, Sadda vinic- 
caya, Bijanga, Dhatupatha, Sudhiramukhamandan- 
dana 4 , etc., with their commentaries and supple- 
mentary commentaries. 

Kaccayana, as we have already pointed out, 
is the oldest of all Pali grammarians. Readers are 
referred to Kaccayana's Sandhikappa 5 (J.P.T.S., 

Nepatikavannana is a work on Pali indeclinable 
participles. Saddamala is a comprehensive Pali 
grammar based on the grammar of Kaccayana. 

1 There is a book named Dhatuatthadlpani, by Hingulwala 
Jinaratana, which contains a re -arrangement in material form 
of the roots mentioned in Aggavamsa's Saddam ti. Saddanlti, 
La Grammaire Pali de* Aggavamsa by Helmer Smith in 3 vols. 
is worth perusal. The date of this grammar is traditionally given 
as the 12th century A.D. This grammar consists of three parts, 
Padamala, Dhatumala (root numbers) and Suttamala (sutra number). 
It gives many quotations from the Pali canon as examples of 
grammatical rules. It is no doubt a standard work on Pali grammar 
and philology. It is undoubtedly a scholarly edition prepared by 
Helmer Smith. 

8 It is a grammar for beginners. 

8 It was written by Narada Thera. 

4 It is a work on samasa of Pali compound nouns written by 

5 On sandhi in Pali by R. C. Childers, J.R.A.S., new series, 
Vol. II, 1879. 

Pali Orammars 637 

The development of grammar is a comparatively 
late phase of Pali literature, as late as the sixth or 
seventh century A.D., if not later still. Even in the 
grammar of Kaccftyana, the debt to Sanskrit is 
freely acknowledged in one of the introductory 
aphorisms. Uptifl the time of Buddhaghosa and 
Dhammapala, the Buddhist teachers as already 
pointed out, followed the authority of the grammar 
of Panini. It has only recently been detected 
that the Pali commentators have freely quoted the 
rules of Panini in accounting for grammatical 
formations of Pali words. 

Abhidhanappadipika (by Moggallana Thera, ed. 
by W. Subhuti, 2nd edition, 
Lexicons. Colombo, 1883) l and Ekakkhara- 
kosa 2 are the two well-known Pali lexicons. The 
Abhidhanappadipika was written by Moggallana 
in the reign of Parakramabahu the Great. It is 
the only ancient Pali dictionary in Ceylon and it 
follows the style and method of the Sanskrit 
Amarakosa (vide, Malalasekera, The Pali Literature 
of Ceylon, pp. 188-189). This work consists of 
three parts dealing with celestial, terrestrial, and 
miscellaneous objects and each part is subdivided 
into several sections. The whole book is a dictionary 
of synonyms. The last two sections of the last 
part are devoted to homonyms and indeclinable 
particles. This work is held in the highest esteem 
both in Burma and Ceylon (Ibid., p. 189). Subhuti's 
edition of this dictionary with English and Sinhalese 
interpretations together with a complete Index of 
all the Pali words giving their meanings in Sinhalese 
deserves mention. R. C. Cliilders has published 
a very useful dictionary of the Pali language. In 
1921, T. W. Rhys Davids and W. Stede brought 
out a Pftli dictionary compiled mainly from col- 
lection by the former for 40 years which is a 

1 Ferner, A complete Index to the Abhidhanappadipika is a 
useful publication. 

2 It is a small work on Pali lexicography, a vocabulary oi 
words of one letter by Saddhammakitti Thera of Burma. 

638 A History of Pali Literature 

publication of the P.T.S., London. Quite recently a 
critical dictionary begun by V. Trenckner and revised, 
continued, and edited by Dines Anderson and 
Helmer Smith has appeared in two parts (1924 and 

The beginnings of Indian lexicons are to be 
traced mainly in the Nighantu section of Yaska's 
Nirukta. The Nettipakarana stands to the Pali 
canon in the same relation in which Yaska's Nirukta 
stands to the Vedas. And it is in the Vevacanahftra 
of the Netti, the chapter on homonyms, that the 
historians can clearly trace the early model of later 

Vuttodaya l written by Sangharakkhita Thera, 
m . , Kamandaki, and Chandoviciti are 

Works on prosody. T>.I. ' ' i , o i_ ju- 

Pah works on metres. Subodha- 
lankara 2 is a work on rhetoric by Sangharakkhita 
Thera. Kavisarapakaranam and Kavisaratika- 
nissaya are the two good books on prosody. 

A number of scholars, both European and 
. w . Indian, have made a study of Pftli 

Modern Works. , , , sr. , , , . 

grammars and have embodied their 
researches in their treatises on Pali grammars. 
These treatises are named below : 

(1) E. Burnouf observations grammaticales 

sur quelques passages de T Essai sur le 
Pali de Burnouf et Lassen Paris, 

(2) B. Clough compendious Pftli grammar 

with a copious vocabulary in the 
same language Colombo, 1824. 

(3) J. Minayeff Grammaire Palie, traduite 

par St. Guyard, Paris, 1874. 

(4) J. Minayeff Pftli Grammar, a phonetic 

and morphological sketch of the Pftli 
language, with an introductory essay 

1 Vuttodaya (exposition of metre) by Sangharakkhita Thera, 
J.A.S.B., Vol. XLVT, pt. I, (Col. G. E. Fryer). 

2 Analysis and Text of Subodh&lafikara or Easy Rhetoric by 
SaAgharakkhita Thera, J. A.S.B., Vol. XLIV, pt. I, (Col. G. E. Fryer). 

Pali Grammars 

on its form and character by J. M., 
1872; translation from Russian into 
French by M. St. Guyard, 1874, 
rendered into English by Ch. G. Adams, 

(5) E. Kuhn Beitrage Zur Pali Grammatik, 

Berlin, 1875. 

(6) 0. Frankfurter Handbook of Pali being 

an elementary grammar, 1883. 

(7) E. Muller A simplified grammar of the 

Pali language, London, 1884, 

(8) V. Henry Precis de Grammaire Palie 

accompague d' um choix de textes 
Graduis, Paris, 1894. 

(9) Geiger Pali Literatur und sprache 

(Grundriss der Indo Arischen Philo- 
logie and Altertumskunde). 

(10) E. Windisch, uber den sprachlichen 

charakter des Pali, Paris, 1906. 

(11) H. H. Tilbe Pali Grammar, Rangoon, 


(12) J. Grey Elementary Pali Grammar, 

Calcutta, 1905. 

(13) Charles Duroiselle A Practical Grammar 

of the Pali Language, Rangoon, 1906. 

(14) Senart Kaccayanappakaranilni (1868- 


(15) E. Kuhn Kaccayanappakaranae Speci- 

men, Halle, 1869. 

(16) Nyanatilaka Kleine systematische Pali 

Grammatik, Breslau, 1911. 

(17) Grunwedel Rupasiddhi, Berlin, 1883. 

(18) Tha Do Oung A Grammar of the Pali 

language (after KaccSyana), Vols. I, 
II, III, and IV. 

(19) Subhuti Namamftla. 

(20) Sri Dharmarama Balavatara by 


(21) H. Sumangala Bfilftvatara with tlka, 

Colombo, 1893. 

(22) Chakravarty and Ghosh Pftli Grammar. 

640 A History of Pali Literature 

(23) Pe Maung Tin Pfili Grammar. 

(24) Vidhusekhar &strl Pali Prakasa. 

(25) J. Takakusu A Pali Chrestomathy, 

Tokyo, 1900. 

Of all these works on Pali grammar, Mr. Tha 
Do Oung has treated this subject exhaustively. 
The first volume deals with sandhi, nama, karaka, 
and samasa ; the second volume contains taddhita, 
kita, unadi, akhyata, upasagga, and nipata parti- 
ciples ; the third and fourth volumes deal with word 
roots, ten figures of speech and 40 modes of expression, 
and prosody. Pali grammar by Muller and Duroiselle 
are also very useful. Prof. Chakravartty's grammar 
is worth perusal. Pandit Vidhusekhar Sastri's work 
is a compilation and as such it is useful. 

The following are the noteworthy publications : 
Morris Notes and Queries, J.P.T.S., 1884, 

1885, 1886, 1887, 1889, and 1891-93. 
E. Muller A glossary of Pali proper names, 

J.P.T.S., 1888. 
Morris Contributions to Pali Lexicography, 

Academy, 1890-91. 
Mabel Bode Index to Pali words discussed 

in translations, J.P.T.S., 1897-1901. 
J. Takakusu A Pali Chrestomathy with 
notes and glossary giving Sanskrit and 
Chinese equivalents, Tokyo, 1900. 
E. Windisch Uber den Sprachlichen charak- 
ter des Pali Actes du XlVe. Congress 
Internat des Orientalistes, Paris, 1906. 
Mrs. Rhys Davids, Similes in the Nikayas, 
J.P.T.S., 1907-8 and Mrs. Rhys Davids, 
Sakya or Buddhist origins, chapter XVII, 
pp. 314 foil. 

The Dative Plural in Pali (published in Sir 
Asutosh Mookerjee Silver Jubilee 
volumes, Vol. Ill, Orientalia-Pt. 2, 
pp. 31-34). It is a valuable paper 
and should attract the attention of scholars interested 
in Pftli grammar and philology. Prof. Majumdar 

Pali Grammars 641 

has shown in it that in the inscriptions of Asoka 
and of his grandson there are ten instances of the 
use of dative plural in * Epigraphic Pali '. These 
occur not only in one version or at one place but 
at such distant places as Dhauli, Jaugada, Barabar 
hills, Nagarjuni hills, Kalsi, Manserft, and Girnar. 
In Barabar and Nagarjuni cave inscriptions the 
dative is the only form in use showing that the old 
form was better preserved in tfce Magadhi. As 
for the Rock Edicts some versions use the dative 
and some the genitive. The Shahbazgarhi text is 
the only version which has not used even once 
the dative form. Majumdar sums up his argument 
by saying that we find promiscuous use of the 
dative and genitive plurals in * Epigraphic Pali'. 
If the old Buddhist and Jaina texts be carefully 
examined in this light, some instances of the dative 
plural will be found in literary Pali and Prakrit 
also. When the genitive plural began to be used 
for the dative plural, their singular forms also came 
to be confused in use. This confusion in the 
singular was also helped by the fact that in the 
language of the later Vedic texts the dative singular 
of feminine nouns was used for the genitive. But 
as the dative singular Prakritic form had not been 
confused in shape with any other form, it lingered 
longer than the dative plural. Dative singular is 
almost as common in Asokan dialects as in Sanskrit. 
It lingered in literary Pali but died out in the Prakrits 
of the dramas. 


In the foregoing pages an attempt has been 
made to give a general survey of canonical and non- 
canonical Pali literature. Some distinct types of 
literature came to be developed within a growing 
collection of texts of traditional authority. This 
collection came indeed to be closed at a certain date 
which is undoubtedly pre-Christian. The origin and 
development of even just one recension of the early 
corpus of Buddhist literature covered a pretty long 
period of about five centuries, which is very imperfect- 
ly known or understood by the meagre evidence of 
Sanskrit literature. The Pali pitakas coupled with 
the Jain agama texts and some of the Sanskrit 
treatises like Panini's grammar, Katyayana's 
Vartika, Patanjali's Mahabhasya, and the contem- 
porary inscriptions and coin-legends fill up a 
very important gap in the history of ancient Indian 
humanity. The particular literature with which we 
are concerned developed under aegis of religion which 
was destined to be a great civilising influence in 
the East, highly ethical in tone, dignified in the 
forms of expression, dramatic in setting, direct in 
narration, methodical in argument, and mechanical 
in arrangement. This wealth of literary output was 
shown forth in its perspicuity and grandeur in the 
garb of a new literary idiom having a place midway 
between the Vedic Sanskrit on one hand and classical 
Sanskrit and Ardhamagadhi on the other. In 
between the closing of the Pali canon and the 
beginning of the great commentaries and chronicles 
we had to take note of an imperfectly known period 
of transition which became remarkable by the 
production of so great a work of literary merit and 
doctrinal importance as the Milinda Panha occupy- 
ing, as it does, the foremost place for its lucid, elegant, 
and rhythmical prose style in the whole range of 
Sanskrit and Sanskritic literature. The Pfi/li com- 

Conclusion 643 

mentaries, as we have them, were produced at a 
period far beyond the Mauryan and Sunga, the 
Kanva and the Kushana. The Augustan period of 
Pali literature began with these commentaries and 
closed with the earlier epic chronicles of Ceylon. 
The period which followed was a decadent one, and 
it became noted only for the compilation of some 
useful manuals, some books of grammar and lexico- 
graphy chiefly in imitation of some Sanskrit works 
of India, and a few metrical compbsitions exhibiting 
the wealth of Ceylonese poetical imagination and 
plagiarism. Pali literature would have been 
as dead but for its rejuvination in Burma, the 
Buddhist country, which has produced enormous 
literature of considerable importance during the last 
three or four centuries. From the geographical 
allusions it may be deduced that the main bulk of 
the Pali canon developed within the territorial limits 
of the Middle Country and some parts of Western 
India, notably Mathura and Ujjain. The Milinda 
Pafiha is full of associations reminiscent of the life, 
manners, and customs of the north-western region 
of India, which became the meeting place of Indo- 
Aryan and Graeco-Bactrian civilisation. The com- 
mentaries clearly point to Kancipura, Kaveripattana, 
Madura, and Anurfidhapura as notable centres of Pali 
Buddhism. Along with South India one has got 
to take Sirikhetta (modern Prome) in Burma as 
the centre of Pfili Abhidhamma culture. There is 
reason to believe that Pali literature developed in 
one shape or another in Lower Burma giving rise 
to Pali law codes, compiled more or less on the 
model of Manu's code. The inscriptions and sculp- 
tures are not without their important bearings on 
the history of Pali literature. We can say that the 
lower limit of the evolution of Pali literature is 
represented by the KalyanI stone inscriptions of 
King Dhammaceti of Pegu. In dealing effectively 
with Pali literature, one has got to consider the 
history of literary development in India, Ceylon, 
Burma, and Siam. It stiU remains a problem for 

644 A History of Pali Literature 

modern historian and philologist to find out how 
far Pali literature has influenced the vernaculars 
of these four countries. There is sufficient evidence 
to prove that Sinhalese developed as a vernacular 
with its wealth of literature as early as the 2nd 
century B.C. 

Pali literature is incomplete by itself. It is 
wanting in many works of secular interest, such as 
those on mathematics, astronomy, astrology, medi- 
cine, logic, and rbyal polity. The few such works 
that we have are of recent origin and as such, they 
do not fall within the scope of our present investiga- 
tion. Even as a pure literature, it has just one 
work, the Jinacarita, which deserves the name of a 
Kavya. The Jinacarita itself is chiefly based upon 
the Jataka Nidana-katha which latter may be 
regarded as a Kavya in prose, or in prose and 

There is hardly a drama or a novel, strictly 
so called. But there are a great many suttas, parti- 
cularly those contained in the Digha Nikaya, the 
Brahmajala, the Samannaphala, the Sakkapanha, 
the Mahaparinibbana, which have a dramatic setting. 
The literary art employed in the Samannaphala 
Sutta has been extensively developed in the Milinda 
Panha. In reading the suttas of the Sagatha-vagga 
of the Samyutta Nikaya one is apt to feel as though 
there is a stage-action in which one devaputta 
appears to test the knowledge of the Buddha and 
retires to make room for the next man waiting. In 
short, Pali literature abounds in dramatic elements 
without having a single book of drama. The literary 
art employed in the historical narrative of the 
Mahaparinibbana Suttanta and in those of the 
Milinda Panha, the Udenavatthu and the Visakha- 
vatthu is a novelty. 

There are several legendary and historical 
accounts of the life and career of the Buddha and 
his disciples and followers Theras, Theiis, Upasakas, 
and Upasikas which are interesting biographical 
sketches without a rigorous biographical treatment. 

Conclusion 645 

Even if it be assumed that there are no biographies 
in the modern sense, there is no getting away from 
the fact that the Buddhist teachers successfully 
tried to conceive and develop a universal science of 
biography in the Jataka Nidana-katha. 

There is just one story of creation in the Pali 
Aggafma Suttanta. The way in which it has been 
introduced goes to show that it was rather a citation 
for some purpose than an original production. 

The early Buddhist attitutle towards ornate 
poetry or imaginative literature was far from 
appreciative. Such poetry was viewed with dis- 
favour, the superabundance of it being dreaded 
as a great future danger of the good faith (anagata- 
bhaya) uptill the time of Asoka. The development 
of ornate poetry was sought to be accounted for in 
early Buddhism by an extraneous influence. A 
highly imaginative literature developed nevertheless 
within the four corners of Pali Buddhism with 
its wealth of gdthds and akkhdnas, highly ethical 
or spiritual in tone. We come across an example 
of song in the Sakkapaftha Suttanta, which is 
said to have been sung by Pancasikha, the heavenly 
minstrel. Other pieces described as songs in some 
of the Birth-stories and Buddhist legends are hardly 
distinguishable from the main body of gdthds. Some 
of the Psalms of the Early Brethren and Sisters, 
which are musings of emancipated hearts, e.g., the 
Talaputa-thera-gatha and the Ambapali-gatha, are 
truly musical in tone. One can say that Pali 
literature is sufficiently rich in the wealth of lyrics 
and reflective poetry. The Dhammapada stands 
out as a remarkable literature in the field of didactic 

Its richness consists also in the wealth of similes 
and parables deserving a separate and careful study 
as elements that apparently influenced the later 
Kavya poetry of India and have their parallels in the 
early Gospels of Christianity. 

To counteract the influence of the Mahabharata 
and the Ramayana, particularly that of the former, 

646 A History of Pali Literature 

the Buddhists began to develop the J&takas, supply- 
ing thereby so many interesting themes for artistic 
delineation and materials for Indian dramas and 

So far as the epic and historical chronicles go, 
the position of Pali literature is almost unique, 
the mediaeval Kashmere chronicle, Rajatarangini, 
being the only notable Sanskrit work of their 

Pali literature* has no book on logic, but in the 
Kathftvatthu we have a great book of controversy, 
which lies at the immediate background of the entire 
Nyaya literature. Strictly speaking, there is no 
medical treatise in Pali, but in the Buddhist study 
of the 32 parts of the human organism we have 
something which is of paramount interest to a 
student of medical science. Prior to the compila- 
tion of the Law codes, we meet with in Pali the 
definitions of karma, murder, theft, and the rest 
which anticipate many points in modern jurispru- 
dence. There may not be a Buddhacarita or a 
Kumarasambhava in Pali, but there is certainly the 
Vatthugatha of the Nalaka Sutta in the Sutta 
Nipata to serve as a clear model of them. The 
manuals of psychological ethics must always be 
considered as notable contributions to Indian 

These and other points of interest and im- 
portance are left for future study and investigation. 
In spite of the fruitful labours of great many 
scholars, we are still on the threshold of the study 
of Pali literature, to evaluate and appreciate 
which one has to look at it in different aspects, 
just as one looks at a gem by its facet. 

It has still its immense possibilities as a means 
of developing modern literature, both in the East 
and the West. The Amitabha, the Jagajjyoti, the 
Buddhadevacarita, the ASoka, the Ajata^atru, and 
the Kinnari are but the few works produced yet in 
modern Bengali utilising the materials of Pali and 
Sanskrit Buddhist literature. As regards old Bengali 

Conclusion 647 

literature, Pali literature has its legacy in the 
plot of Vidyasundara set forth in the story of the 
Maha-ummagga-Jataka and the song composed in 
praise of the princess Pancalacandi. The creation 
of literary types is indeed the most distinctive 
feature of the literature, a bird's eye view of which is 
given in the present work. 





The Vinaya Pitaka is an important store-house of interesting 
geographical and historical information of the time of which it 
speaks. There is a very important reference to the four 
boundaries of the Middle Country or the Majjhimadcsa as under- 
stood by the Buddhists, and to the various sites, towns, and 
villages included therein, and associated very intimately with 
the Buddha and Buddhism. Interesting sidelights are also 
thrown on the political history, and social and economic 
conditions of the time. 

Bimbisara is said to have ruled over 80,000 townships 

... (Vinaya Texts, S.B.E., II, p. 1) and there 

Historical, etc. were 80j(K)0 oversecrs ovcr tne townships 

(Ibid., II, p. 4). That the Magadha kings were in fear of the 
Vajjians is testified to by the fact that Sunidha and Vassakara 
are referred to as building a fort at Pataliputta to crush the 
Vajjians (Ibid., II, p. 101). The Magadha king had a royal 
physician, Jivaka by name, who was asked by the king to 
cure a setthi who did good service to the king and to the 
merchants' guild (Ibid., II, 181). Jivaka also cured King 
Pradyota of Avanti of jaundice (Ibid. , II, pp. 187 &.). His success 
in operating on the fistula of King Bimbisara won for him the 
post of royal physician, and he was afterwards appointed by 
the king physician to the Buddha and the congregation of 
bhikkhus that lived with him. Once we arc told Magadha was 
visited by five kinds of diseases (e.g., leprosy, goitre, asthma, 
dry leprosy, and apamara), and Jivaka had to treat the bhikkhu 
patients only suffering from those diseases (Vinaya Pitaka, I, 
p. 71). Once we are told that King Bimbisara went to have 
his bath in the river Tapoda that flew by this ancient city ; 
when he reached the river, he saw the bhikkhus taking their 
bath. The city gate was closed and so he could not enter the 
city of Rajagaha. Next morning he came after taking his bath 
without proper dress to the Buddha who gave him instruction 
and advised the bhikkhus not to spend so much time in their 
bath (Ibid. , IV, 116-117). Bimbisara 's son was Ajatasattu, whose 
chief minister was Vassakara who began the work of repairing 
the fort of Rajagaha in the kingdom of Magadha. He needed 
timber for the purpose and went to the reserved forest, but 
was informed that the wood was taken by a bhikkhu named 

Appendix A 649 

Dhaniya. Vassakara complained to King Bimbisara about it. 
It was brought to the notice of the Buddha who ordered the 
bhikkhus not to take anything not offered or presented to them 
(Ibid., Ill, 41-45). There is a reference which suggests that the 
palace of Bimbisara should be of gold (Vinaya Texts, S.B.E., 
II, p. 65). There was a sugar factory at Rajagaha (Ibid., II, 
p. 67) ; and the country was rich in molasses (Vinaya Pi^aka, 
I, 226). 

The town of VaiSali too was well provided with food, and 
was generally prosperous (Vinaya Texts, II, 117). 

There is a reference to the dancing girls asked to dance and 
greeted with applause (Vinaya Texts, II, 349). 

Of the notable bhikkhu disciples of the Master, mention 
is made of Sariputta and Moggallana (Ibid., II, 318, 353), Upali 
(Ibid., II, 395) who discussed the manatta discipline of a bhikkhu 
with the Master, and Ananda through w r hose intercession 
Mahapajapati Ootami with other Sakya ladies obtained 
permission for ordination (III, p. 322). Kakuclha, a Koliyan, 
was an attendant on Moggallana (Ibid., Ill, 234). 

Of the heretical teachers mention is made of Makkhali 
Gosala, Ajita Kesakamball, Pakudha Kaccayana, Sanjaya 
Belatthiputta, and Nigantha Nathaputta (Ibid., Ill, p. 79). 

References are made to Devadatta's attempt to create a 
disunion among the bhikkhus in the Bhikkhu Samgha (Ibid., Ill, 
p. 251), and also to the two councils of Rajagaha and Vaisali 
(Ibid., Ill, llth and 12th Khandhakas). When the First Great 
Council of the disciples of the Buddha was held after his 
parinirvana to compile the teachings of the Master, Yasa sent 
messengers to the bhikkhus of Avanti inviting them to come, 
and settle what is Dhamma, what is Vinaya, and what is not, 
and to help the spread of Dhamma and Vinaya (III, p. 394). 

To the east of the Middle Country or Majjhimadesa lay the 
G h' 1 town Kajaiigala, and beyond it Mahasala, 

p ' to the south-east the river Salalavati, to 
the south, the town Setakarmika, to the west the brahmana 
district of Thuna, and to the north, the mountain range called 
Usiradhvaja. Beyond these were the border countries and 
this side of these was the Middle Country (Vinaya Texts, II, 
pp. 38-39). One of the most important towns of the MadhyadeSa 
was Rajagaha (Rajagriha-Giribraja) where the Gijjhakuta was 
and the Buddha stayed there for some time (Ibid., II, p. 1). 
From Rajagaha, a road lay to Andhakavinda which was once 
visited by 500 carts, all full of pots of sugar (Ibid., II, p. 93). 
Rajagaha was the capital city of King Bimbisara, while the 
court-physician Jivaka is referred to as an inhabitant of this 
place (Ibid., II, pp. 184-5). But his birth-place was Magadha 
(Ibid., II, 173). Jivaka was, however, educated at Taxila 
(Ibid., II, p. 174). Rajagaha had a gate which was closed in 
the evening, and nobody, not even the king, was allowed to 

650 A History of Pali Literature 

enter the city after the gate was closed (Ibid., IV, 116-17). 
It was here at Rajagaha that Sariputta learned Buddha's 
Dhamma from Assaji, one of the Paiicavaggiya bhikkhus. 
Sariputta went to Rajagaha with his friend Moggallana where 
the Buddha was, and both of them were converted by the 
Master (Vinaya Pitaka, I, pp. 40 ff.). Rajagaha could boast 
of another physician (vejja) named Akasagotta (Ibid., I, p. 215). 
Veluvana, the bamboo park of Rajagaha, has often been referred 
to as a residence of the Master. When once the Buddha was 
here, Devadatta's gain and fame were completely lost (Vinaya 
Pitaka, IV, p. 71). The Kalandakanivapa of Rajagaha has also 
been referred to as another residence of the Master. While he 
was once there, a party of six bhikkhus (chabbaggiya bhikkhu) 
went to attend the Giraggasamajja, a highly popular music of 
the day (Ibid., II, 107). A setthi of Rajagaha built a vihara 
for the bhikkhus. He had to take consent of the Buddha as 
to the bhikkhus' dwelling in a vihara (Vinaya Pitaka, II, p. 146). 
References are made to a trader of Rajagaha who wanted to go 
to Patiyaloka (Ibid., IV, pp. 79-80), to a Sakyaputta named 
Upananda who, while at Rajagaha, was invited by his supporters 
(Ibid., IV, p. 98), to Upali, the son of a rich trader of Rajagaha, 
who was ordained as bhikkhu at the initiative of his parents 
(Ibid., IV, pp. 128-29). The Mahavagga tells us of an occasion 
when the Blessed One on his way to Vesali noticed bhikkhus 
with a superfluity of dress, and advised them as to the least 
quantity of robes a bhikkhu should require (Ibid., II, pp. 210 foil.). 
The Cullavagga speaks of a setthi of Rajagaha who acquired 
a block of sandal wood, and made a bowl out of it for the 
bhikkhus (Vinaya Texts, III, p. 78). 

Pataligama was another important locality which was once 
visited by the Buddha accompanied by a great number of 
bhikkhus (Ibid., II, p. 97). Sunidha and Vassakara are referred 
to as building a fort at Pataligama to crush the Vajjians (Ibid., 

II, p. 101). 

No less important were Vesali and Savatthi. The former 
was well provided with food, the harvest was good, alms were 
easy to obtain, one could very well get a living by gleaning or 
through favour (Ibid., II, p. 117). There at Vesali was the 
Gotamaka shrine (Ibid., II, p. 210) where the Buddha stayed for 
some time. There lay a high road between Vesali and Rajagaha 
(Ibid., II, p. 210). The Buddha came to Vesali from Kapila- 
vastu whence a number of Sakya ladies came to receive, through 
the intercession of Ananda, ordination from the Master who at 
that time resided at the Kutagara hall in the Mahavana (Ibid., 

III, pp. 320 foil.). The Cullavagga of the Vinaya Pitaka tells us an 
occasion when the Enlightened One was staying at the peak- 
roofed hall in the Mahavana (Cullavagga, VI, S.B.E., XX, 
p. 189). We are further told of a poor tailor of Vaisali who was 
very much bent on building a house for the Samgha (Ibid., 

Appendix A 65l 

pp. 190-91). In the 12th Khandhaka, there is the important 
reference to the Buddhist Council of Vesali (Ibid., III). 

References are often made to the Jetavana of Anathapindika 
at SavatthI (Vinaya Texts, S.B.E., I, p. 325) where 'the 
Buddha stayed. Another staying place of the Master there 
was the arama of Migaramata (Ibid., pt. Ill, p. 299). 

Kasi or BaranasI (i.e., Benares) and Kosala (Vinaya Texts, 

I, pp. 226, 312) often find mention in the Vinaya Pitaka. In 
course of his religious propaganda tour, the Master first went 
to Benares, then to Uruvela and then he visited Gayaslsa, 
Rajagaha, Kapilavatthu, and SavatthI {Ibid., I, pp. 116, 136, 
210). There lay a road from Saketa to SavatthI (Ibid., p. 220). 
A few bhikkhus travelling on the road in the Kosala country 
went off the road to a cemetery to get themselves pamsukula 
robes (Vinaya Texts, S.B.E., II, p. 197). Brahmadatta, the 
legendary king of Benares, is invariably alluded to while intro- 
ducing a Jataka. In his time there was a king of Kosala 
named Dighlti who was not so wealthy as the king of Kasi. 
Brahmadatta went to wage war against the king of Kosala, 
and thus ensued a series of vicissitudes in which the king of 
Kosala suffered most, though his son Dlghavu ultimately brought 
the king of Kasi to his knees, and friendship was restored (Ibid., 

II, pp. 301 ff.). Yasa, a young nobleman of Benares, son of a 
setthi, had three places fixed for three seasons of the year 
(Vinaya Texts, I, pp. 102-108). 

KosambI was another important place where at Ghosita- 
rama Buddha stayed from time to time (Vinaya Texts, II, 
p. 285 ; Ibid. , II, p. 376). There is a reference to the quarrelsome 
bhikkhus of KosambI who came to SavatthI (Vinaya Texts, 
S.B.E., II, p. 318). 

The republican states of Pava and Kuslnara are also men- 
tioned (Vinaya Texts, III, 370 and Ibid., pt. II, 135) andRoja, 
a member of the Mallas of Kuslnara, is said to have gone to 
welcome the Buddha (Vinaya Texts, S.B.E., pt. II, p. 135). 

Of less important places and localities, mention is made of 
Campa inhabited by a sctthi's son named Sona Kolivisa (Vinaya 
Texts, S.B.E., II, p. 1), Avanti visited by Mahakaccana, and 
where there was a hill called Kuraraghara (Ibid., II, 32), Kotigama 
where Buddha resided for some time (Ibid., II, p. 105), and Bhad- 
diyanagara where lived a householder named Mendaka who was 
possessed of a miraculous power (Ibid., II, p. 121). Reference 
is also made to Kitagiri where dwelt the wicked bhikkhus who 
were the followers of Assaji and Punabbasu (Ibid., II, p. 347), 
to Anupiya, a town of the Mallas (Ibid., Ill, p. 224), to Saketa 
where dwelt a banker whose wife was suffering from head disease 
and who was treated by Jlvaka (Ibid., II, pp.176 foil.), to the 
Gijjhakuta hill in Rajagaha which was visited by the Buddha 
(Ibid., I, p. 239), and to Uttarakuru where Buddha is said to have 
gone to beg alms (Ibid., I, p. 124). 

652 A History of Pali Literature 

Of important rivers, mention is made of Ganga, Yamuna, 
AciravatI, Mahl, and Sarabhu (Vinaya Texts, III, pp. 301-302). 


The Samanfiaphala Suttanta (Digha, I.) is important 
from a historical point of view ; for it fur- 
Niks the f Dl th* n ^ 8 ^ es us w **k viable information about the 
Sutttif Pitaka. y i ews f s i- x leading thinkers (titthiyas) of the 
time : Parana Kassapa, Makkhali Gosala, 
Ajitakesakambali, Pukudha Kaccayana, Safijaya Belatthiputta, 
and Nigantha Nathaputta. This sutta also gives us a list of 
crafts and occupations of the time, e.g., Dasakaputta (slaves), 
Kumbhakara (potters), Malakara (garland -makers), Hattharoha 
(elephant-riders), Assaroha (cavalry), Rathika (charioteers), 
Danuggaha (archers), Alarika (cooks), Kappaka ( barbers ),Naha- 
paka (bath-attendants), Suda (confectioners), Rajaka (washer- 
men), Pesakara (weavers), and NaJakarS (basket-makers). 
Another important historical allusion in this sutta is the fact 
which refers to Jlvaka, the famous physician of the Buddha, 
and gives us an account of the visit paid to the Buddha by the 
patricide monarch of Magadha, the terrible Ajatasattu. In the 
concluding portion of the suttanta there is an allusion to the 
actual murder of Bimbisara which his son Ajatasattu committed. 

The Ambattha Suttanta (Digha, I.) refers to King Pasenadi 
of Kosala, as well as to some famous sages of the time, e.g., 
Yamataggi, Angirasa, Bharadvaja, Yasettha, Bhagu, and Ves- 
samitta. A famous brahmin teacher of Kosala and the teacher 
of Ambattha, Pokkharasildi, is said to have enjoyed the property 
given by King Pasenadi, the contemporary of the Buddha. 

The Sonadanda Suttanta (Digha, I.) refers to Cam pa visited 
by the Buddha with 500 monks, to Gaggarii, a famous tank 
in Campa, and to King Bimbisara of Magadha and King Pasenadi 
of Kosala. This suttanta also tells us how the Anga kingdom 
with its capital Campa was included in the Magadhan empire. 
While the Buddha was sojourning at Campa in the kingdom of 
Anga, a brahmin named Sonadanda was in the enjoyment of the 
revenues of the town as it was given to him by Biinbisara of 
Magadha. Brahmin householders of Cam pa went to the Buddha. 
Sonadanda also accompanied them, and eventually all of them 
became lay supporters of the Buddha. 

The Mahali Suttanta (Digha, I.) refers to Buddha's dwelling 
at Vesall in a Kutagarasala in Mahavana. 

The Lohicca Suttanta (Digha, I.) refers to king of Kosala, 
to Salavatika inhabited by a brahmin named Lohicca, and 
to Pasenadi, king of Kasi-Kosala, who used to collect taxes 
from the inhabitants of KasI-Kosala and to enjoy the income 
not alone but with his subordinates. 

Appendix A 653 

The Mahapadana Suttanta (Dlgha, II.) refers to the two 
famous disciples of the Buddha, Sariputta and Moggallana. 

The Mahaparinibbana Suttanta (Dlgha, II.) has a dramatic 
setting inasmuch as it represents King Ajatasattu of Magadha 
as appearing on a stage and indulging in a soliloquy giving 
an expression of his grim determination to annihilate his Vajjian 
rivals. It further relates that when the Buddha heard of 
this determination of the king, he remarked that so long as the 
Vajjians fulfilled the seven conditions of welfare, there would 
not be any danger for them. But, afterwards Ajatasattu is 
stated to have succeeded in annihilating the Vajjians with the 
help of his two ministers, Sunidha andT Vassakara, when dis- 
sensions arose among the Vajjians. The suttanta also refers 
to some incidents of Buddha's life, e.g., the visit of Subhadda to 
Buddha, and his conversation with the Lord, the passing away 
of the Lord, the homage of the Mallas, cremation of Buddha's 
dead body, quarrel over the relics, the amicable distribution of 
relics by Dona, and erection of stupas over them. 

The Janavasabha Suttanta (Dlgha, II.) refers to King 
Bimbisara of Magadha as a righteous king. 

The Pasadika Suttanta (Dlgha, III.) refers to the news of 
the demise of Mahavira to Ananda at Samagama in the Malla 

The Atanatiya Suttanta (Digha, III.) states that the Blessed 
One dwelt in the Gijjhakuta mountain at Rajagaha. 

The Sanglti Suttanta (Dlgha, III.) informs us that Mahavira, 
the founder of Jainism, died at Pava. It further tells us that 
the Mallas of Pava arc addressed as the Vasetthas by the 
Buddha. This shows that the Mallas belonged to the VaSistha 


The Ambattha Suttanta (Dlgha, I.) refers to a brahmin 
village of Kosala named Icchanangala or Icchanankala which 
was visited by the Buddha with a large retinue of 500 monks. 
It also refers to the Himalayan region. 

The Kutadanta Suttanta (Dlgha, I.) refers to a brahmin 
village named Khanumata visited by the Buddha with 500 

The Mahali Suttanta (Dlgha, I.) refers to Vesali inhabited 
by the brahmin messengers of Kosala and Magadha, and to 
a hermitage called Ghositarama at Kosambl. 

The Kevaddha Suttanta (Dlgha, I.) refers to Pavarika 
mango grove at Nalanda where the Buddha dwelt. It speaks of 
the prosperity of Nalanda which was inhabited by many people. 

The Tevijja Suttanta (Dlgha, I.) refers to a brahmin village 
in Kosala named Manasakata which was visited by the Buddha 
with 500 monks, and to the north of which flowed the river 
Aciravati. On the banks of this river there was a mango grove. 

654 A History of Pali Literature 

The Mahanidana Suttanta (Dlgha, II.) refers to a Kuru 
country named Kammassadhamma where the Buddha dwelt 
for some time. 

The Mahaparinibbana Suttanta (Dfgha, II.) states that the 
Exalted One went from Nalanda to Pataligama where Sunldha 
and Vassakara built a fort to crush the Vajjians. From 
Pataligama he went to Magadha where he had accepted the 
invitation of the two ministers, Sunldha and Vassakara. Thence 
he went to Kotigama ; and further he proceeded to Nadika 
where he dwelt at the Ginjaka abode. He then went to Vesall 
where he had accepted the invitation of the famous courtesan, 
Ambapali. The same suttanta refers to the Gijjhakuta-pabbata 
at Rajagaha where the Blessed One dwelt, to the river Ganga 
where the Buddha approached at the time when it was over- 
flowing, to Ajapala banyan tree on the banks of the river 
Neranjara where the Buddha obtained Enlightenment, to Isigili, 
Sltavana, and Veluvana at Rajagaha. This sutta also speaks of 
Gotamakanigrodha, Corapapata, Vebharapassa, Sattapanniguha , 
Kalandakanivapa, and of Jivaka's mango grove as beautiful. 
It further refers to the river Kakuttha, Upavattana, the Salavana 
of the Mallas at Kusinara, and to the river named Hirannavatl. 
This suttanta mentions Savatthl as a great city which was the 
resort of many wealthy nobles, brahmins, heads of houses, and 
believers in the Tathagata. Great cities such as Campa, 
Rajagaha, Savatthl, Saketa, Kosambi, and Baranasi are suggested 
as the places where the Blessed One should obtain pari- 

The Mahasudassana Suttanta (Digha, II.) refers to the 
Salavana of the Mallas called Upavattana at Kusinara and to 
Campa, Rajagaha, Saketa, Savatthi, Kosambi, and Baranasi. 
Kusinara was also named as Kusavati, the capital of the King 
Mahasudassana. Kusavati was rich, prosperous, and full of 
many men. Alms could profusely be obtained there. 

The Janavasabha Suttanta (Dlgha, II.) refers to Kasl- 
Kosala, Vajji-Malla, Cedi-Vamsa ; Kuru-Pancala, and Maccha- 
Surasena kingdoms. 

The Mahagovinda Suttanta (Digha, II.) refers to a number 
of great cities built by Govincla. They are : Dantapura of 
the Kalingas, Potana of the Assakas, Mahissatl of the Avantis, 
Roruka of the Sovlras, Mithila of the Videhas, Campa of the 
Angas, and Baranasi of the Kasis. 

The Sakkapanha Suttanta (Digha, II.) points out that to 
the east of Rajagaha there was a brahmin village called 
Ambasanda, and to the north there was a cave called Indasala 
in the Vediyaka mountain. 

The Mahasatipatthana Suttanta (Digha, II.) refers to the 
Buddha's dwelling among the Kurus. It mentions the Kam- 
massadhamma, a village of the Kurus. 

The Payasi Suttanta (Digha, II.) refers to King Pasenadi 

Appendix A 655 

of Kosala, and to a forest called Simeapavana which lay to the 
north of the city, Setavya. 

The Patika Suttanta (Digha, III.) refers to Anupiya as 
the country of the Mallas where the Buddha went for alms. It 
also refers to Buddha's stay at Kutagarasala or the pinnacled 
house in the Mahavana at Vesali. 

The Udumbarika Sihanada Suttanta (Digha, III.) refers 
to the Gijjhakuta-pabbata at Rajagaha visited by the Buddha. 

The CakkavattI Sihanada Suttanta (Digha, III.) men- 
tions that the Blessed One dwelt at Matula in the kingdom of 
Magadha. It refers to the capital called KetumatI of King 
Samkha, and to Jambudipa. 

The Dasuttara Suttanta (Digha, III.) states that the Blessed 
One dwelt at Cam pa on the side of the tank called Gaggara 
with 500 bhikkhus. 


Important historical references in the Majjhima Nikaya are 
mainly concerned with the life and itinerary 

*1 the Majjhima of ^ Buddha and some of hig disciples. 
Nikaya of tho Sutta r , , , , , , . , ^ . ^ L 

Pitaka. Thus we are told that the Blessed One once 

stayed at the foot of a big Sala tree in the 

Subhaga forest at Ukkattha (Vol. I, 1), at another time in 

the Jetavana hermitage of Anathapindika at Savatthi (I, 12; 

II, 22), at Ukkacela on the banks of the Ganges (I, 225), at 
Vesali in the Kutagarasala at Mahavana (I, 227), at Savatthi 
in the palace of Migaramata at Pubbarama (I, 251), at Veluvana 
at Rajagaha (I, 299) at Campa by the side of the tank Gaggara 
(I, 339), at Nalanda in the mango grove of Pavarika (I, 371), 
at Rajagaha in the Kalandakanivapa at Veluvana, a hermitage 
of the paribbajakas called Moranivapa (II, 1), at Mithila in 
the mango grove of Makhadeva (II, 74), at Savatthi (II, 190 ; 

III, 1, 15, 20), at Kuslnara in the thicket known as Baliharana 
(II, 238), at Mahavana in a pinnacled house (II, 252), at 
Kapilavatthu among the Sakkas in the Nigrodharama (III, 
109), at Ghositarama at Kosambl (III, 152), at Tapodarama 
at Rajagaha (III, 192), at Nagaravinda, a brahmin village of 
the Kosalans where the Blessed One went with a large assembly 
of bhikkhus (III, 290) as well as at Mukheluvana at Kajangala 
(III, 298). Of the places visited by the Buddha, mention is 
made of Mahavana (I, 108). The Master also went to the 
Kosalans for alms with a large retinue of monks (II, 45), to 
the Kurus for the same purpose with a retinue of monks and 
to the Kuru country called Thullakotthita (II, 54), to Devadaha, 
a country of the Sakkas (II, 214), and to Kammassadhamma or 
Kammassadhamma, a country of the Kurus (II, 261, 1, 55). Of 
his disciples and other prominent individuals, reference is made 
to Sriputta and Moggallana (I, 24-25), Kumarakassapa dwelling 
at Andhavana (I, 142), Ananda living at Vesali in the Veluva 

656 A History of Pali Literature 

village (I, 349), Kassapa Buddha dwelling at Benares in the 
Deer Park at Isipatana where King Kiki of Benares came to 
see him (II, 49), Mahakaccana dwelling at Gundavana at Madhura 
(II, 83), Angulimala, a bandit, dwelling in the kingdom of King 
Pasenadi of Kosala (II, 97) and entering Savatthl for alms (II, 
103), Brahmayu, an old brahmin of Mithila (II, 133), Ananda 
residing in the Kalandakanivapa at Veluvana in Rajagaha 
shortly after the parinibbana of the Buddha (III, 7), Ajatasattu, 
king of Magadha (III, 7), Mahapajapati Gotanri who approached 
the place where the Buddha was, saluted him, and entreated him 
to instruct and give a religious discourse to the bhikkhums 
(III, 270), SunakkhatU, a Licchavi (I, 68), and Mahanama, a 
Sakka (I, 91). 

Of other historical references, mention may be made of the 
allusions to the Vajjis and Mallas (I, 231), the Sakyas of 
Kapilavatthu (I, 353), the Kasls of BaranasI (I, 473), the Angas 
and the Magadhas (II, 2), to the heretical teachers, Purana 
Kassapa, Makkhali Gosala, Ajitakesakambali, Pakudha Kacca- 
yana, Sanjaya Belatthiputta, and Nigantha Nathaputta (II, 2), 
and to Nigantha Nathaputta's death at Pava (II, 243). 


Important geographical references in the Majjliima Nikaya 
are few, and are already well known from other sources. Thus 
we have references to Bahuka, Adhikakka, Gaya, Sundarika, 
Sarassati, Payaga, and Bahumatl (I, 39), to Gosingasalavana 
which was beautiful (I, 213), Vejayanta palace (I, 253), Assapura, 
a country of the Angas (I, 271), Sala, a brahmin village of the 
Kosalans (I, 285), Nalakapana, a palasa forest (I, 462), 
Haliddavasana, a country of the Koliyas (I, 387), Sumsumara 
mountain in the Deer Park of Bhesakalavana of the Bhaggas 
(II, 91), Medalumpa, a country of the vSakyas (II, 118), Opasada, 
a brahmin village of the Kosalans visited by the Buddha^ along 
with the bhikkhus (II, 164), and to Samagama of the Sakkas 
(II, 243). 

In the Samyutta Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka 

The Samyutta Nikaya refers to King Pasenadi of Kosala, 

the capital of which was Savatthi. The 

Historical refer- whole of tfae Kosala-Samyutta is devoted to 

enccs ' him. We are told that a war broke out 

between Ajatasattu, king of Magadha, and Pasenadi. Each 

claimed the possession of the township of Kasl. At first 

Ajatasattu was victorious, but later on he was defeated and 

taken prisoner by Pasenadi. Pasenadi, however, married his 

daughter, Vajira, to him and granted to him the township of 

Kasl (I, 82-85). We are also told of the death of Pasenadi's 

Appendix A 657 

grandmother (I, 97). The venerable Pindolabharadvaja who 
dwelt at Kosambi in the Ghositarama gave answer to King 
Udena's questions. Udena was highly pleased with his answers 
and declared his faith in the Buddhist Triad (IV, 110). 

When the Master attained Supreme Enlightenment at 
Uruvela under the Banyan tree on the 

referenced bank of the river Neranjara, he was unwilling 

to preach the doctrine. Brahma requested 

him to set rolling the Wheel of Law for the good of all. The 

Blessed One after much deliberation consented to the proposal 

(I, 136-137). 

The Lord, while dwelling at Rajagaha in Veluvana in the 
Kalandakanivapa, converted the brahmana Bharadvaja and 
many other brahmanas of the Bharadvajagotta (I, 160- 

The Blessed One once dwelt in the country of the Bhaggas 
at the Sumsumaragiri in the Deer Park of Bhesakajavana where 
he gave to the householder Nakulapita religious discourses 
(HI, 1). 

The Blessed One dwelt at the city of Devadaha of the 
Sakyas (III, 5). 

Mahakaccana dwelt at Avanti on the mountain called 
Kuraraghara (III, 12). When the Lord was residing in Vesali 
at Mahavana in the Kutagarasala, lie refuted the heretical 
views of Purana Kassapa which had been put to him by Mahali, 
a Licchavi (III, 68-69). 

The Lord once dwelt at Kapilavatthu in the Nigroclharama 
(III, 91). 

At Savatthi Vacchagotta, a wanderer, put to the Buddha 
some heretical questions (whether the world is eternal or non- 
eternal, etc). The Buddha explained the origin of wrong views 
(III, 258). 

Sariputta while dwelling at the village of Nalaka in Magadha 
explained to the wanderer Jambukhadaka the Eightfold Patli 
leading to the attainment of nibbana (IV, 251). 

Sariputta while dwelling in the country of the Vajjis in 
Ukkavela on the bank of the river Ganga addressed a religious 
discourse to the wanderer Samandaka (IV, 261). 

The Blessed One once went to Nalanda from Kosala and 
converted Gamani, Asibandhakaputto (IV, 323). 

Once the Lord dwelt at the Deer Park of Aficanavana at 
Saketa (V, 73). 

The Lord resided at the city of Setaka in Sumbha (V, 89). 

The Lord dwelt at the city of Haliddavasana in the country 
of the Koliyas (V, 115). 

The Blessed One visited the brahmana village of Sala in 
Kosala (V, 144). 

The Lord visited with a company of the bhikkhus the 
brahmana village of Veludvara in Kosala (V, 352). 

658 A Itistory of Pali Literature 

The Blessed One visited Kotigama in the Vajji country 
(V, 431). Ananda and Bhadda lived at the Kukkutarama in 
Pataliputta (V, 171). 

In the Anguttara Nikdya of the Sutta Pitaka 

There were sixteen Mahajanapadas, viz., Anga, Magadha, 

. . Kasi, Kosala, Vajji, Mai la, Cetl, Vamsa, 

enc^. Kuru > Pancala, Maccha, Surasena, Assaka, 

Avanti, Gandhara, and Kamboja. It is 

worthy of notice that the names are names of people and 

not of countries (I, 213 ; IV, 252). 

We are also told of King Pasenadi of Kosala and his Queen 
Mallikadcvi (III, 57). 

While the Lord was staying at Rajagaha on the Gijjhakuta- 
pabbata, Vassakara the brahmin minister of King Ajatasattu of 
Magadha, as directed by his royal master, came to the Buddha 
for advice concerning the king's desire for leading an expedition 
to the Vajji country. After a talk with the Buddha, Vasnakara 
realised that the only means of subjugating the Vajjis lay in 
sowing the seeds of mutual jealousy among them (IV, 17-21). 

Mahakaccana while dwelling at Madhura in the Gundavana 
explained the evils of sensual pleasures to 
t ^ ie Brahmana Kandarayana who professed 
his faith in the Buddhist Triad (I, 67). 

Once the Blessed One went to the brahrnana village of 
Venagapura in Kosala where he addressed a religious discourse 
to the brahmanas who took their refuge in the Buddha, the 
Dharama, and the Samgha (I, 180). 

The Master once visited the township of Kesaputta of the 
Kalaraas who were converted by him (I, 188). 

The Buddha visited the township of Pahkadha in Kosali 
and from Pankadha went to Rajagaha and dwelt at the Gijjha- 
kuta (I, 236, 237). 

There are references in the Anguttara Nikaya to Bhanda- 
gama in the kingdom of the Vajjis visited by the Buddha 
(II, I), Ajap&lanigrodha (Ibid., 22), Madhura and Veraiiji (Ibid., 
57), the Master dwelling among the Bhaggas in the? Deer Park 
of Bhesakalavana (Ibid., 61), Kuslnara where the Buddha dwelt 
between the twin sala trees of the Mallas at Upavattana (Ibid., 
79), the hermitage of Anathapindika at Jetavaria in Savatthl 
(III, 1), a brahmin village of the Kosalans called the Iccha- 
nangala visited by the Buddha (Ibid., 30), the Blessed One 
dwelling among the Bhaddiyas (Ibid., 36), the Master dwelling 
at the pinnacled house in the Mahavana in Vesall (Ibid., 38), 
Narada dwelling at the Kukkutarama in Pataliputta (Ibid., 57), 
the young Licchavi roaming about in the Mahavana armed 
with bows and arrows accompanied by dogs (Ibid., 75), Sranda- 
dacetiya (Ibid. y 168), the bhikkhus dwelling in the Deer Park at 

Appendix A 659 

Benares (Ibid., 320), the Buddha dwelling at Rajagaha on the 
Gijjhakuta mountain (Ibid. 9 366). 

While dwelling at Vesali in the Sarandada Cetiya the 
Blessed One spoke to the Licchavis on the seven conditions, by 
following which, they were sure to thrive (IV, 16). 

The Venerable Uttara is said to have dwelt at Mahisavatthu 
on the mount Samkheyyaka (IV, 162). 

The Blessed One while dwelling at Veranja under Na}eru- 
pucimandamula converted the Brahmana Veranja (IV, 172). 

There were five great rivers, Ganga, Yamuna, Aciravati, 
Sarabhu, and Mahi (IV, 202). 

The Lord dwelt at the Aggalava Cetiya in Alaviya (IV, 218). 

The Buddha once visited the township of Kakkarapatta of 

The Lord also went to the brahmin village of Icchanangala 
in Kosala and there he converted the brahmin householders 
(IV, 340), to the township of Uruvelakappa of the Mallas (IV, 
438), to Kammasadhamma in the Kuru country (V, 29-30), to 
Sahajati in the Cetl country (V, 41), to Kajahgala and dwelt 
there at the Veluvana (V, 54). 

The township of Kasl was in the possession of Pasenadi, 
king of Kosala (V, 59). 

The Lord once went to the township of Nalakapana in 
Kosala and dwelt at the Palasavana (V, 122). 

A certain householder, Dasama by name, came to Pataliputta 
from Atthakanagara on some business. He went to Kukkuta- 
rama, which was in Pataliputta, in order to see the Thera Ananda. 
But he was informed that Ananda was then dwelling at Vesali 
in Veluvagama. He then after finishing his business went to 
Veluvagama (V, 342). 

Historical and geographical references in the Khuddaka 


Devadatta was destined to go to Hell (Itivuttaka, p. 85). 

King Bimbisara of Magadha and King 

is onoa . Pasenadi of Kosala have been referred to in 

the Udiina (p. 11) and there is a mention in it of Suppavasa, 

a daughter of the Koliyas (p. 15). There are references in the 

Udana to Pasenadi and his wife Mallika (p. 47), Cunda (p. 81), 

and King Udena who went to a garden. When he went there, 

a harem was built and 500 women headed by Samavat! died 

(p. 79). The Udana further refers to Visakha, mother of Migara 

(p. 91), and Dabba, a Mallian (p. 93). 

The Sutta Nipata refers to the Buddha dwelling among the 
Magadhas in a brahmin village named Ekanala at Dakkhinagiri 
(p. 13) and to the Master dwelling at Ajavi in the abode of the 
Yakkha A^avaka (p. 31). There are references in the Petavatthu 

660 A History of Pali Literature 

to King Brahmadatta of PaftcSla (p. 32) and King Pingalaka 
of the kingdom of Surattha and the Moriyas (p. 57). 

We shall briefly state some facts from the Jatakas regarding 
the political history of ancient India. From the Jatakas we 
know that Anga was once a powerful kingdom. Magadha was 
once under the sway of Angaraja (Jataka, Fausboll, VI, p. 272). 
It is said (Jataka, V, pp. 312-316) that King Manoja of Brahma- 
vardhana (another name of Benares) conquered Ahga and 
Magadha. It appears from the Jatakas (Jataka, III, pp. 115 
foil. ; Jataka, I, pp. 262 foil.) that before the Buddha's time 
Kasi was the most powerful kingdom in the whole of Northern 
India. In the Jatakas (Vol. II, p. 237 ; IV, pp. 342 foil.) we 
find that Mahakosala, father of King Pasenadi of Kosala, gave 
his daughter in marriage to King Bimbis t ara of Magadha. The 
pin-money was the village of Kasi yielding a revenue of a hundred 
thousand for bath and perfume. We are also told that there 
took place many a fierce fight between the sons of Mahakosala 
and Bimbisara, Pasenadi, and Ajatasattu respectively. In one 
of the Jatakas (Jat., IV, pp. 144 ff.) we are told that Vidudabha, in 
order to crush the Sakiyas who deceived his father Pasenadi by 
giving him a daughter of a slave girl to marry, deposed his 
father and became king. He marched out with a large army 
and succeeded in annihilating the Sakiyas. But he with his 
army met also with destruction. The river Rohim was the 
boundary between the Sakya and Koliya countries. A quarrel 
broke out among the Sakiyas and Koliyas regarding the possession 
of the river. But the Buddha succeeded in restoring peace 
among his kinsfolk (Jat., I, pp. 327 foil. Rukkhadhamma Jataka; 
Jat., IV, pp. 207 foil. Phandana Jataka). A king of Benares 
attacked the kingdom of Kosala and took the king prisoner. 
The king of Ko.sal i had a son named Chatta who fled while his 
father was taken prisoner. Afterwards Chatta recovered his 
kingdom (Jataka, III, pp. 115 foil.). The kingdom of Benares 
was seized by a king of Savatthi named Varika. But it was 
soon restored to the king of Benares (Jataka, III, pp. 168-69). 

Besides there are other historical references. A king of 
Benares had a gardener who could make sweet mangoes bitter 
and bitter mangoes sweet (Jataka, V, p. 3). Fine cloths widely 
known as Kasi cloths were manufactured (Jataka, V, p. 377). 
There was a great town of carpenters in Benares containing a 
thousand families (Jataka, IV, p. 159). There were in Benares 
snake-charmers (Jataka, III, p. 198). Slaughter of deer, swine, and 
other animals for making offerings to goblins was in vogue in 
Benares (Jataka, IV, p. 115). There was a king named Assaka in 
Potali. He was instructed by a Bodhisatta (Jataka, II, pp. 155foll.). 
There was a festival at Rajagaha where people drank wine, ate 
flesh, danced, and sang (Jataka I, p. 489). Pilindiyavaccha turned 
the palace of Rajagaha into gold with the result that he was 
given an abundant supply of the five eatables, e.g., sugar, butter, 

Appendix A 661 

ghee, honey, and oil (Jataka, III, pp. 363-364). A meeting was 
held in a Sahthagara at Rajagaha where the people met and 
discussed the means of welfare but they could not arrive at any 
definite conclusion and the matter was referred to the Buddha 
who settled it finally by preaching the Mangala Sutta of the 
Khuddakapatha (Ibid., IV, pp. 72 foil.). In the Vepulla mountain 
surrounding Rajagaha there was a gem used by an universal 
monarch by which Dhananjaya, the Kaurava king, might be 
defeated in playing dice (Ibid., VI, p. 271). 

The Gijjhakuta-pabbata has been described as a big 
. mountain in Giribb&ja of the Magadhas (itfruttaka, p. 17). The Udana mentions the 
Bo-tree at the foot of which the Buddha first obtained enlighten- 
ment on the bank of the river Neranjara at Uruvela (p. 1), 
Jotavana where the Buddha dwelt (p. 3), Gayasisa at Gaya 
where the Master dwelt (p. 6), Pipphali cave where Mahakassapa 
dwelt (p. 29), Upavattana, the sala forest of the Mallas (p. 37), 
Kalandakanivapa at Veluvana at Rajagaha visited by the 
Buddha (p. 39), and Kosambi visited by the Buddha (p. 41). 
There are references in it to Gahga, Yamuna, AciravatI, and 
Mahl (pp. 53, 55), Mahavana where the Master dwelt (p. 62), 
and to the five Cetiyas, Capala, Udena, Gotamaka, Sattambaka, 
Bahuputta, and Sarandada (p. 62). Kusinara and Pataligama 
arc also referred to in it (pp. 82 and 85). 

The Sutta Nipata refers to the Gijjhakuta-pabbata (p. 86), 
Rajagaha (p. 86) visited by the Buddha, Veluvana, and Kalanda- 
kanivapa (p. 91), Icchanankala (p. 115), Savatthi (p. 18), Pubba- 
rarna where there was the palace of Migaramata (p. 139), 
Dakkhinapatha (p. 190), Kapilavatthu (p. 192) visited by the 
Buddha, Patitthana, Mahissati, Ujjeni, Vedisa, Kosambi, Seta- 
vya, Kusinara, Magadha, and the Otiya Pasanaka (p. 194). This 
work refers to the rivers Godavarl (p. 190), Gahga (p. 32), and 
Sundarika (p. 79). 

The Vimanavatthu refers to Cittalatavana which was 
beautiful (]). 16) and the Petavatthu refers to Gahga (pp. 28 
and 29) and to two famous cities of Vcsfill and Savatthi (pp. 45 
and 63). 

There are many geographical allusions in the Jatakas. 
It is said that Campa, the capital of the kingdom of Ahga, 
was at a distance of 60 yojanas from Mithila (Jat., VI, p. 32). 
In the Assaka Jataka (Jat., II, p. 155) we are told of the Assaka 
territory, the capital city of which was Potali. In the Bhima- 
sen i i Jataka (Jat., I, pp. 356 ff.) Takkasila is referred to as a 
great centre of learning. In the Cetiya Jataka (Jat., Ill, p. 460) 
we are told that the four sons of the king of Ceti built five cities : 
Hatthipura, Assapura, Slhapura, Uttara-Paficala, and Daddara- 
pura. From the Sivi Jataka (Jat., IV, p. 401) we know that 
Aritthapura was the capital of the Sivi kingdom. The kingdom 
of Baveru is referred to in the Baveru Jataka (Jat., Ill, p. 126). 

662 A History of Pali Literature 

Bharukaccha, a seaport town, is referred to in the Sussondi 
Jataka (Jat., Ill, pp. 187 ff.). In the Cetiya Jataka (Jat., Ill, 
p. 454) it is said that Sotthivatinagara was the capital of the 
kingdom of Ceti. In the Gandhara Jataka (Jat., Ill, pp. 363- 
369) the Kasmir-GandhSra kingdom and the Videha kingdom 
are also mentioned. The kingdom of Kasi is also referred to in 
the Jatakas. Its capital was Baranasl. The extent of the city 
is mentioned as 12 yojanas (Jat., IV, p. 160). There are also 
references to the Kosala kingdom (Jat., Ill, p. 237 ; Jat., Ill, 
pp. 211-213). The Kamboja kingdom is also referred to in 
the Jatakas (Jat., IV, p: 208). There are innumerable references 
to the Magadha kingdom (Jat., IV, pp. 454-455 ; Jat., V, p. 316 ; 
Jat,, VI, p. 272). The city of Mithila, the capital of the Videhas, 
was 7 leagues and the kingdom of Videha 300 leagues in extent 
(Cowell's Jat., Ill, p. 222). We find a reference to the Madda- 
rattha in the Kalinga-Bodhi Jataka (Co well's Jat., IV, pp. 144- 
145). In the Kumbhakara Jataka (Cowell's Jat., Ill, p. 230) 
we read that the capital of Uttara-Paiieala was Kampilla. The 
city of Samkassa is referred to in the Kanha Jataka (Jat., 
Fausboll, I, p. 193). The country of Surattha is referred to in 
the Sarabhanga Jataka (Jat., V, p. 133). In the Salittaka 
Jataka (Jat., I, p. 418) and in the Kurudhamma Jataka 
(Jat., II, p. 366) we find that the river AciravatI was near 
Savatthi. In the Baka-Brahma Jataka (Jat., Ill, p. 361) the 
river Eni is referred to. The river Campa formed the boundary 
between Anga and Magadha (Campeyya Jataka Jat., IV, p. 454). 
The river Godavarl is near the Kavittha forest (Sarabhanga 
Jataka Jat., V, p. 132). The Aranjara, a chain of mountains, is 
referred to in the Sarabhanga Jataka (Jat., V, p. 134). The 
Candaka mountain is referred to in the Samkhapala Jataka 
(Jat., V, p. 162). In the Gahgamala Jataka (Jat., Ill, p. 452) 
the Gandhamadana is mentioned. The Hingula-pabbata is in 
the Himavanta-padesa (Jat., V, p. 415). 

The Niddesa contains some geographical information. It 
refers to Gumba, Takkola, Takkasila, Kalamukha, Maranapara, 
Vesuhga, Verapatha, Java, Tamali, Vanga 1 , Elavaddana, Suvan- 
nakuta, Suvannabhuml 2 , Tambapanni 3 , Suppara 4 , Bharukaccha 5 , 
Surattha a , Ahganeka, Gangana, Paramagahgana, Yona 7 , Para- 
mayona, Allasanda 8 , Marukantara, Jannupatha, Ajapatha, 
Mendapatha, Sankupatha, Chattapatha, Vamsapatha, Sakuna- 

1 Bengal. 

2 Burma. 

3 Ceylon. 

4 Souppara (Pali Supparaka), once a great seaport town. 

6 Broach. 

7 Between the rivers Kophen and the Indus. 

8 Alexandria. 

Appendix A 663 

patha, Musikapatha, Daripatha, Vettftdhara (Niddesa, I, pp. 154- 

In the Niddesa (II, p. 1) we are told that once a certain 
brahmin named BSvari desirous of akiftcannam (salvation) 
went to Dakkhinapatha from the beautiful city of the Kosalans. 
He lived on the banks of the river Godavarf in the kingdom 
of Assaka near Mulaka. In the same book (Ibid., pp. 4-5) 
we find that there was a route, probably a trade route, from 
Patitthana to Magadha. There are references to Mulaka l , Patit- 
thana 2 , Mahissati 3 , Ujjeni 4 , Gonadham, Vedisa, Kosambi 6 , 
Saketa, Savatthi 6 , Setavyam, Kapilavattfcu 7 , Kusinara, Pava 8 , 
Bhoganagara, Vesall 9 , and Magadha. 10 

The Patisambhidamagga mentions Savatthi as the place 
visited by the Master (Vol. II, pt. I, p. 177), Kosambi visited 
by Ananda (Vol. II, p. 92), and Isipatana Migadava at Benares 
visited by the Buddha (Vol. II, pp. 147, 159). 

The Buddha vamsa refers to the city of Amaravati where 
lived a brahmin, Sumedha (p. 6), the city of Rammavatl (p. 17), 
the Himalayas (p. 49), Kusinara, Vesall, Kapilavatthu, Alia- 
kappa, Ramagama, Paialiputta, Avantipura, and Mithila (p. 68). 

The Cariyapitaka mentions the following cities Indapatta 
ruled by Dhanaiijaya, some brahmins from Kalinga came to 
him (p. 74), Kusavati (p. 75), Campeyya where the Bodhisatta 
was born as a snake king (p. 85), and Pancala where there was 
a king named Jayadissa in the city of Kappila (p. 90), and there 
is a reference to Ganga in the Cariyapitaka (p. 87). 

The Apaclana refers to the cities of Hamsavati famous for 
good flowers (p. 124), Bandhuniati (pp. 270, 295), Arunavati 
(p. 282), and Ketumati (II, p. 354). This work also refers to the 
following rivers : 

1 According to the Buddhists, Mulaka was a different town 
from Assaka. The countries of Mulaka and Assaka were separated 
by the river Godavarl. 

2 Pai^han. the capital of Assaka or Maharashtra on the Godavari. 

3 Mahe^vara or Mahesh, on the right bank of the Nerbuda, 40 
miles to the south of Indore. During the Buddliist period it was 
the capital of Avanti-Dakshinapatha. 

4 Capital of Malava or Avanti on the Sipra. 

5 Kosam, an old village on the Jumna, 30 miles S.-W. of 

Sahet-Mahet on the border of the Bhraich and Gonda 
districts of the Fyzabad division, U.P. 

7 The village of Piprawa (Basti district) marks the site of 

8 Between Pava (Fazilpur-Gorakhpur district) and Kusinagara 
(Kasia) was the river Kukuttha or Kuku. 

9 Vesali has been identified with the ruins at and near Besarhar 
Bazar (Muzaffarpur district, Bihar). 

10 The districts of Patna and Gay a formed this territory proper. 


664 A History of Pali Literature 

(1) Sindhu (p. 325), Candabhfcga (pp. 277, 291), Gtengft, 
Yamuna, Sarabhu, Mahl, Saraswati (p. 27), and it mentions 
the following cetiyas Buddha-cetiya (p. 71) and Sikhi-cetiya 
(p. 255). The Himalayan mountain has been mentioned in the 
Apad&na (pp. 15, 20, 50, 58, 160, 278, 279, 336, 411). 


Much light is thrown on the development of Pali canonical 
literature by the lithic records of Asoka. 

Edtet. T he first ^ cri P tion that deserves notice 

in this connection is the Bhabru Edict. It 
opens with a declaration of Asoka's deep* and extensive faith in 
the Buddhist Triad and of his firm conviction that the utterances 
of Buddha are gospel truth. It then enumerates certain 
Dhammapariyayas or canonical texts selected out of the Buddhist 
scriptures then known to him for the constant study and medita- 
tion not by the clericals only, but also by the laity and that with 
a view to making the good faith long endure. The texts referred 
to by Asoka are as follows : 

(1) Vinaya Samukase or the exaltation of discipline, Patimok- 
kha (Rhys Davids, J.R.A.S., 1898). 

Prof. Bhandarkar 
Mr. Mitra 

Prof. Oldenberg 

Rhys Davids 

. Tuvatthaka Sutta (Sutta Nipata). 

. Sappurisa Sutta (Majjhima) and later, 
A Vinaya tract in the Anguttara, 
Vol. I. 

. The Patimokkha. 

. Singalovada Sutta (Digha) called Gihi- 
vinaya and Anumana Sutta (Maj- 
jhima) called Bhikkhuvinaya. 

(2) Aliya- Vasdni 

. Ariyavamsa (Anguttara), Vol. II, p. 27. 
. Ten Ariyavasani enumerated in the 

Samgiti Suttanta (Dlgha). J.R.A.S., 


Rhys Davids . . Anagata bhayani (Anguttara). 

(4) MunigatM 

Rhys Davids . . Muni Sutta (Sutta Nipata), I, 12, p. 36 

(5) Moneya Bute 

Kosambi . . Nalaka Sutta (Sutta Nipata), iii, II, 
pp. 131-134. 

666 A History of Pali Literature 

Prof. Barua . . Nalaka Sutta minus the Prologue. 

Rhys Davids . . Moneyya Sutta, J.R.A.S., 1898. 

(6) Upatisa Pasine 

Kosambi and Sariputta Sutta (Sutta Nipata), iv, 16, 

Barua. pp. 176-9. 

Neuman . . The questions of Upatissa in the 

Rathavinita Sutta (Majjhiina). 

(7) Ldghulovdde 

Rhys Davids . . ' Rahulovada Sutta (Majjhima), ii, 2, 1, 

Vol. I, p. 414. 
M. Senart . . The Ainbalatthika Rahulovada Sutta 


These are the Dhammapariyayas or canonical texts which 
have been identified differently with suttas of the Pali canonical 

At the time of Asoka there was a Buddhist literature. 
Asoka selected out of this body of Buddhist literature seven 
Dhammapariyayas which, in his opinion, would serve his 
purpose, that is, making the good faith long endure. 

It is generally accepted by scholars that Buddhism is the 
basis and source of inspiration in regard to Asoka's Dhamrna. 
The Sihgalovada Sutta of the Digha Nikaya and the Maha- 
mangala Sutta of the Sutta Xipata enumerate just those courses 
of conduct which Asoka w r as never tired of inculcating on the 
minds of his people and it is easy to understand how greatly 
the texts of the Rock Edicts, 9 and 11, were inspired by the 
Mangala Sutta. Now there are the two scriptural texts which 
have been particularly reserved by Buddhism for the lay people 
to read, contemplate, and practise. 

The style of composition and the subject of discussion in 
the last portion of the Kalsl, Shahbazgarhi, and Mansherah 
versions of R.E. IX are almost similar to those in the Katha- 
vatthu (composed by Moggaliputta Tissa in the third council 
held under the patronage of Asoka), and the Samannaphala 
Sutta respectively. (Bhandarkar and Majumdar, Inscriptions 
of Asoka, pp. 34-36.) 

M. Senart points out that the use of the phrase " Dhamma- 
dana " must have been suggested to Asoka by a verse from the 
Dhammapada " Sabbadanam dhammadanam jinati ". 

On the monuments of the 2nd century B.C. the names of 
donors of different parts of the buildings are 

^ f i?T ce8 - t0 i inscribed and in many cases with their titles. 
Buddhist canonical & * Jt *** ^. 

literature. Some of these titles are very important 

because they have been derived from the 
well-known divisions of the Buddhist canonical literature. 
Among these epithets have been found the following : Dhamma- 

Appendix B 667 

kathika, Petakin, Suttantika, SuttantakinI, and Paficanek&yika 
which refer to the Buddhist books. They conclusively prove the 
existence of a Buddhist literature before the date of the inscrip- 
tions. This Buddhist literature had divisions known by the 
technical names of Pitaka, Nikaya, Suttanta, and Jataka. 
Again the Nikaya is said to have five divisions. There were 
not only the Pitaka, the five Nikayas and the Jatakas but also 
distinct groups of reciters known as the bhanakas. 

The inscriptions on the Inner Railings and Gateways of the 
Barhut Inscrip- Buddhist Stupa at Barhut in Central India 
tions. throw interesting light on the development of 

Pali literature. Barua and Sinha in their ' Barhut Inscrip- 
tions ' have broadly distinguished the inscriptions as Votive 
Labels and Jataka Labels, grouping the former as they occur 
on the Gate way -pillars, the Rail-pillars, the Rail-bars, the 
Coping-stones and the isolated Fragments, and grouping the 
latter as they arc attached to different scenes in accordance with 
the accepted Jataka-outlines of the Buddha's life. 

That the bas-reliefs on the Barhut Tope illustrate several 
scenes from the Jataka stories can be shown by the fact that the 
titles of the Jatakas inscribed on the bas-reliefs correspond to 
those in Pali literature. The titles inscribed on the bas-reliefs, 
e.g., Vitura Punakiya, Miga, Naga, Yavamajhakiya, Mugapakaya, 
Latuva, Chadantiya, Isisingiya, Yam bamano avayesi, Hansa, 
Kinara, Isimigo, Janoko raja, Sivala devi, Uda, Secha, Sujato 
gahuto, Bidala Jataka, Kukuta Jataka, Maghadeviya and Bhisa 
Haranlya, correspond to those found in the Pali Jataka books, 
e.g., Vidhura Pandita, Nigrodha, Kakkata, Episode in Maha- 
Ummagga, Miigapakkha, Latukika, Chaddanta, Alambusa, 
Andha-bhuta, Nacca, Canda Kinnara, Miga-potaka, Maha- 
Janaka, Dabbha-Puppha, Dubhiya-Makkata, Sujata, Kukkuta, 
Makhadeva, and Bhisa. Again, in the Barhut Stupa we find 
some scenes which have got no title inscribed on the bas-relief. 
But a close examination of the pictures engraved on the railing 
enables us to identify some of the scenes with those in the Pali 
Jataka stories. The names of such Pali Jataka stories are, e.g., 
Kurunga-Miga, Sandhi-bheda, Asadisa, Dasaratha, Maha-Kapi, 
Camma-Sataka, Arama-Dusaka, and Kapota. 

The Museum at Samath shelters a huge, more than life 
size image of a standing Bodhisattva. 

t tL Ins ptl l 8 At the front and back of the pedestal of 
at tne oarnatn . , ,, ., in 

Museum. the image, as well as on the umbrella over 

his head, there are three Pali inscriptions 
inscribed in the 3rd year of the reign of Kaniska, the great 
Ku?ana king. The text of the inscription relates itself to the 
subject of the first sermon delivered by the Buddha to the five 
brahmanas immediately after the sambodhi at Sarnath. It is 
not exactly a quotation but is rather of the character of an 
abstract of the original subject from the Mahavagga (1, 7, 6). 

668 A History of Pali Literature 

(a) " Chattar=im&ni bhikkhave ar (i) ya-sacc&ni, (b) 
Katamani (ca) ttari dukkha (m) di (bhi) kkhave ar& 
(i) ya-saccam, (c) dukkha-samuday (d) ariya- 
saccani dukkha-nirodho ariyasaccam, (d) dukklia- 
nirodho-gamini (cha) patipada." 

Translation : " Four are the Noble Axioms, ye monks ! 
And what are these four ? The Noble Axiom about suffering, 
ye monks, the Noble Axiom about the origin of suffering, the 
Noble Axiom about the cessation of suffering, and the Noble 
Axiom about the way, leading to the cessation of suffering " 
[Catalogue of the Museum of Archaeology at Sarnath, No. D, 
(c) 11]. 

Maunggan Gold plates 

Two gold plates bearing inscription in Pali, very closely 

- . .. , , allied to the Kadamba script of the 5th 
Inscriptions found . AT ^ ro^i T j- j- 

in Burma. century A.D., of Southern India, were dis- 

covered at Maunggan, a village near old 
Prome, Burma. These two plates begin each with the well- 
known Buddhist formula : Ye dhamma hetuppabhava tesam 
hetu, etc., which is followed in the first, by 19 categories from the 
Abhidhamma in numerical order and, in the second, by the no 
less well-known praise of the Triratana. (An. R.A.S., Burma, 
1924, p. 21.) 

Bawbawgyi pagoda stone fragments 

In 1910-11, while clearing a small portion of the debris 
round the Bawbawgyi pagoda of Hmawza (old Prome) three 
fragments of a stone inscription were discovered. Their 
characters are the same as those of the Maunggan plates ; and 
the script may be referred to the 6th century A.D. It contains 
an extract from the Vibhanga, a book of the Abhidhamma, and 
corresponds to page 144 of Mrs. Rhys Davids' edition. (An. 
R.A.S., Burma, 1924, p. 21.) 

The two gold plates and the stone fragments have been 
elaborately treated by Mon. Finot in his article " Un nouvean 
document sur le buddhisme birman " a new document of Burmese 
Buddhism published in the Journal Asiatique, Vol. XX, 
Juilkt-Aout, 1912, pages 121 ff. 

Text of the two Gold plates 

I. (1) Ye dhamma hetuppabhava tesam hetu tathagato 
aha tesan ca yo nirodho evamvadi mahasamano ti (2) Catvaro 
sammappadhana catvaro satipatthana catvari ariyasacc&ni 
cutuvesarajjani pancindriyani panca cakkhuni cha (3) asaddha- 
ranani satta bojjhanga ariyo atthangiko maggo navalokuttar& 
dhamma dasa balani cuddasa buddhaM&ni attharasa buddha 
dhammjl ti. 

Appendix B 669 

II. (1) Ye dhamma hetuppabhava (te) sa (m) hetu tatha- 
gato aha tes&ft ca yo nirodho evambadi mahasamano ti iti pi 
so bhagava araham (2) Samma sambuddho vijjacarana-sampanno 
sugato lokavidu anuttaro purisadhamma sarath! sattha deva- 
manussanam buddho bhagava ti (3) Sakhyato bhagavata dhammo 
sanditthiko akaliko ehipassiko opanayiko paccattam veditawo 

The first plaque begins with the well-known formula. 
After that it enumerates 19 categories in a progressively numeri- 
cal order : 4 iddhipadas, bases of magical power, 4 Sammappa- 
dhanas, good deeds, 4 Satipatthana, .subjects of meditation, 
4 ariyasaccani, holy truths, 4 Vesaraj jani, confidences, 5 indriyani, 
senses, 5 Cakkhuni, eyes, 6 asadharai^ani, special knowledges of 
Buddhism, 7 bojjhahga, elements of the Bodhi, the noble way 
of the 8 elements, 9 lokuttara dhamma, supernatural states, 
10 balani, powers, 14 Buddhananani, knowledges of the Buddha, 
and 18 Buddha dhammas. 

The 2nd plaque begins in the same manner. It is followed 
by the well-known hymn (praise) of Triratna. See for example 
the Anguttara Nikaya, II, 56. 

The script may at first sight be said to belong to Southern 
India * Kanara-Telegu ' script of Biihler, more particularly 

Text of the fragmentary stone inscription 

(1) na samphus (i) tattam vedanakkhando safinak- 

kliando sankkharakhando 

(2) ditthivipphanditam ditthi ayam vuccati chalayatana- 
paccayo phasso tattha katam (a) (pha) ssa paccaya vedana 
I yam ceta (s) i 

(3) Sannojanam ga (ho) patilaho abhimveso paramaso 

Translation : 

(1) (the contact), the fact of coming into contact, 

the Vedanakkhandha, the Sanfiakkhandha, the samkhara- 
khandha constituent elements of sensation, perception, and 
confections ; (2) quarrels of opinion, this is what people call 
opinion. (Diithi.) Touch comes from the six organs of sense. 
What is the sensation which is derived from touching. That 

which in thought (3) Chain, inclination, contagion, bad 


This text is probably an extract from a canon, which is 
difficult to be traced. It presents considerable similarities with 
certain passages of the Dhammasangani. It could, therefore, be 
found in a treatise of the Abhidhamma, and perhaps one of those 
which are still unpublished. 

670 A History of Pali Literature 

A gold-leaf manuscript discovered ai Hmawza, Prome 

A manuscript in every way similar to the palm-leaf manus- 
cript so common in India and Burma but with leaves of gold, 
twenty in number with writing incised on one side, has been 
discovered within a relic chamber unearthed at Hmawza, a 
small village five miles north of Prome. 

The writing is in characters of an early South Indian script 
of the Canara Telegu type, and may be assigned to the V-VIth 
century A.D. 

The manuscript contains extracts from the Vinaya and 
Abhidhamma Pitakas, 'together with those mentioned above, 
the earliest proofs of Pli Buddhism in Burma. The MS. 
begins on the first page with an extract giving the chain of 
causation (Paticcasamuppada) and ends on the last page with 
4 Itipi so Bhagava araham Sammasambuddho, etc.* enumerating 
the qualities of the Buddha. This manuscript may be assigned 
to the Vl-VIIth century A.D. (Archaeological Survey of India, 
Annual Report, 1926-27, p. 200). 

An inscription of A.D. 1442 

The inscription of B.E. 804 (1442 A.D.) is among those 
collected by Forchhammer at Pagan. The Governor of Taungdwin 
and his wife made various gifts to the Buddhist Order and this 
inscription commemorates this memorable event. The pious 
donors not only made gifts of monastery, garden, paddy-lands, 
and slaves but also offered to the bhikkhus a collection of texts. 
The importance of the list of texts lies in the fact that it not 
only helps us in fixing the chronology of many Pali works but 
also enables us to form some notion of the point reached by the 
Sanskrit scholars in Burma in the 15th century for the list 
contains a number of titles of Sanskrit works. 

The list of texts contained in the inscription may be given 
here : 

1. Parajikakanda. 2. Pacittiya. 3. Bikkliunivibhanga. 
4. Vinayamahavagga. 5. Vinayaculavagga. 6. Vinayaparivara. 
7. Parajikakanda-atthakatha. 8. Pacittiyadi-atthakatha. 9. 
Parajikakanda-tlka. 10. Terasakanda-tlka. 11. Vinayasan- 
graha-atthakatha (the greater). 12. Vinayasangraha-attha- 
katha (the less). 13. Kankhavitaranl-atthakatha. 14. Khudda- 
sikkha-tlka (ancient). 15. Khuddasikkha-tfka (new). 16. 
Kahkha-tika (new). 17. Vinayaganthipada. 18. Vinayauttara- 
siflcaya-atthakatha. 19. Vinayasineaya-tlka (later). 20. 
Vinayakandhaniddesa. 21. Dhammasangani. 22. Vibhanga. 
23. Dhatukathfc. 24. Puggalapannatti. 25. Kathavatthu. 
26. Mulayamaka. 27. Indriyayamaka. 28. Tikapafthana. 29. 
Dukatfkapatthana. 30. Dukapafthana. 31/AtthasalinI-attha- 
katha. 32. Sammohavinodanl-atthakatha. 33. Paficapakarana- 
afthakatha. 34. Abbidhamma-anutlka. 35. Abhidhammattba- 

Appendix B 671 

sangaha-atthakatha. 36. Abhidhammatthasangaha-tlk&. 37. 
Abhidhammatthavibhavani-tika. 38. Silakkhandha. 39. 
Mahavagga. 40. Patheyya. 41. Silakkhandha-atthakatha. 
42. Mahavagga-atthakatha. 43. Patheyya-atthakatha. 44. 
Silakkhandha-tlka. 45. Mahavagga-tika. 46. Patheyya-tlka. 
47. Mulapannasa. 48. Mulapannasa-atthakatha. 49. Mula- 
pannasa-tlka. 50. MajjhimapannSsa. 51. Majjhimapannasa- 
atthakatha. 52. MajjMmapannasa-tika. 53. Uparipannasa. 
54. Uparipannasa-atthakatha. 55. Uparipannasa-tika. 56. 
Sagathavaggasamyutta. 57. Sagathavaggasamyutta-atthakatha. 
58. Sagathavaggasamyutta-tika. 59. 9 Nidanavaggasamyutta. 
60. Nidtaavaggasamyutta-atthakatha. 61. Khandhavagga- 
samyutta. 62. Khandhavaggasamyutta-tika. 63. Salayatana- 
vaggasamyutta. 64. Salayatanavaggasamyutta-atthakatha. 
65. Mahavaggasamyutta. 66. Ekaduka-tika-anguttara. 67. 
Catukanipata-anguttara. 68. Pancanipata-anguttara. 69. Cha- 
sattanipata-anguttara. 70. Attha-navaiiipata-anguttara. 71, 
Dasa-ekadasanipata-ahguttara. 72. Ekanipata-anguttara- 
atthakatha. 73. Dukatikacatukanipata-ahguttara atthakatha. 
74. Pancadi-anguttara-atthakatha. 75. Ahguttara-tika. 76. 
Anguttara-tika. 77. Khuddakapatha text and atthakatha. 
78. Dhammapada text and atthakatha. 79. Udana text and 
atthakatha. 80. Itivuttaka text and atthakatha. 81. Suttanipata 
text and atthakatha. 82. Vimanavatthu text and atthakatha. 
83. Petavatthu text and atthakatha. 84. Thera(gatha) text 
arid atthakatha. 85. Therl(gatha) text and atthakatha. 86. 
Pathacariya. 87. Ekanipatajataka-atthakatha. 88. Dukani- 
patajataka-atthakatha. 89. Tlkanipatajataka-atthakatha. 90. 
Catuka-pafica-chanipatajataka-atthakatha. 91. Satta-attha- 
navanipatajataka-atthakatha. 92. Dasa-ekadasanipatajataka- 
atthakatha. 93. Dvadasaterasa-pakinnaka-nipatajataka-attha- 
katha. 94. Visatijataka-atthakatha. 95. Jatattaki-sotattaki- 
nidana-atthakatha. 96. Culaniddesa. 97. Culaniddesa-attha- 
katha. 98. Mahaniddesa. 99. Mahaniddesa. 100. Jataka-tlka. 
101. Dumajataka-atthakatha. 102. Apadana. 103. Apadana- 
atthakatha. 104. Patisambhidamagga. 105. Patisainbhida- 
magga-atthakatha. 106. Patisambhidamagga-ganthipada. 

107. Visuddhimagga-atthakatha. 108. Visuddliimagga-tika. 
109. Buddha vamsa-atthakatha. 110. Cariyapitaka -atthakatha. 
111. Namarupatika (new). 112. Paramatthavinicchaya (new). 
113. Mohavicchedanl. 114. Lokapannatti. 115. Molianayana. 
116. Lokuppatti. 117. Arunavati. 118. Chagatidipanl. 119. 
Sahassaramsimalini. 120. Dasavatthu. 121. Sahassavatthu. 
122. Sihajavatthu. 123. Petakopadesa. 124. Tathagatuppatti. 
125. Dhammacakka (? pavattanasutta). 126. Dhammacakka- 
tika. 127. Dathadhatuvamsa. 128. Dathadhatuvamsa-tUia. 
129, Culavamsa. 130. Dlpavamsa. 131. Thupavarhsa. 132. 
Anagatavamsa. 133. Bodhivamsa. 134. Mahavamsa. 135. 
Mahavamsa-tika. 136. Dhammadana (? in text dhainmandan). 

672 A History of Pali Literature 

137. Mahakaccayana. 138. Nyasa. 139. Than-byan-tfka. 140. 
Mahathera-tika. 141. Bupasiddhi-a^hakatha. 142. Rupasiddhi- 
tfka. 143. Balavatara. 144. Vuttimoggallana. 145. Paftcika- 
Moggallana. 146. Pancika-Moggallana-tika. 147. KarikS,. 
148. Karika-tlka. 149. Lingatthavivarana. 150. Lingattha- 
vivarana-tlka. 151. Mukhamattasara. 152. Mukhamattasara- 
tika. 153. Mahagana. 154. Culagana. 155. Abhidhana. 156. 
Abhidhana-tlka. 157. Saddaniti. 158. Culanirutti. 159. Cula- 
sandhivisodhana. 160. Saddatthabhedacinta. 161. Saddattha- 
bhedacinta-tika. 162. Padasodhana. 163. Sambandhacinta- 
tika. 164. Rupavatara* 165. Saddavatara. 166. Saddhamma- 
dipaka. 167. Sotamalini. 168. Sambandhamalini. 169. Pada- 
vahamahacakka (Padavatara ?). 170. Nvadi (Moggallana). 
171. Kataca (Krt-cakra ?). 172. Mahaka (Kappa or Kaccayana ?). 
173. Balattajana (Balavatarana ?). 174. Suttavali. 175. Akkha- 
rasammohacchedani. 176. Cetiddhlnemiparigatha (sic) (?). 177. 
Samasataddhitadipani. 178. Bijakkhyam. 179. Kaccayanasara. 
180. Balappabodhana. 181. Atthasalini. 182. Atthasalini- 
nissaya. 183. Kaccayana-nissaya. 184. Rupasiddhi-nissaya. 
185. Jataka-nissaya. 186. Jatakaganthi. 187. Dhammapada- 
ganthi-nissaya. 188. Kammavaca. 189. Dhammasatta. 190. 
Kalapapancika (panjika). 191. Kalapapancika-tika. 192. 
Kalapasuttapratinnasaku (? patinnapaka) tika. 193. Prindo- 
tika. 194. Rattaraala. 195. Rattamala-tlka. 196. Roganidana. 
197. Dabraguna. 198. Dabraguna-tika. 199. Chandoviciti. 
200. Candaprutti (Candra-vrtti). 201. Candrapaneikara (panjika). 
202. Kamandaki. 203. Dhammapannapakarana. 204. Maho- 
satthi (Mahosadha ?). 205. Subodhalamkara. 206. Subodha- 
lamkara-tika. 207. Tanogabuddhi (?). 208. Tandi (Dandin ?). 
209. Tandi-tika. 210. Cankadasa. 211. Ariyasaccavatara. 
212. Vicitragandha. 213. Saddhammupaya. 214. Sarasangaha. 
215. Sarapinda. 216. Patipattisangaha. 217. Sulacharaka. 
218. Palatakka (balatarka ?, logic for beginners ?). 219. 
Trakkabhasa (Tarkabha?a). 220. Saddakarika. 221. Kasi- 
kapruttipalini. 222. Saddhammadlpaka. 223. Satyatatvavabodha 
(?). 224. Balappabodhanapruttikarana. 225. Atthabyakhyam. 
226. Ciilaniruttimanjusa. 227. Manjusatikabyakhyam. 228. 
Anutikabyakhyam. 229. Pakinnakanikaya. 230. Catthapayoga 
(?). 231. Matthapayoga (?). 232. Rogayatra (on medicine ?). 
233. Rogayatra-tika. 234. Satthekavipasvaprakasa (?). 235. 
Rajamattanta. 236. Parasava. 237. Koladdhaja. 238. Brihajja- 
taka. 239. Brihajjataka-tfka. 240. Dathadhatuvarhsa and tika. 
241. Patigaviveka-tlka. 242. Alamkara-tika (on Subodha- 
lamkara ?). 243. Calindapaiicika (commentary on ?). 244. 
Vedavidhinimittanirutti-vannana. 245. Niruttibyakhyam. 246. 
Vuttodaya. 247. Vuttodaya-tlkS. 248. Milindapanha (in text 
Malinapafina). 249. Saratthasangaha. 250. Amarakosanissaya. 
251. Pindo nissaya. 252. Kalapanissaya. 253. Roganidana - 
byakhyam. 254. Dabbragana-tlka. 255. Amarakosa. 256. 

Appendix B 673 

Dandi-tika. 257. Dandi-tfka. 258. Dandi-tfka. 259. Koladhvaja- 
tika.' 260 Alamkara. 261. Alamkara-tlka. 262. Bhesajja- 
manjusa. 263. Yuddhajeyya (Yuddha-dhyaya ?). 264. Yatana- 
prabha-tika (Ratana ?). 265. Viragdha. 266. Viragdha-tfka. 
267. Cuiamanisara. 268. Rajamattanta-tlka. 

269. Mrtyuvancana "^ 

270. Mahakalacakka >(Qaiva works ?). 

271. Mahakalacakka-tlka J 

272 Paraviveka (commentary on Parahita ?). 273. Kaccayana- 
rupavatara. 274. Pumbharasarl (or karasari in text ?). 275. 
Taktavatara (Tattvavatara ?). 276. Taktavatara- t*ka. 277. 
Nyayabindu. 278. Nyayabindu-tlka. 279. Hetubindu. 280. 
Hetubindu-t/ika. 281. Rikkaniyayatra (?). 282. Rikkaniya- 
yatra-tika, 283. Barittaratakara (Vrttaratnakara ?). 284. 
Shyaramitikabya (?). 285. Yuttisangaha. 286. Yuttisahgaha- 
tika. 287. Sarasangaha-nissaya. 288. Rogayatra-nissaya. 
289. Roganidana-nissaya. 290. Saddatthabhedacinta-nissaya. 
291. Paranissaya. 292. Shyaramitikabya-nissaya (?). 293. 
Brihajjataka-nissaya (?). 294. Rattamala. 295. Narayutti- 
saiigaha. 1 

The Kalyani inscriptions of Pegu (Burma) 2 were erected 
c. 1476 A.D. by Dhammaceti, king of 
cri T tion^ o 1 ? & Pe i? Ramanfiadesa or ancient Pegu, and record 
Introduction. e ^ U ^ ne bistory of the estabUshment of Buddhism 
in Burma, and its gradual evolution through 
many vicissitudes of fortune. The main object in founding 
the Kalyanl-sfma appears to have been to afford to the priest- 
hood of Ramannadesa a duly consecrated place for the purpose 
of performing the uposatha, upasampada, and other ecclesiastical 
ceremonies, and indirectly to secure continuity in their apostolic 
succession from Mahinda, the Buddhist apostle of Ceylon. The 
object of the Kalyani inscriptions is to give an authoritative 
ruling on the varied opinions of scholars with regard to ordina- 
tion, and to prescribe a ceremonial for the consecration of a sima. 

The Kalyani inscriptions are situated at the western suburbs 
of the town of Pegu. They comprise ten stone slabs, more or 
less broken to pieces and scattered about. The language of 
the first three stones is Pali, and that of the rest is Talaing, 
being a translation of the Pali text. 

Owing to the want of a large number of priests well versed 
_ in Tripitaka, learned, wise and able, and 

Interpreta^ons of who ^^ ^ meeting and consulting 

together, investigate as to what was proper 
or not, disputations arose amongst the Buddhist Order of Pegu 

1 For details, readers are referred to M. H. Bode's 
Literature of Burma', pp. 101-109. 

2 Taw Seim ko A preliminary study of the Kalyani jj 
Pegu, LA., Vol. XXIII, 1893. 

674 A History of Pali Literature 

with regard to the performance of ecclesiastical ceremonies, 
such as the consecration of a sima and the upasampada ordina- 
tion. Each thera gave his own interpretation, and the king 
himself joined in the disputations. In course of these disputa- 
tions citations were made from various Buddhist authorities, 
most important of which was the Atthakatha. The following 
tracts collected here were incidentally made use of by the theras 
and the king in their discussion as to the performance of 
ecclesiastical ceremonies of consecrating a sima and upasampada 

1. ' Anvaddhamdsam anudasdham anupancahanti ' 

Atthakatha yam 

Some theras could not rightly interpret these words 
mentioned in the Atthakatha, and would like in the excessively 
rainy region of Ramanfiadesa to perform the upasampada 
ordination in an udakukkhepasima consecrated on a river or 
lake, which was devoid of its respective characteristics. 

2. Dhammaceti, the king, in repeatedly investigating and 
considering the rule of the Vinaya as regards the consecration 
of a sima, as interpreted by the authors of the Atthakathas, 
tikas, and pakaranas, consulted both the spirit and the letter 
of the following works, controlling the Atthakatha by means 
of the Pali, the tika by means of the Atthakatha, and the 
pakarana by one another, and at the same time, by collecting 
what was gone before, and what came after : the Vinayapali, 
the Vinayatthakatha, the vinayatika called the Saratthadlpam, 
the Vinayatlka called the Vimativinodam, the Vinayatika 
written by Vajirabuddhi-thera, the Matikatthakatha called the 
Kankhavitaranl together with its tika, the Vinayaviniccaya- 
pakarana together with its tika, the Vinayasangahapakarana, 
the Simalankarapakarana, and the Simalankarasangaha To 
the king who repeatedly investigated and considered the question 
and interpreted the ruling of the Vinaya according to his light 
and knowledge. 

3. " Yasma hi vassanassa catusu masesu " iti atthakathayam. 

This short citation purports to say that the rainy season 
comprises four months, during which lakes and rivers become 
filled with water and during which season the under -robe of a 
bhikkhunl crossing a stream of such description at any place, is 
wetted. On such a mahanadl such a udakukkhepasima may be 
consecrated, and the upasampada ordination performed in it 
will be valid and inviolable. 

4. There existed an old sima whereon the Kaly5,nl- 
slmS, came to be built and consecrated later on. It was, there- 
fore, necessary to desecrate the old sima, for otherwise the new 
slm& would be null and void, because of the doubtful defeat of 

Appendix B 675 

the junction and overlapping of simas. The king accordingly 
had preparations made for performing the ceremony of desecrat- 
ing the existing sim& in accordance with the procedure expressly 
laid down in the Atthakatha. He then proceeds to interpret 
the passage of the Atthakatha in question. 

5. With regard to this subject of desecration of an existing 
sima, and consequent consecration of a new one a question is 
made from the VimativinodanI : 

" Keci pana Idisesu pi viharesu chapancamatte bhikkhu 
gahetva, viharakotito patthaya viharaparikkhepassa 
anto ca bahi ca samanta leddupate tattha sabbattha 
mancapamane okase nirantaram thatva, pathamam 
avippavasasimam tatosamanasamvasakasiman casamu- 
hananavasena simasamugghate kate, tasmim majjha- 
gata te bhikkhu ta samuhaneyyum. Tato gamasima 
eva avasisseyya. Na hettha simaya va paricchedassa 
va jananam ahgam hoti. Simaya pana anto thanam 
samuhanessamati, kammavacakarananc'ettha ahgam. 
Atthakathayam khendasimam pana jananta avippa- 
vasam ajananta pi samuhataya vuttatta gamasimay' 
evn ca avasitthaya tattha yatharucilakam duvidham 
pi simam bandhitun c'eva upasampadadi-kammam 
katun ca vattatlti vadanti. Tam yuttam vi}^a dissati ; 
vimamsitva gahetabban ti ". 

Translation : " There are some theras, who, in the case of 
such viharasimas, would convene a chapter of five or six priests, 
would station them in a continuous row of places, which are 
each about the size of a bedstead, and whose distances are 
determined by the fall, all round, of stones thrown, first from 
the extremity of a viharasima, and then towards the inside and 
outside of its limits, and would successively desecrate an avippa- 
vasaslma, and a samanasamvasakaslma. If either a khanda- 
slma or a rnahaslma exists on that vihara, the priests standing, 
as they do, in the midst of these simas, would, from a maiicat- 
thana, certainly desecrate the sima, and the gamasima would 
remain. In this manner it is not essential to know the sima 
on its extent. But it is necessary for the reciters of the kamrna- 
vaca to say : c We shall desecrate the inside of a sima (and 
act accordingly) '. It is stated in the Atthakatha that those 
who are aware of the existence of a khandasima, but not that of 
an avippavasaslma, are qualified to effect both desecration and 
consecration, and then thus, although the extent of a rnaha- 
slma is unknown, desecration may be effected. On the authority 
of this statement, they say that at any selected spot on the 
remaining gamasima, it is appropriate to consecrate the two 
kinds of simas, and to perform the upasampada ordination and 
such other ceremonies. This dictum appears to be correct ; 
but it should be accepted after due enquiry." 

676 A History of Pali Literature 

6. When the existence of an old slma is not known, it is 
said in the Atthakatha : 

" Atthakathayanca purana-slmaya vijjamanattam va 
paricchedam va ajanantanam slmasanugghatassa 
dukkaratta mahantam vayamam akatva yena va 
tena va vayamena samuhananavasena simasamuggha- 
tarn sandhaya ye pana ubho pi na jananti ; te n'eva 
samuhanitufi ca labhantiti vuttam ". 

Purport : ' If both classes of sima are not known, the 
sima should not be desecrated or consecrated.' This dictum of 
the Atthakatha does liot, however, mean to indicate that, 
although the existence of the sima to be desecrated may not be 
known, if great exertion is put forth that sima will not be 

Besides these quotations from and interpretations of Pali 

_ . _ .. texts, there are a good number of references 

tex^ * PaU texte in ^ e Kalyani inscriptions 

in the way of adducing arguments or citing 

authorities. The three pitakas are more than once mentioned 

the Vinaya having the honour of being mentioned most. But 

most often referred to is the Atthakatha of the Vinaya-pitaka. 

Other texts are the Patimokkha, the Khuddakasikkha, the 

Vimativinoda^i, the Vinayapali, the Vinayatika called the 

Saratthadipani, the Vinayatika written by Vajirabuddhi-thera, 

the Matikatthakatha called the Kankhavitaranl together with 

its tika, the Vinaya vinicohayapakarana together with its tika, 

the Vinayasangahapakarana, the Simalahkarapakarana, the 

Simalankarasangaha, and other texts relating to the Vinaya- 


Pali texts referred to in the inscription of Pardkramabdhu 
at Galwihara, Ceylon 

1 . The Vinaya books, 2. The Khuddakasikkha, 3. The Pati- 
mokkha, 4. The Dasadhammasutta, 5. The three Anumana- 
suttas, 6. The Mulasikkha, 7. The Heianasikkha, and 8. The 


Abhidhammappakarana, xvii. 
Abhidhammattha Sangaha, 

598, 599, 600, 602, 605. 
Abhidhammavatara, 385, 396, 


Abhidhanappadipika, 634, 637. 
Abhidharma-Maha^astra, 342. 
Abhirupananda, 78. 
Aciravatl, 369. 
Adhikaranasamatha, 20. 

47, 49, 60. 

Adhivacanapatha, xiv. 
Ajatasatru, 646. 
Ajatasattu, 12, 84, 429, 453, 


Ajitakesakambali, 108. 
Alwis, James, xviii, xxvi. 
Ambapall, xxiii, 302, 515. 
Ambattha, 418. 
Amitabha, 646. 
Anagatabhayani, 30. 
Anagatavariisa, 389, 611, 612, 

Anathapindika, xxi, 113, 435, 


Andhaka, 12, 27. 
Anesaki, xxvii. 
Ahga, 419, 555. 
Ahga-Magadha, xi. 
Angulimala, 506. 
Aniyata, 20. 

Aniyatadhamma, 49, 51. 
Annakondanna, 62. 
Anuradhapura, 556. 
Anuruddha, 301. 
Apadana, 1, 7, 33, 34, 35, 301. 
Aparantaka, 565. 
Aparaseliya, 27. 
Ariyavaiusa, 193. 
Asoka, xviii, xxii, xxiii, xxiv, 

6, 9, 10, 15, 37, 40, 41, 112, 

Assaji, 62, 66. 

Astadhyayi, xii. 
A^vaghosa, 6, 7, 38. 
Atthaka, 2. 
Atthakatha, Andha, 374. 

Agama, 375. 

Jataka, 376. 

Maha, 374. 

Mahavamsa, 380, 

Sankhepa, 374. 
Atthakavagga, 1, 4, 5, 38. 
Atthasalinl, 473. 
Aung, S. Z., xxvii, 316, 330. 
Abhassaraloka, 83. 
Acariya-paramparaya, 27. 
Ajivikas, 453. 
Alada Kalama, 101. 
Ardhamagadhi, xx, xxi, xxii, 

Arya Maudgalyayana, 342. 

Bandhu, Cattaro, 280. 

Bapat, xxvii, 237. 

Barhut, 39. 

Barua, B. M., xv, 4, 28, 277, 


Balavatara, 634, 635. 
Baranasi, 111, 368. 
Benares, 62. 
Bendall, xxvi. 
Bhaddakapilani, 302, 514. 
Bhadda-kundalakesa, 302, 512. 
Bharukaccha, 367, 555. 
Bhabru Edict, xxi, 6, 10, 30, 

192, 665. 
Bhanaka, Ahguttara, 28, 382. 

Dhammapada, 382. 

Digha, 7, 41, 382. 

Jataka, 28, 382. 

Khuddaka, 28, 382. 

Majjhima, 7, 28, 34, 

Samyutta, 28, 382. 
Bhanakas, 27. 


A History of Pali Literature 

Bhikkhu, interpretation of, 278. 
Bhikkhuni Samgha, rules for its 

guidance, 74-77. 
Bhuridatta, 294. 
Bigandet, xxvi. 
Bimbisara, xi, 40, 63, 429, 453, 

620, 648, 659. 
Bindusara, 574. 
Bode, Mabel, xxvi. 
Bodhgaya, 39. 
Bodhicaryavatara, 624. <, 
Body, parts of the, 195. 
Brewster, E. H., 3. 
Buddha, Anomadassi, 288. 

Atthadassi, 289. 

Dhammadassi, 289. 

Dipankara, 287. 

Gotama, 290. 

Kakusandha, 289. 

Kassapa, 290. 

Konagamana, 289. 

Kondanna, 287. 

Mangala, 287. 

Xarada, 288. 

Padiuna, 288. 

Padumuttara, 288. 

Phussa, 289. 

Piyadassi, 288. 

Revata, 288. 

Siddhattha, 289. 

Sikhi, 289. 

Sobhita, 288. 

Sujata, 288. 

Suinana, 288. 

Sumedha, 288. 

Tissa, 289. 

Vessabhu, 289. 

Vipassi, 289. 
Buddhacarita, 6, 7, 38, 615, 


Buddhadatta, xxvii, 10, 12, 
384, 385, 559 : works of, 396. 
Buddhadevacarita, 646. 
Buddhaghosa, x, xi, xii, xiii, 
xv, xxvii, 2, 11, 12, 18, 22, 
31, 34, 96, 113, 274, 334, 
387, 388, 389, 390, 409, 
416, 422, 518, 589, 627, 632 ; 
works of, 399. 

Buddhaghosuppatti, 558. 
Buddha's prediction on the 

effect of the admittance of 

women into Order, 77-78. 
Buddhavamsa, 1, 7, 33, 35, 

42, 285, 286, 613. 
Buddhism, an ethical religion 

from the Sutta Nipata, 235 ; 

traces of primitive Buddhism 

in Sutta Nipata, 238. 
Buddhist councils 

First, 19, 20, 525 ; 

Second, 15, 525 ; 

Third, 40, 526. 
Bulis, 101. 
Bunyiu Nanjio, 80. 
Burlingame, xxvi, 450. 

Caityas, 100. 
Cam pa, 555. 
Campeyyake Vinaya Vatthu- 

sniin, 15. 

Candrabhaga, 369, 664. 
Cariyapitaka, 1, 7, 33, 35, 42, 


Cariyapitaka commentary, 516. 
Carpenter, J. E., xxvi. 
Caves, Khandagiri, xxv. 
Udayagiri, xxv. 
Ceylon, xix, 38. 
Ceylonese chronicles, Geo- 
graphical references in, 552 ; 

Pali texts in, 549 : value of, 


Cha-kesa-dhatu-vamsa, 588. 
Chandasa, xi, xii, xiii. 
Chandoviciti, 638. 
Channa, 617. 

Childers, R. C., xviii, xxvi. 
Cilia, 368. 
Cittayana, 585. 
Clough, xxvi. 
Conditions for entering the 

Order, 73-74. 
Culasaddaniti, 636. 
Culavamsa, ix, 547. 
Cullavagga, xi, 14, 15, 16, 19, 

26, 28, 29, 31, 42, 45, 61, 65, 

66, 609. 



Cunda, 100. 

Dabba, 78. 
Dakkhinapatha, 419. 
Damilas, 576. 
Dantakumara, 587. 
Dantapaii, xxiii. 
Das, Sarat Chandra, xxvii. 
Dative Plural in Pali, 640. 
Dasa, Cattaro, 280. 
Dathavamsa, 579, 581. 
De, Harinath, xxvii. 
Devanampiyatissa, 12, 524, 

538, 576. 
Dhammapada, xiv, 1, 7, 33, 41, 

42, 200, 623 ; editions and 

translations of, 223; Pali 

and Prakrit, 40, 215, 221. 
Dhammapada-atthakatha, 449, 

Dhammapala, xxvii, 11, 12, 

343, 392, 393, 597, 632, 

637 ; works of, 481. 
Dhammapala, Anagarika, 

Dhammasahgani, 10, 12, 21, 24, 

25, 26, 304-311 ; method of 
exposition in, 310. 

Dhammasoka, 40. 
Dharmaskandha, 341. 
Dhatukatha, 12, 21, 22, 25, 

26, 42, 332. ' 

katha, 477. 
Dhatukaya, 340. 
Dighagama, 80. 
Digha Samgaha, 80. 
Dlpa, 12, 78. 
Dipavamsa, xvii, 379, 380, 

517, 519, 520, 534, 535, 536, 

539, 563 ; and Mahavamsa 
compared, 534 ; Pali Texts 
in the, 550. 

Dutthagamani, 12, 521, 529, 

Dutthafthaka, 2. 

Eja, meaning of, 280. 
Ekakkharakosa, 634. 


Eliot, Sir Charles, xxvi. 

Fa-Hien, 38. 

Fausboll, xxvi, 260. 

Feer, Leon, xxvi. 

Fick, 88. 

Franke, Otto, xx, xxvi, 43. 

Frankfurter, xxvi. 

Gandhara, 368, 553, 662. 
GandhaVamsa, 372, 373, 589. 
Ganga, 369, 437. 
Geiger, xx, xxvi, 7, 9, 15, 533, 


Ghositarama, 419, 655. 
Gijjhakuta, 408, 431, 661. 
Girnar, xx, xxii. 
Gods, grades of, 147 ; 

Tavatimsa, 103. 
Gogerly, 113. 
Gosala, 84. 
Gotami, 302. 
Grammar, treatises on Pali, 

636, 638. 

Grierson, Sir George, xix, xxvi. 
Grimm, xxvi. 
Guhatthaka, 2. 

Hardy, Edmund, xxvi. 


Hemavata, 27. 
Hewavitarne, xxviii. 
Hiuen Tsang, 342. 
Hunt, Mabel, 285. 

Inscriptions, Barhut, 667 ; 

Kalyanl, 673. 
Isigili, xxv. 
Isigiri, xxv. 
Itivuttaka, 1, 33, 41, 42, 228. 

Jackson, xxvi. 

Jacobi, xxvi. 

Jagajjyoti, 646. 

Jain Schools of thought, 82. 

Jambudlpa, 14, 111, 407. 

Java, 38. 


A History of Pali Literature 

Jayaddisa, 296. 
Jayatilaka, xxvii. 
Jataka, xxvii, 7, 33, 39, 267 ; 
and popular Buddhism, 272 ; 
literature on, 276 ; origin 
and purpose of, 271. 
Jataka, Andabhuta, 269. 

AsStarupa, 269. 

Ayacitabhatta, 268. 

Cammasataka, 270. 

Culladhammapsla, 269 

Cullasetthi, 268. 

Dasaratha, 270. 

Devadhamma, 268. 

Dummedha, 269. 

Ekapanna, 269. 

Ekarajaj 269. 

Kanha, 270. 

Katahaka, 269. 

Khadirangara, 269. 

Khantivada, 270. 

Khurappa, 269. 

Mahanarada Kassapa, 

Mahapingala, 269. 

Mahasutasoma, 270. 

Makhadeva, 268. 

Matakabhatta, 268. 

Nalapana, 269. 

Nalinika, 270. 

Nigrodhamiga, 268. 

Sakuna, 269. 

Sama, 275. 

Surapana, 269. 

Tandulanali, 268. 

Ummagga, 275. 

Valahassa, 269. 

Vessantara, 275. 

Vidhurapandita, 271. 
Jataka commentary, 472. 
Jetavana, 553. 

Jinacarita, 611, 614, 615, 644. 
Jlvaka Komarabhacca, 62, 84, 

85, 417. 
JMnaprasthana, 336, 337, 344. 

Kaccayana, 504, 633, 634, 635, 

636, 637. 
Kalinga, xix, 368. 

KalyanI, 554. 

Kamma, Pabbajaniya, 66, 
Tajjaniya, 66. 

Kamma vaca, 608. 

Kanha, 280. 

Kanhadlpayana, 300. 

Kanishka, 564. 

Kahkharevata, 501. 

Kankhavitarani, 409. 

Kapilavastu, 87, 553, 657. 

Kashmir, 104. 

Kassapa, Gaya, 62. 
Nadi, 62. 
Uruvela, 62. 

Kathavatthu, 1, 7, 8, 9, 10, 
21, 22, 26, 27, 40, 316; a 
work of Asoka's time, 324 ; 
Historical connection be- 
tween the Kathavatthu and 
the Milindapaiiha, 326. 

Kathavatthu-atthakatha, 477. 

Kathavatthuppakarana, 407. 

Kavisarapakaranaih, 638. 

Kavisara(Ikanissaya, 638. 

Kalasoka (Kakavarni), 12. 

Kalidasa, 615. 

Kama, 278. 

Kamandaki, 638. 

Kamasutra, 147. 

KasI, 651, 659. 

Katantravyakarana, 635. 

Katyayana, 642. 

Katyayaniputra, 336. 

Keith, xxi, xxii, xxvi. 

Kern, xxvi, 533. 

Khandhakas, 1, 7, 8, 14, 15, 
32, 45, 61. 

Khema, 509. 

Khiddapadosika, 83. 

Khuddakapatha, 1, 7, 34, 193. 


Khuddakasikkha, 79, 609. 

Khujjuttara, 462. 

Kinnari, 646. 

Kisagotami, 464. 

Kita Hill, 66. 

Koliyas, 101. 

Konow, Sten, xxvi. 



xxi, 368, 420, 453, 

456 657. 
Kosambi, D., xxvii, 6, 420, 

453, 621, 651, 657. 
Kuhn, xx. 
Kumarapafiha, 8. 
Kumarasambhava, 615, 646. 
Kuru Kingdom, 452. 
Kuru-Pancala, 654. 
Kusinara, 100, 408, 432. 

Landsberg, xxvi. 
Lanman, xxvi. 
Laghulovada, xxi. 
Lesny, xxvi. 
Levi, Sylvain, xxi. 
Lexicographies, 630. 
Licchavis, 101, 453. 
Loka, 279. 
Ltiders, H., xx. 

Madhuratthavilasini, 384. 

Madhyadesa, xx. 

Magadha, xi, xviii, 84, 368, 

407, 648. 

Maghadeviya, xxi. 
Maha-atthakatha, 12. 
Mahabharata, 30, 615, 623, 645. 
Mahabha^ya, 642. 
Mahabodhivamsa, 561. 
Mahajanapadas, 658. 
Mahakaccana, 5, 301-2. 
Mahakassapa, 301. 
Mahakatyayana, 6. 
Mahakurundiya, 12. 
Mahalomahaihsa, 301. 
Mahameghavanarama, 546. 
Mahamoggallana, 301. 
Mahanama, 62. 
Mahapaccariya, 12. 
Mahasammata, 524. 
Mahasena, 524. 
Mahavagga, 14, 15, 16, 19, 42, 

45, 61, 63, 80, 609. 
Mahavamsa, ix, 37, 522, 534, 

535, 536, 537, 543, 563 ; Pali 

texts in the, 551. 
Mahavamsa-tika, 533. 

Mahavana, 650. 

Mahavastu, 6, 7, 104. 

Mahavira, 84. 

Mahl, 369. 

Mahinda, xix, xx, xxiv, 13, 14, 

37, 410, 523, 528. 
Mahisamandala, 557. 
Majjhimadesa, 9. 
Makhadeva, xxi, 31. 
Malalasekera, xxvii. 
Mallas, 101, 432, 453, 573, 656. 
Mallika, 466. 
Manopadosika, 83. 
Manorathapuram, 440. 
Maudgalyayana, 342. 
Mazumdar, S. N., 10, 640. 

Magadhaka, xii. 

Magadhi, x, xi, xii, xix, xxii, 
xxiii, xxv. 

Magadhinirutti, x, xi. 

Mara, 62. 

Markandeyapurana, 629. 

Matanga, 296. 

Maya, 616. 

Menander, 354. 

Migara, 78. 

Milindapafiha, xxvii, 11, 20, 21, 
26, 28, 31, 39, 40, 644. 

Minayeff, xxvi. 

Mithila, 663. 

Moggallana, 62, 505, 635. 

Moggallana Saddattharatna- 
kara, 636. 

Moggallayanavutti, 635. 

Mokkhali Gosala, xxv, 356. 

Moneya Sute, 6. 

Mookerjee, Sir Asutosh, xxviii. 

Moore, xxvi. 

Morris, Richard, xxvi, 22. 

Mukhapathavasena, 27. 

Mulabhasa, x. 

Mulasikkha, 79, 609. 

MuUer, 640. 

Mundarajavagga, 32. 

Muni, 278. 

Munigatha, 6. 

Naraslhagatha, 378, 379, 623. 
Nariman, xx. 


A History of Pali Literature 

N&gasena, 356, 360, 363, 365, 

Nalakaprasna, 6. 
NWanda, 653, 657. 
Namarupapariccheda, 608. 
NSmarupasamasa, 608. 
Narada, xxvii. 
Nerafijara, 62. 

Nettipakarana, 351, 631, 638. 
Nibbana, 319 ; in the Dhamma- 

pada, 222 ; in the Khuddaka- 

patha, 199. 
Nidana, 49. 
Niddesa, 1,3; diseases in, 281 ; 

doctrines in, 281 ; religious 

belief sin, 281. 
Niddesa, Culla, 4, 5, 33, 37, 39, 

Maha, 1, 4, 5, 33, 34, 

37, 38, 277. 
Nidhikanda, 8. 

Nikaya, Anguttara (Ekuttara), 
1, 2, 10, 12, 18, 19, 

21, 22, 23, 30, 41, 
42, 180-193 ; its im- 
portance, 191. 

Digha, 1, 3, 10, 12, 17, 

22, 31, 41, 42, 80, 

Khuddaka, 4, 10, 18, 
22, 28, 33, 36, 39, 
80, 193. 

Majjhima, xv, 1, 10, 
12, 18, 31, 41, 42, 
80, 115. 

Paiica, 16, 18, 28, 31. 
Samyutta, xiv, 1, 10, 
12, 22, 31, 41, 42, 
80, 157. 
Nimi, 291. 
Nipata, Attha, 188. 

Catukka, 182, 231. 
Chakka, 187. 
Dasaka, 189. 
Duka, 181, 231. 
Eka, 180, 230. 
Ekadasaka, 190. 
Navaka, 188. 
Paficaka, 186. 

Nipata, Sattaka, 187. 

Tika, 181, 231. 
Nirukta, 344, 638. 
Nirutti, xiv. 
Niruttipatha, xiv. 
Nissaggiya, 20. 
Nissaggiya pacittiya dhamma, 

47, 49, 52. 
Novice's questions, 195. 

Oldenberg, xiii, xvii, xix, xxvi, 

16, 39. 
Oung, Tha Do, 640. 

Padasadhana, 635. 
PaiSaci Prakrit, xxi. 
Pajjamadhu, 611, 624. 
Pakudhakaccayana, xxv. 
Pancagatidipana, 627. 
Pannattipatha, xiv. 
Papancasudam, xv, 436, 438. 
Parakramabahu, 549, 676. 
Paramatthaka, 2. 
Paramatthadlpani, 516. 
Parissaya, 280. 
Paritta, 608. 
Parivara, xvii, 45. 
Parivarapatha, 13, 14, 42, 78. 
Pasenadi, 112, 448, 465, 652, 


Patacara, 302. 
Patanjali, 642. 
Patidesaniya dhamma, 47, 49, 


Patisambhida, xvii, 1. 
Pat-isambhidamagga, 33, 41, 

42, 282, 337. 

Patthana, 21, 25, 26, 334, 335. 


Pavarana, 61. 
Payogasiddhi, 635. 
Pacittiya, 45, 46. 
Pacittiya dhamma, 54. 
Pali bhasa, importance of the 

study of, xxvi-xxviii ; origin 

and home of, ix-xxv. 
Pali canon, chronology of, 1-42. 
Pali commentaries, 384. 



PaflLGrammars, 630. 
Pali\iterary Pieces, 611. 
Pali Manuals, 597. 
Panini, xii, 632, 633, 637. 
Parajika, 20, 45, 46, 49. 
Parajika dhamma, 50. 
Parayana, 2, 42. 
Parayanavagga, 4, 37, 38. 
Patali, xviii. 
Pataliputra, xviii, 357, 369, 

554, 650. 
Patheya, 80. 
Patikavagga, 80. 
Patimokkha, 2, 3, 17, 19, 21, 
42, 44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 63, 
76, 79. 
Pava, 566. 
Pavarika, 112. 
Petaki, 28. 

Petakopadesa, 31, 352, 389. 
Petavatthu, 8, 36, 42, 261, 

263, 629. 

Petavatthu commentary, 492. 
Peta-vimanavatthu, 1, 7, 33. 
Pindola-Bharadvaja, 503. 
Pischel, xxvi. 

Pitaka, Abhidhamma, 12, 14, 
17, 18, 21, 23, 24, 
26, 43, 303. 
Sutta, 12, 43, 79. 
Vinaya, xix, 10, 13, 

14, 18, 43, 79. 
Poussin, La Valee, xxvi. 
Prajnapti-Sastra, 342. 
Prakaranapada, 339. 
Precepts, ten, 194. 
Profession, various kinds of, 


Prosody, works on, 630, 638. 
Przyluski, J., xxvi. 
Pubbasava, 280. 
Pubbaseliya, 27. 
Puccha, Ajitamanava, 254. 



Dhotakamanava, 255. 
Hemakamanava, 256. 

Puccha, Kappamanava, 256. 
Mettagumanava, 264. 


Nandamanava, 256. 
Pihgiyamanava, 257. 
Posalamanava, 256. 
Punnakamanava, 254. 


Todeyyamanava, 256. 
* Udayamanava, 256. 

Upatissamanava, 256. 
Puggalapafinatti, 1, 21, 22, 23, 
26, 42, 114, 328, 330; com- 
mentary, x, 477. 

Rakkha, 30. 

Rasavahim, 625. 

Rahula, 61, 301. 

Rahula-Ratthapala, 443. 

Rahulovada, xxi. 

Rajagaha, 84, 407, 621, 649, 

Rajagahe Uposatha Samyutte, 


Rajatarahgini, 645. 
Ramagama, 566. 
Raya Paseni, 109. 
Refuges, three, 194. 
Revata, 505. 
Rhys Davids, Mrs. C. A. F., 

xxiii, xxiv, xxvi, xxvii, 24, 

117, 157, 334. 
Rhys Davids, T. W., xxi, xxii, 

xxvi, xxvii, 8, 81, 113, 275. 
Rock Edicts (of Asoka) ; Kalsi, 

9 ; Manshera, 9 ; Shahbaz- 

garhi, 9. 
Rohini, 467. 
Rouse, xxvi. 
Rupananda, 468. 
Ruparupavibhaga, 599. 
Ruparupavinicchaya, 384. 
Rupasiddhi, 634, 635. 

Saccasamkhepa, 597, 599. 
Sadaw, Ledi, xxvii, 334. 
Saddaniti, 635, 636. 


A History of Pali Literature 

Saddhammasamgaha, 560. 
Saddhammopayana, 611, 626, 


Sailagatha, 6. 
Sakanirutti, xi, xii. 
SalalavatI, 63. 
Samantapasadika, xii, 405, 407, 


Samarasekara, W. A., 80. 
Samghadisesa, 20, 49, 67, 68. 
Samghadisesa dhamma, 50. 
Samhita, caraka, 344 ; Susruta, 


Sammohavinodam, 476. 
Samyutta, Abhisamaya, 168. 

Anamatagga, 169. 

Anuruddha, 179. 

Aranavibhanga, xv. 

Asankata, 177. 

Avyakata, 177. 

Anapana, 179. 

Bala, 179. 

Bhikkhu, 170. 

Bhikkhuni, 163. 

Bojjhariga, 177. 

Brahma, 163. 

Citta, 177. 

Devaputta, 162. 

Devata, 160. 

Dhatu, 168. 

Ditthi, 172. 

Gamani, 177. 


Iddhipada, 179. 

Indriya, 177. 

Jambukhadaka , 

Jhana, 174, 179. 

Kassapa, 169. 

Khandha, 171. 

Kilesa, 173. 

Kosala, 162. 

Lakkhana, 170. 

Labhasakkara, 170. 

Magga, 177. 

Mara, 162. 

Moggallana, 176. 

Naga, 173. 

Samyutta, Nidana, 168. 

Opama, 170. 

Radha, 172. 

Sacca, 37, 179. 

Sakka, 168. 

Salayatana, 175. 


Satipatthana, 177. 

Sariputta, 173. 

Sotapatti, 179. 

Supanna, 173. 

Uposatha, 31. 

Uppada, 173. 

Vacchagotta, 174. 

Valaha, 174. 

Vana, 164. 

Vahgisa, 164. 

Vedana, 175. 

Yakkha, 164. 


San jay a, 81. 

Sankhapala, 297. 

Sarabhu, 369. 

Sarassati, 369. 

Sasapandita, 294. 
Sandesa-katha, 560. 
Sanghamitta, 575. 
Sanskritabha^a, xii. 
Sakyas, 87, 101. 
Salho, 78. 
gantideva, 623. 
Saratthapakasini, 438. 
Sariputta, 62, 118, 301, 505. 
Sasanavamsa, 592, 593, 596. 
SavatthI, 78, 456, 663. 
Schrader, Otto, xxvi. 
Sekhiya rules, 21. 
Sekhiya dhamma, 49, 58. 
Senart, 102. 

Shastri, Haraprasad, xxvii, 43. 
Siam, king of, xxvii. 
Siddhartha, xxvii, 65, 619. 
Sikkha, 278. 
Sikkhapada, 17. 
Sllakhanda, 80. 
Sflas, 2, 42. 
Sflavanaga, 294. 



SiinVankarapakarana, 609. 

Sirisudhammaraja, 43. 

Sivi, 292. 

Smith, Helmer, xxvi. 

Social conditions in the Ganges 

Valley, 85. 
Somanassa, 297. 
Sona Kolivisa, 63, 442. 
Sonapandita, 298. 
So-sor-ther-pa, 48. 
Spiegel, xxvi. 
Stede, xxvi. 
Steinthal, xxvi. 
Strong, xxvi, 561. 
Subodhalahkara, 634, 638. 
Sudassana, 292. 
Sudatta, 620. 
Suddhatthaka, 2. 
Suddhodana, 616, 620. 
Sukhodaya, 274. 
Sumahgala, Suriyagoda, xxvii. 
Sumahgalavilasinl, 3, 7, 18, 19, 
22, 33, 409, 411, 419, 426, 

Sunakkhatta, 110. 
Sundarl Nanda, 509. 
Superman , his t h i r t y -t w o 

marks, 145. 
Suppiya, 81. 
Susaddasiddhi, 635. 
Susandhikappa, 635. 
Susunaga, 407. 
Sutasoma, 300. 
Sutra, Madhyamagama, 116. 
Sutta, Abhayarajakumara, 137. 

dhamma, 152. 

Agganna, 111, 644. 

Aggivacchagotta, 140. 

Alagaddupama, 128. 

Ambalatthik a r a h u 1 o- 
vada, 138. 

Ambattha, 86. 

Anangana, 119. 


Angulimala, 144. 

Anumana, 18, 125. 

Anuruddha, 152. 

Sutta, Apannaka, 138. 

Aranavibhanga, xv, 154. 
Aravaka, 243. 
Ariyapariyesana, 129. 
Assalyayana, 146. 
Attadanda, 253. 
Atthakanagara, 136. 
Akankheyya, 119. 
Amagandha, 244. 


Ananjasappaya, 149. 
Anapani, 151. 
Atanatiya, 30, 113. 
Bahudliatuka, 151. 
Bahuvedaniya, 138. 
Balapandita, 153. 
Bhaddali, 139. 
Bhaddekaratta, 153. 
Bhayabherava, 118. 
Bhumija, 152. 
Bodhirajakurnara, 144. 
Canki, 147. 
Catuma, 139. 
Cetokhila, 125. 
Chabbisodhana, 150. 
Chachakka, 156. 
Channovada, 155. 
Cula-Assapura, 133. 

dana, 134. 


Culagopalaka, 132. 
Culagosihga, 131. 
Culahatthipadoma, 129. 


Cula-Maluiikya, 138. 
Culapunnama, 150. 
Cula Rahulovada, 156. 
Cula-Saccaka, 132. 
Cula-Sakuladayi, 142. 
Culasaropama, 130. 
Culaslhanada, 122. 
Cujasufinata, 152. 

Cula-vedalla, 134. 


A History of Pali Literature 

Sutta, Cula-viyiiha, 253. 
Cunda, 242. 

Dakkhinavibhanga, 155. 
Dasuttara, 115. 
Dayatanupassana, 251. 
Devadaha, 148. 
Devaduta, 153. 
Dhammacariya, 245. 
Dhammacetiya, 145. 
Dhammadayada, 117. 
Dhammika, 248. 
Dhananjani, 147. 
Dhaniya, 241. 
Dhatuvibhahga, 154. 
Dlghanaka, 141. 
Duttatthaka, 251. 
Dvedhavitakka, 24, 127. 
Esukari, 147. 
Ghatikara, 143. 
Ghotamukha, 147. 
Gopakamoggallana, 150. 
Guhatthaka, 251. 
Gulissani, 140. 
Hemavata, 243. 
Hiri, 245. 

Indriyabhavana, 157. 
Isigili, 151. 
Janavasabha, 103. 

Jara, 252. 

Jaliya, 92. 
Jivaka, 136. 
Kakaeupama, 127. 
Kalahavivada, 253. 
Kannakatthala, 145. 
Kandaraka, 135. 
Kapila, 245. 
Karaniyametta, 198. 
Kassapaslhanada, 92. 
Kama, 251. 
Kayagatasati, 151. 
Kevaddha, 95. 
Khaggavisana, 4, 6, 37, 


Kimsila, 246. 
Kinti, 148. 
EatHgiri, 140. 
Kokaliya, 250. 
Kosambiya, 15, 135. 
Kukkuravatika, 137. 

Sutta, Kutadanta, 90. 

Lakkhana, 112, 342. 
Latukikopama, 139. 
Lohicca, 95. 

dekaratta, 153. 
Madhupindika, 126. 
Madhura, 144. 
Maha-Assapura, 133. 
Mahacattari, 151. 

dana, 134. 


Mahagopalaka, 131. 
Mahagosihga, 131. 
Mahagovinda, 3, 29, 



karatta, 153. 


Mahali, 91. 
Mahamahgala, 245. 
Mahamalunkya, 138. 
Mahanidana, 97. 
Mahapadana, 96. 
Mahapadhana, 29. 
Mahaparinibbana, 3, 98. 
Mahapunnaka, 150. 
Maharahulovada, 138. 
Mahasaccaka, 132. 
Mahasakuladayi, 142. 
Mahasalayatanika, 156. 
Mahasamaya, 105. 
Mahasaropama, 130. 
Mahasatipattbana, 36, 


Mahaslhanada, 122. 
Mahasudassana, 102. 
Mahasunnata, 152. 


Mahavacchagotta, 140. 
Mahavedaila, 134. 
Mahftviyuha, 253. 
Makhadeva, 31, 144. 



, Mangala, 196. 
Magandiya, 5, 141, 


Magha, 249. 
Maratajjaniya, 135. 
Metta, 242. 
Moneyya, 6, 38. 
Mulapariyaya, 116. 
Muni, 6, 244. 
Nagaravinda, 156. 
Nalakapana, 139. 
Nandakovada, 156. 
Nalaka, 6, 38, 251. 
Nava, 246. 
Nidhikanda, 8, 198. 
Nivapa, 129. 
Pabbajja, 248. 
Padhana, 7, 248. 
Pancattayya, 148. 
Paramatthaka, 252. 
Parabhava, 242. 
Pasura, 252. 
Pasadika, 112. 
Patika, 109. 
Payasi, 36, 108. 


Piyajatika, 145. 
Potali, 136. 
Potthapada, 93. 
Punnovada, 155. 
Purabkeda, 252. 
Ratana, 196, 244. 
Rathavinita, 128. 
Ratthapala, 143. 
Rahula, 247. 
Rajagaha, 15. 
Sabbasava, 117. 
Saccavibhanga, 155. 
Sakkapanha, 106. 
Salayatana, 154. 
Salla, 250. 
SaUekha, 120. 
Samanamandika, 142. 
Sammaditthi, 120. 
Sammaparibba j aniya, 


Sampasadaniya, 112. 
Sandaka, 141. 

Sutta, Sangarava, 147. 
Sangiti, 114. 
Sankharuppatti, 152. 
Sappurisa, 150. 
SatipattMna, 121. 
Saleyyaka, 134. 
Samagama, 148. 
Samannaphala, 17, 29, 


Sariputta, 253. 
Savatthiya, 15. 
Sekha, 136. 
Sela, 6, 146, 250. 


Singalovada, 113. 
Sobhiya, 249. 
Sonadanda, 88. 
Subha, 94, 147. 
Subhasita, 249. 
Suddhattbaka, 252. 
Sunakkhatta, 149. 
Sundarikabharad vaj a, 


Tevijja, 95. 

Tevijjavacchagotta, 140. 
Tirokudda, 8, 197. 
Tissametteyya, 252. 
Tuvataka, 253. 
Uddesavibhanga, 154. 


Upakkilesa, 153. 
Upali, 136. 
Uraga, 6, 241. 
Vakkala, 152. 
Vammika, 128. 
Vanapatha, 126. 
Vanglsa, 247. 
Vasala, 242. 
Vatthupama, 119. 
Vaseftha, 147, 250. 
Vekhanassa, 143. 
Veranjaka, 134. 
Vijaya, 243. 
Vimamsaka, 135. 
Vitakkasanthana, 127. 
Suttavibhahga, 7, 17, 45; 
Kosambiya, 15, 16 ; Raja- 

A History of Pali Literature 

gahe, 15, 16 ; Savatthiya, 15, 

Sutta Nipata, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 
40, 42, 232, 632 ; editions and 
translations of, 257 ; its im- 
portance in the history of the 
middle Indo-Aryan lang- 
uages, 258. 

Sutta Nipata commentary, 

Suvannabhumi, 554. 
Suzuki, xxvii. 

Tailang, xxvii. 
Takakusu, xxvii, 115, 339. 
Takkasila, 555. 
Tambapanni, 14. 
Tathagata/94, 95, 100, 318. 
Taxila, University of, xx, 


Taylor, Arnold, xxvi. 
Tekicchakari, 40. 
Telakatahagatha, 611, 623. 
Thera-Therlgatha, 1, 39. 
Theragatha, 1, 263, 264. 
Theravada, xvi. 
Theragatha commentary, 500. 
Therigatha, 1 264 ; essence of 

Buddhism involved in, 265. 
Therigatha commentary, 508. 
Thomas, E. J., xviii, xxvi. 
Thullananda, 78. 
Thuna, 63. 
Thupavamsa, 562. 
Tin, P. Maung, xxvii. 
Tissa, Moggah'putta, 9, 564, 


Tissa Samanera, 418. 
Trenckner, V, xxvi. 
Tumour, xxvi, 533. 

Udana, 1, 33, 41, 225. 
Udanavarga, 220. 
Ujjain, xx. 
UjjenI, xxiv, 
University of Taxila, xx. 
Upali, 63, 444. 
Upaniahads, 84, 91. 
Uposatha Samyutta, 31. 

Uppalavanna, 408, 510. 
Uslradhaja, 63. 
Uttarakuru, 408, 556. 
Uttaravinicchaya, 384, 397. 
Uttarapathaka, 27, 408. 

Vagga, Appamada, 201. 

Arahanta, 202. 

Atta, 205. 

Atthaka, 251. 

Bala, 202. 

Bhikkhu, 213. 

Bodhi, 227. 

Brahmana, 213. 

Buddha,' 206. 

Citta, 201. 

Cula, 228, 244. 

Danda, 204. 

Dhammattha, 208. 

Jaccandha, 228. 

Jara, 204. 

Khandha, 158. 

Kodha, 208. 

Loka, 206. 

Magga, 210. 

Maha, 159, 248, 282. 

Mala, 208. 

Meghiya, 227. 

Mucalinda, 227. 

Nanda, 227. 

Nidana, 158. 

Pakinnaka, 211. 

Pandita, 202. 

Pafina, 284. 

Papa, 203. 

Parayana, 253. 

Pataligamiya, 228. 

Puppha, 201. 

Sagatha, 158. 

Sahassa, 203. 

Salayatana, 159. 

Sona, 227. 

Tanha, 212. 

Uraga, 241. 

Yamaka, 200. 
Vai6ali, 649. 
Vanga, 369. 
Vanglsa, 443. 
Vasumitra, 339. 



VatVgamani, xx, 11, 12, 13, 

14, 26, 34, 598. 
Vaftapotaka, 299. 
Vatthugathas, 4, 6, 7, 254. 
Vajiriya, 27. 
Vanarinda, 299. 
Vatsayana, 147. 
Vedangas, 630. 
Vedas, 91. 
Vedic mantras, 95. 
Vesall, 554. 
Vessantara, 293. 
Vetullaka, 27. 
Vibhajjavadin, xii. 
Vibhanga, 313. 

Bhikkhu-Bhikkhuni, 17. 

Bojjhahga, 315. 

Dhammahadaya, 316. 

Indriya, 315. 

Jnana, 316. 

bhanga, 316. 

Magga, 315. 

Paiisambhida, 316. 

Sacca, 24, 315. 
Vibhahgas, 10, 12, 16, 24, 25, 

Vidyabhuana, Satish Chandra, 


Vidyasundara, 647. 
Views, current philosophical, 


Vijaya, 542. 
Vijnanakaya, 340. 
Vilata, 369. 
Vimala-kondanna, 502. 

Vimanavatthu, 36, 42, 260, 261. 
Vimanavatthu commentary, 

Vinaya, xi ; Bhikkhu, 18 ; Gihi, 

18 ; Ubhato, 16. 
Vinaya texts, 78. 
Vinayasamukase, 192. 
Vinayavatthus, 16. 
Vinayavinicchaya, 377, 397, 


Vindhja mountains, xix. 
Visakha, 469. 
Visuddhimagga, ix, xxiii, 399, 

400, 401, 403, 404, 410, 627. 
Vitasoka, 40. 
Vuttodaya, 638. 
Vyakarana, 630. 

Walleser, Max, xviii, xxvi. 
Warren, xxvi. 
Watanabe, xxvii. 
Westergaard, xx, xxvi. 
Windisch, xix, xxvi. 
Winternitz, xix, xx, xxvi. 
Woods, James, xxvi. 
Woodward, xxvi. 

Yamaka, 42, 333 
334 ; Citta, 334 
334 ; Dhatu, 334 
334 ; Mula, 334, 

Yamuna, 369, 437. 

Yasodhara, 302, 620. 

Zetland, Lord, 261. 
Zoysa, xxvii. 


Published by Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd., 38, Great Ruaeell 

Street, London, W.C. 1, and Printed by P. Knight, 

Baptist Mission Press, Calcutta. 

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